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No. T. TiiK United States, showing 
After a map by J. W. Powell 

Green represcota plains low and marshy near the coast 
which generally rise to uplands in the interior, trenched 
by flood plain valleys along the paths of the chief 
The coast marshes and the flood plain of the lower 
J Mississippi are colored a lighter green. 




Greenwich S5 

— ^^-^ 1 Olive 

_74L r 3bow3 high and 

".^ _ ru^geJ lands. 

i»~?.'^- Dark brown 
I shows 
mouotain waves. 

-K. D. Servosi, K Z. 


OF Land and Principal Rivers 
tal Geographic Magazine 





Abraham Lincoln. 

" Our children shall behold his fame. 

The kindly-earnest, brave, foreseeing man. 
Sagacious, patient, dreading praise, not blame, 
New birth of our new soil, the first American." 

— LowEi.i.. 










All ris:hts reserved 

Jffloa f the 

AP'^S? 1900 

^••ffitt«r of Copyrfgftt% 

Copyright, 1900, 

By the macmillan company. 


J. S. Ciishiiig Ik. Co. — Berwick i Smith 
Nurwuud, Musi, U. M. A. 


The aim of this little book is to tell in a simple and con- 
cise form the story of the founding and development of the 
United States. The study of the history of one's own 
country is a serious matter, and should be entered upon 
by the text-book writer, by the teacher, and by the pupil 
in a serious spirit, even to a greater extent than the study 
of language or of arithmetic. No effort has been made, 
therefore, to make out of this text-book a story book. It 
is a text-book pure and simple, and should be used as 
a text-book, to be studied diligently by the pupil and 
expounded carefully by the teacher. 

Most of the pupils who use this book will never have 
another opportunity to study the history and institutions 
of their own country. It is highly desirable that they 
should use their time in studying the real history of the 
United States and not in learning by heart a mass of anec- 
dotes, — often of very slight importance, and more often 
based on very insecure foundations. The author of this 
text-book, therefore, has boldly ventured to omit most of 
the traditional matter which is usually supposed to give life 
to a text-book and to inspire a "love of history," — which 
too often means only a love of being amused. For in- 
stance, a knowledge of the formation of the Constitution 
and of the struggle over the extension of slavery here occu- 
pies the space usually given to the adventures of Captain 
John Smith and to accounts of the institutions of the Red 
Men. The small number of pages available for the period 

viii Preface 

before 1760 has necessitated the omission of "pictures of 
colonial life," which cannot be briefly and at the same 
time accurately described. These and similar matters can 
easily be studied by the pupils in their topical work in such 
books as Higginson's Young Folks' His/ory, Eggleston's 
L 'nited States and its People, and McMaster's School History. 
References to these books and to a limited number of other 
works have been given in the margins of this text-book. 
These citations also mention a few of the more accessible f I 
sources, which should be used solely for purposes of 

It is the custom in many schools to spread the study 
of American history over two years, and to devote the first 
year to a detailed study of the period before 1760. This 
is a very bad arrangement. In the first place, it gives an 
undue emphasis to the colonial period ; in the second place, 
as many pupils never return to school, they never have an 
opportunity to study the later period at all ; in the third 
place, it prevents those pupils who complete this study from 
gaining an intelligent view of the development of the Ameri- 
can people. And, finally, most of the time the second year 
is spent in the study of the Revolutionary War and of the 
War for the Union. A better way would be to go over the 
whole book the first year with some parallel reading, and 
the second year to review the book and study with greater 
care important episodes, as the making of the Constitution, 
the struggle for freedom in the territories, and the War for 
the Union. Attention may also be given the second year to 
a study of industrial history since 1 790 and to the elements 
of civil government. It is the author's earnest hope that 
teachers will regard the early chapters as introductory. 

Miss Annie Bliss Chapman, for many years a successful 
teacher of history in grammar schools, has kindly provided 
a limited number of suggestive questions, and has also made 

Preface ix 

many excellent suggestions to teachers. These are all 
appended to the several divisions of the work. The author 
has added a few questions and a few suggestions of his own. 
He has also altered some of Miss Chapman's questions. 
Whatever there is commendable in this apparatus should 
be credited to Miss Chapman. Acknowledgments are also 
due to Miss Beulah Marie Dix for very many admirable 
suggestions as to language and form. The author will cor- 
dially welcome criticisms and suggestions from any one, 
especially from teachers, and will be very glad to receive 
notice of any errors. 


March 29, 1900. 



Discovery and Exploration, 1000-1600 

chap. page 

1. The European Discovery of America ..... i 

2. Spanish and French Pioneers in the United States . . 7 

3. Pioneers of England . . 13 


Colonization, 1600- 1660 

4. French Colonists, Missionaries, and Explorers . . .19 

5. Virginia and Maryland ........ 23 

6. New England 29 

7. New Netherland and New Sweden 38 


A Century of Colonial History, 1660-1760 

8. The Colonies under Charles II . . . . . . - 47 

9. Colonial Development, 1688-1760 ..... 57 
10. Expulsion of the French ....... 62 


Colonial Union, i 760-1 774 

11. Britain's Colonial System ....... 73 

12. Taxation without Representation ...... 76 

13. Revolution impending ....... 85 

xii Table of CoHtoits 


The War ok Independence, i 775-1 783 


14. Bunker Hill ti) Trenton 

15. The Great Declaration and the French Alliance . 

16. Independence ....... 


The Critical Period, i 783-1 789 

17. The Confederation, 1 783-1 787 130 

18. Making of the Constitution, 1 787-1 789 .... 137 


The Federalist Supke.macv, i 789-1801 

19. Organization of the Government ...... 151 

20. Rise of Political Parties ....... 163 

21. The Last Federalist Administration . . . . • 171 

The Jeeeersoman Reitblica.ns, 1801-1812 

22. The United States in 1800 181 

23. Jefferson's Administrations . . . . . . .187 

24. Causes of the War of 1 81 2 195 


War and Peace, 181 2-1829 

25. The Second War of Independence, 1812-1815 . . . 207 

26. The Era of Good Feeling, 1815-1824 219 

27. New Parties and New Policies, 1824-1829 .... 226 


The National Democracy, 1829-1844 

28. The American People in 1830 ...... 237 

29. The Reign of Andrew Jackson, 1829-1837 .... 245 

30. Democrats and Whigs, 1837-1844 253 

Table of Contents 



Slavery in the Territories, i 844-1 859 

chap. page 

31. Beginning of the Antislavery Agitation .... 265 

32. The Mexican War 268 

33. The Compromise of 1850 276 

34. The Struggle for Kansas 283 

Secession, 1860-1861 

35. The United States in i860 

36. Secession, 1860-1861 . 



The War for the Union, 1861-1865 

37. The Rising of the Peoples, 1861 . 

38. Bull Run to Murfreesboro', 1861-1862 

39. The Emancipation Proclamation . 

40. The Year 1863 . 

41. The End of the War, 1864-1865 . 



Reconstruction and Reunion, 1865- 1869 

42. President Johnson and Reconstruction, 1 865-1 869 

43. From Grant to Cleveland, 1869-1889 . 



National Development, 1889- 1900 

44. Confusion in Politics 

45. The Spanish War . 



The dates in bold-faced type should be learned by heart. A few 
dates in European history are inserted in italics for purposes of 

looo. Leif Ericson (Northmen in Vinland) . 

I4S3- Fall of Constantinople (^Closing of Trade Routes). 

1492. Columbus (Discovery of America). 

1497. John Cabot (Discovery of North America). 

15 1 3. Ponce de Leon (Florida) and Balboa (Pacific). 

1520. Magellan (Circumnavigation of the Earth). 

1524. Verrazano (The French on the Atlantic Coast). 

1 539-1 542. De Soto and Coronado (The Spaniards in the United 

T^ji?. Accessio7i of Elizabeth. 
1565. St. Augustine (First Permanent Settlement in the United 

1577. Drake in the Pacific. 

1588. Defeat of the Armada (Beginnings of English Colonization). 
/59<S'. Heniy IV (^Undisputed King of France). 
1604. Acadia (The French in the North). 
1607. Virginia (First Permanent English Colony). 
1609. Henry Hudson (Beginning of Dutch Colonies). 
1620. The Pilgrims (First Permanent English Colony in the 

1630. "Great Emigration" to Massachusetts. 
1632. Maryland (Religious Toleration). 
1636. Roger Williams (Separation of Church and State). 
1642. Beginnitig of Civil War in England. 


xvi Tabic of Dates 

643. New England Confederation. 

t>4g. E.\i\ulio)t of Chiirlii I. 

649. Maryland Toleration Act. 

ibbo. The Restoration. 

663-1665. Carolina. 

664. English Conciuest of New Ncthcrland. 

1688. Flight of James II. 

676. Bacon's Rel)ellion in Virginia. 

689. The "Glorious Revolution" in America. 

699. Founding of Louisiana. 

713. Treaty of Utrecht. 

732. Georgia. 

761. Writs of Assistance (Otis's Speech). 

763. Peace of Paris (Expulsion of the French). 

763. Parson's Cause (Henry's Speech). 

765. Stamp Act (Henry's Resolutions). 

765. Declaratory .'\ct. 

767. Townshend Acts (Colonial Union). 

770. Boston Massacre. 

773. Boston Tea Party. 

774. Boston Port Act. 

774. First Continental Congress (American Association). 

775. Lexington and Concord. 

776. Declaration of Independence. 
781. .\itiLlos of I'linfcdfratiun. 
783. Treaty of Peace. 

787. The Constitution and The Northwest Ordinance. 

793. Nculrality Proclamation. 

794. Jay's Treaty (Rise of Parties), Cotton Gin. 
798-1799. Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. 
800. Election of Jefferson (the Revolution of 1800). 

803. Louisiana Purchase (Beginning of Territorial Expansion). 
812-1815. War with England (Neutral Commerce and Impress- 

Table of Dates xvii 

1815-1824. Era of Good Feeling. 

1 81 9. The Florida Treaty. 

1820. Missouri Compromise. 
1823. The Monroe Doctrine. 
1825. The Erie Canal. 

1828. Election of Jackson. 

1830. The Locomotive. 

1832. The Nullification Episode. 

1840. Election of William H. Harrison. 

1844. The Electric Telegraph. 

1845. The Horse Reaper. 

1845. Annexation of Texas. 

1846. The Oregon Treaty. 

1 846-1 848. The Mexican War (Acquisition of California, New 
Mexico, etc.) 

1849. California (Discovery of Gold). 

1850. Compromise of 1850. 
1854. Kansas-Nebraska Act. 
1857. The Dred Scott Case. 

1 861-1865. The War for the Union. 

1863. Emancipation Proclamation, Vicksburg, and Gettysburg. 

1867. Purchase of Alaska. 

1867. Reconstruction Acts. 

1868. Impeachment of Johnson. 
1876. The Electoral Commission. 
1881-1883. Civil Service Reform. 

1890. Sherman Silver Law (Repealed, 1893). 
1898. The War with Spain. 


The lists of "Books for Study and Reading" contain such 
titles only as are suited to the pupil's needs. The teacher will 
find abundant references in Channing"s Students^ History of the 
United States (N.Y., Macmillan). The larger work also con- 
tains the reasons for many statements which are here given as 
facts without qualification. Reference to the Students'' History 
is made easy by the fact that the divisions or parts (here marked 
by Roman numerals) cover the same periods in time as the 
chapters of the larger work. On the margins of the present 
volume will be found specific references to three text-books 
radically unlike this text-book either in proportion or in point 
of view. There are also references to easily accessible sources 
and to a few of the larger works. It is not suggested that any 
one pupil, or even one class, shall study or read all of these 
references. But every pupil may well read some of them under 
each division. They are also suited to topical work. Under 
the head of " Home Readings " great care has been taken to 
mention such books only as are likely to be found interesting. 

The books most frequently cited in the margins are Higgin- 
son's Voitne^ Folks'' History (N.Y., Longmans), cited as " Hig- 
ginson " ; Eggleston's United States and its People (N.Y., 
Appleton), cited as '■'■ Egtrleston'''' ; McMaster's School History 
of the United States (N.Y., American Book Co.), cited as 
'■^ Ml. Master '^ \ Higginson's Book of .Inter ican Explorers (N.Y., 
Longmans), cited as '■' E.vplorers'' ; Lodge and Roosevelt, Hero 
Tales from American History, cited as '* Hero Tales^'' ; and Hart's 
Source-Hook of American History (N.Y., Macmillan), cited as 
'■'■ Source- Book.'''' Books containing sources are further indicated 
by an asterisk. 




Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Parkman's Pioneers of France (edition of 1887 
or a later edition) ; Irving's Columbus (abridged edition). 

Home Readings. — Higginson's Tales of the Enchanted Islands 
of the Atlantic ; Mackie''s With the Admiral of the Ocean Sea 
(Columbus) ; Lummis's Spanish Pioneers ; King's De Soto in 
the Land of Florida ; Wright's Childr ell's Stories in American 
History; V>2,x\it%^?> Drake and his Yeomen. 


1. Leif Ericson discovers America, 1000. — In our LeifEncso 
early childhood many of us learned to repeat the 

lines ' 

Columbus sailed the ocean blue 

In fourteen hundred, ninety-two. 

We thought that he was the first European to visit 
America. But nearly five hundred years before his 
time Leif Ericson had discovered the New World. . 

The European Discovery of America [§§ 1-4 

Leif dis- 


History Leaf- 
Uts, No. 3. 

He was a Northman and the son of Eric the Red. 
Eric had already founded a colony in Greenland, and 
Leif sailed from Iceland to make him a visit. This 
was in the year 1000. Day after day Leif and his 
men were tos.sed about on the sea until they reached 
an unknown land where they found many grape- 
vines. They called it Vinland or Wineland. They 
then sailed northward and reached Greenland in 



SHETLAND IS.,- J ey^.J^.k-g; 


Marco Polo, 
Cathay, and 


safety. Precisely where Vinland was is not known. 
But it certainly was part of North America. Leif 
Ericson, the Northman, was therefore the reai dis- 
coverer of America. 

2. Early European Travelers. — The people of 
Europe knew more of the lands of Asia than they 
knew of Vinland. For hundreds of years mission- 
aries, traders, and travelers visited the Far East. 
They brought back to Europe silks and spices, and 
ornaments of gold and of silver. They told marvel- 
ous tales of rich lands and great princes. . One of 

IOOO-I492] From Leif to Columbus 3 

these travelers was a Venetian named Marco Polo. 
He told of Cathay or China and of Cipango or Japan. 
This last country was an island. Its king was so rich 
that even the floors of his palaces were of pure gold. 
Suddenly the Turks conquered the lands between 
Europe and the golden East. They put an end to 
this trading and traveling. New ways to India, 
China, and Japan must be found. 

3. Early Portuguese Sailors. — One way to the Portuguese 
East seemed to be around the southern end of Africa 

— if it should turn out that there was a southern 
end to that Dark Continent. In 1487 Portuguese 
seamen sailed around the southern end of Africa 
and, returning home, called that point the Cape of 
Storms. But the King of Portugal thought that 
now there was good hope of reaching India by sea. 
So he changed the name to Cape of Good Hope. 
Ten years later another Portuguese sailor, Vasco da 
Gama, actually reached India by the Cape of Good 
Hope, and returned safely to Portugal (1497). 

4. Columbus. — Meantime Christopher Columbus, Columbus 
an Italian, had returned from an even more startling beliefs, 
voyage. From what he had read, and from what other ti'sg^nson, 
men had told him, he had come to believe that the Eggieston, 
earth was round. If this were really true, Cipango \American 
and Cathay were west of Europe as well as east of ^'^^oryLea/- 

■> _ ^ lets, No. I. 

Europe. Columbus also believed that the earth was 
very much smaller, than it really is, and that Cipango 
was only three thousand miles west of Spain. For a 
time people laughed at the idea of sailing westward 

4 rite liuropcan Discovery of America [§§5-7 

to Cipango and Cathay. But at length Columbus 
secured enough money to fit out a little fleet. 
Columbus 5. The Voyage, 1492. — Columbus left Spain in 

America, August, 1 492, and, refitting at the Canaries, sailed 
'1^^ westward into the Sea of Darkness. At ten o'clock 

35-37; in the evening of October 20, 1492, looking out into 

^'■^*'"''"' the night, he saw a light in the distance. The fleet 

siiii>,, and Inihans. 

From an early Spanish book on America. 

was soon stopped. When day broke, there, sure 
enough, was land. A boat was lowered, and Colum- 
bus, going ashore, took possession of the new land 
for Ferdinand and Isabella, King and Queen of 
Aragon and Castile. The natives came to see the 
discoverers. They were reddish in color and inter- 
ested Columbus — for were they not inhabitants of 
the Far East .'' So he called them Indians. 

6. The Indians and the Indies. — These Indians 

1492, 1497] Colwnbiis and Cabot 5 

were not at all like those wonderful people of Cathay The Indians. 
and Cipango whom Marco Polo had described. In- Jff!"p'll7^ 
stead of wearing clothes of silk and of gold em- ^^011,71.-76. 
broidered satin, these people wore no clothes of 
any kind. But it was plain enough that the island 
they had found was not Cipango. It was probably 
some island off the coast of Cipango, so on Colum- Columbus 
bus sailed and discovered Cuba. He was certain cuba^^'^^ 
that Cuba was a part of the mainland of Asia, for 
the Indians kept saying "Cubanaquan." Columbus 
thought that this was their way of pronouncing 
Kublai Khan — the name of a mighty eastern ruler. 
So he sent two messengers with a letter to that power- 
ful monarch. Returning to Spain, Columbus was 
welcomed as a great admiral. He made three other 
voyages to America. But he never came within sight 
of the mainland of the United States. 

7. John Cabot, 1497. — While Columbus explored John Cabot 
the West Indies, another Italian sailed across the Sea r!^,^^'^' 


of Darkness farther north. His name was John ^497- 

. . Higginson, 

Cabot, and he sailed with a license from Henry VII 40-42; 
of England, the first of the Tudor kings. Setting gj(''^'"' 
boldly forth from Bristol, England, he crossed the *American 

TVT 1 A 1 • History Leaf- 

North Atlantic and reached the coast of America /^/j, No. 9. 
north of Nova Scotia. Like Columbus, he thought 
that he had found the country of the Grand Khan, 
Upon his discovery English kings based their claim 
to the right to colonize North America. 

8. The Naming of America. — Many other ex- 
plorers also visited the new-found lands. Among 

Tin- liiiropian Discovery of America [§§ 8-10 

these was an Italian named Americus Vespucius. 
Precisely where he went is not clear. But it is clear 
that he wrote accounts of his voyages, which were 
printed and read by many persons. In these ac- 
counts he said thai what we call South America was 
not a i)art of Asia. So he named it the New World. 
Columbus all the time was declaring that the lands 

he had found were 
a part of Asia. It 
was natural, there- 
fore, that people in 
thinking of the New 
World should think 
of Americus Vespu- 
cius. Before long 
some one even sug- 
gested that the New 
World should be 
named America in 
his honor. Thisw^as 
done, and when it 
became certain that 
the other lands were 
not parts of Asia, the name America was given to 
them also until the whole continent came to be called 

9. Balboa and Magellan, 1513, 1520. — Balboa was 
a Spaniard who came to San Domingo to seek 
his fortune. He became a pauper and fled away 
from those to whom he owed money. After long 

Amkricus Vespucius. 

1513, 1520] Balboa and Magellan 7 

wanderings he found himself on a high mountain 
in the center of the Isthmus of Panama. To the 
southward sparkled the waters of a new sea. He Balboa sees 
called it the South Sea. Wading into it waist deep, j-^ ^'^' ^' 
he waved his sword in the air and took possession of 
it for his royal master, the King of Spain. This was 
in 1 5 13. Seven years later, in 1520, Magellan, a Magellan's 
Portuguese seaman in the service of the Spanish king, f^^o^ ^^y^g^- 
sailed through the Straits of Magellan and entered Eggieston, 


the same great ocean, which he called the Pacific. 
Thence northward and westward he sailed day after 
day, week after week, and month after month, until 
he reached the Philippine Islands. The natives killed 
Magellan. But one of his vessels found her way 
back to Spain around the Cape of Good Hope. 



10. Stories of Golden Lands. — Wherever the Span- Indian tradi- 
iards went, the Indians always told them stories of 
golden lands somewhere else. The Bahama Indians, 
for instance, told their cruel Spanish masters ' of 
a wonderful land toward the north. Not only was 
there gold in that land ; there was also a fountain 
whose waters restored youth and vigor to the drinker. 
Among the fierce Spanish soldiers was Ponce de 
Leon (Pdn'tha da la-on'). He determined to see for 
himself if these stories were true. 


S/>iinish iiiiii I'liiiifi rioiucrs [§§ 11-14 

11. Discovery of Florida, 1513- — In the same year 
tiiat liallioa discovered the Pacific Ocean, Ponce dc 
Leon sailed northward and westward from the Baha- 
mas. On I'La-ster Sunday, 1513, he anchored off the 
shores of a new hind. The Spanish name for Easter 
was La Pascua de los Plores. So De Leon called 
the new land Florida. For the Spaniards were a 
very religious people and usually named their lands 
and settlements from saints or religious events. 
De Leon then sailed around the southern end of 
Florida and back to the West Indies. In 1521 he 
again visited Florida, was wounded by an Indian 
arrow, and returned home to die. 

12. Spanish Voyages and Conquests. — Spanish 
sailors and conquerors now appeared in quick succes- 
sion on the northern and western shores of the Gulf 
of Mexico. One of them discovered the mouth of 
the Mississippi. Others of them stole Indians and 
carried them to the islands to work as slaves. The 
most famous of them all was Cortez. In 15 19 he 
conquered Mexico after a thrilling campaign and 
found there great store of gold and silver. This 
discovery led to more expeditions and to the explora- 
tion of the southern half of the United States. 

13. Coronado in the Southwest, 1540-42. — In 
I 540 Coronado set out from the Spanish towns on the 
Clulf of California to seek for more gold and silver. 
For seventy-three days he journeyed northward until 
he came to the pueblos (pwcb'-lo) of the Southwest. 
These pueblos were huge buildings of stone and sun- 


Coronado in the SoutJnvest 

dried clay. Some of them were large enough to The puebio 
shelter three hundred Indian families. Pueblos are *sourl'e- 
still to be seen in Arizona and New Mexico, and the '^°°'^' ^• 
Indians living in them even to this day tell stories of 
Coronado's coming and of his cruelty. There was 
hardly any gold and silver in these "cities," so a 
great grief fell upon Coronado and his comrades. 
14. The Great Plains. — Soon, however, a new hope 
came to the Spaniards, for an Indian told them that 


By permission of the Bureau 0/ Ethnology. 

The Pueblo of Zuni (from a Photograph). 

far away in the north there really was a golden land. Coronado 
Onward rode Coronado and a body of picked men. Q^eat 
They crossed vast plains where there were no moun- Pi^'"^- 
tains to guide them. For more than a thousahd 
miles they rode on until they reached eastern Kansas. 
Everywhere they found great herds of buffaloes, or 
wild cows, as they called them. They also met the 
Indians of the Plains. Unlike the Indians of the 
pueblos, these Indians lived in tents made of buffalo 
hides stretched upon poles. Everywhere there were 


S/'iinis/i and FrcncJi Pioneers [§§ 14718 

plains, buffaloes, and Indians. Nowhere was there 
gold or silver. Broken hearted, Coronado and his 
men rode southward to their old homes in Mexico. 

15. De Soto in the Southeast, 1539-43- — In ^539 
a Spanish army landed at Tampa Bay, on the western 
coast of Florida. The leader of this army was De 
Soto, one of the conquerors of Peru. He " was very 
fond of the sport of killing Indians" and was also 
greedy for gold and silver. From Tampa he marched 
northward to South Carolina and then marched south- 
westward to Mobile Bay. There he had a dread- 
ful time; for the Indians burned his camp and 
stores and killed many of his men. From Mobile 
he wandered northwestward until he came to a great 
river. It was the Mississippi, and was so wide that 
a man standing on one bank could not see a man 
standing on the opposite bank. Some of De Soto's 
men penetrated westward nearly to the line of 
Coronado's march. But the two bands did not meet. 
De Soto died and was buried in the Mississippi. 
Those of his men who still lived built a few boats and 
managed to reach the Spanish settlements in Mexico. 

16. Other Spanish Expeditions. — Many other Span- 
ish explorers reached the shores of the United States 
before 1550. Some sailed along the Pacific coast; 
others sailed along the Atlantic coast. The Span- 
iards also made several attempts to found settlements 
both on the northern shore of the Gulf of Mexico 
and on Chesapeake Bay. But all these early attempts 
ended in failure. In 1550 there were no Spaniards 


Early French Voyages 


on the continent within the present limits of the 
United States, except possibly a few traders and mis- 
sionaries in the Southwest. 

17. Early French Voyages, 1524-36. — The first Verrazanos 
French expedition to America was led by an Italian 1524.^^^' 
named Verrazano (Ver-ra-tsa'-no), but he sailed in the Higgmson, 

service of Francis 1 , ,. , *Expiorers, 

I, King of France. -' ^'^-~ ""^ ' '^'''' °' ^' 

He made his voy- 
age in 1524 and 
sailed along the 
coast from the 
Cape Fear River 
to Nova Scotia. 
He entered New 
York harbor and 
spent two weeks in Newport harbor. He reported 

that the country was " as pleasant as it is possible 
to conceive." The next French expedition was led 
by a Frenchman named Cartier (Kar'-lya'). In Cartierinthe 

1534 he visited the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In i^g^"!^^^"'^*^' 

1535 he sailed up the St. Lawrence River to Mont- *Expiorers, 


real. But before he could get out of the river 
again the ice formed about his ships. He and his 
crew had to pass the winter there. They suffered 
terribly, and twenty-four of them perished of cold 
and sickness. In the spring of 1536 the survivors 
returned to France. 

18. The French in Carolina, 1562. — The French 
next explored the shores of the Carolinas. Ribault 


S/d/i/s// and I'nuch Pioneers [§§ 18-21 

(Re'-bo') was the name of their commander. Sail- 
ing; southward from CaroHna, he discovered a beau- 
tiful river and called it the River of May. But we 
know it by its Spanish name of St. Johns. He left 
a few men on the Carolina coast and returned to 
France. A year or more these men remained. 
Then wearying of their life in the wilderness, they 
built a crazy boat with sails of shirts and sheets and 
steered for France. Soon their water gave out and 
then their food. Finally, almost dead, they were res- 
cued by an luiglish ship. 

19. The French in Florida, 1564-65. —While these 
Frenchmen were slowly drifting across the Atlantic, 
a great French expedition was 
sailing to Carolina. Finding 
Ribault's men gone, the new 
colony was planted on the banks 
of the River of May. Soon the 
settlers ate up all the food they 
had brought with them. Then 
they bought food from the In- 
dians, giving them toys and old 
clothes in exchange. Some of 
the colonists rebelled. They 
seized a vessel and sailed away 
to plunder the Spaniards in the West Indies. They 
told the Spaniards of the colony on the River of 
May, and the SjKiniards resolved to destroy it. 

20. The Spaniards in Florida, 1565. — For this pur- 
pose the Spaniards sent out an expedition under Me- 

^ •■ . »' Suund 


1562-67] Sir JoJin Hazvkins 13 

nendez (Ma-nen'-deth). He sailed to the River of 
May and found Ribault there with a French fleet. 
So he turned southward, and going ashore founded 
St. Augustine. Ribault followed, but a terrible storm 
drove his whole fleet ashore south of St. Augustine. 
Menendez then marched over land to the French End of the 
colony. He surprised the colonists and killed nearly settlement, 
all of them. Then going back to St. Augustine, he ^S^s- 


found Ribault and his shipwrecked sailors and killed 159-166. 
nearly all of them. In this way ended the French 
attempts to found a colony in Carolina and Florida. 
But St. Augustine remained, and is to-day the oldest 
town on the mainland of the United States. 



21. Sir John Hawkins. — For many years after Hawkins's 
Cabot's voyage Englishmen were too busy at home 1562-67.' 
to pay much attention to distant expeditions. But 
in Queen Elizabeth's time English seamen began to 
sail to America. The first of them to win a place 
in history was John Hawkins. He carried cargoes 
of negro slaves from Africa to the West Indies 
and sold them to the Spanish planters. On his 
third voyage he was basely attacked by the Span- 
iards and lost four of his five ships. Returning 
home, he became one of the leading men of Eliza- 
beth's little navy and fought most gallantly for his 


Pioneers of E)igland 

[§§ 22-25 

22. Sir Francis Drake. — A greater and a more 
famous man was Hawkins's cousin, Francis Drake. 
He had been with Hawkins on his third voyage and 
had come to hate Spaniards most vigorously. In 1 577 
ho made a famous voyage round the world. Steer- 
ing through the Straits of Magellan, he plundered 
the Spanish towns on the western coasts of South 
America. At one place his sailors went on shore 

SiK Francis Drake. 

and found a man sound asleep. Near him were four 
bars of silver. " We took the silver and left the 
man," wrote the old historian of the voyage. Drake 
also captured vessels loaded with gold and silver and 
pearls. Sailing northward, he repaired his ship, the 
Pelican, on the coast of California, and returned home 
by the way of the Cape of Good Hope. 

23. Sir Walter Ralegh. — Still another famous Eng- 
lishman of Elizabeth's time was Walter Ralegh. He 
never saw the coasts of the United States, but his 


The Rales^h Colonies 


name is rightly connected with our history, because Raiegh and 
he tried again and again to found colonies on our £a-l°es/on^' 
shores. In 1584 he sent Amadas and Barlowe to ^3-17; 


explore the Atlantic seashore of North America. 177-189. 
Their reports were so favorable that he sent a strong 
colony to settle on Roanoke Island in Virginia, as he 

named that region. But the 

settlers soon became un- 
happy because they found 
no gold. Then, too, their 
food began to fail, and 
Drake, happening along, 
took them back to England. 

24. The "Lost Colony," 
1587. — Ralegh made still 
one more attempt to found 
a colony in Virginia. But 
the fate of this colony was 
most dreadful. For the set- 
tlers entirely disappeared, — 
men, women, and children. 
Among the lost was little 

Virginia Dare, the first English child born in Amer- 
ica. No one really knows what became of these 
people. But the Indians told the later settlers of 
Jamestown that they had been killed by the savages. 

25. Destruction of the Spanish Armada, 1588. — 
This activity of the EngHsh in America was very dis- 
tressing to the King of Spain. 

Ralegh's last 



Ruin of 
Spain's sea- 

For he claimed all history /or 


America for himself and did not wish Englishmen to 131-135. 

i6 Discovety ami Exploration 

go thither. He determined to conquer England and 
thus put an end to these English voyages. But Haw- 
kins, Drake, Ralegh, and the men behind the English 
guns were too strong even for the Invincible Armada. 
Spain's sea-power never recovered from this terrible 
blow. Englishmen could now found colonies with 
slight fear of the Spaniards. When the Spanish king 
learned of the settlement of Jamestown, he ordered 
an expedition to go from St. Augustine to destroy 
the English colony. But the Spaniards never got 
farther than the mouth of the James River. For 
when they reached that point, they thought they saw 
the masts and spars of an English ship. They at 
once turned about and sailed back to Florida as fast 
as they could go. 


Chaiter I 

§§ '"3- — ''• To how much honor are the Northmen entitled as the 
discoverers of America? 

b. Draw from memory a map showing the relative positions of Nor- 
way, Iceland, Greenland, and North America. 

c. What portions of the world were known to Europeans in 1490? 
Explain by drawing a map. 

§§4-6. — a. State Columlius's beliefs about the shape and size of 
the earth. 

/'. What land did Columbus think that he had reached ? 

c. What is meant by the statement that "he took possession " of the 
new land? 

(I. Describe the appearance of the Indians, their food, and their 

Questions and Topics ly 

§§ 7~9* — ^- What other Italians sailed across the Atlantic before 
1500? Why was Cabot's voyage important? 
/>. Why was the New World called America and not Columbia? 

c. Describe the discovery of the Pacific Ocean. Why was this dis- 
covery of importance? 

Chapter 2 

§§ 10-12. — a. What was the chief wish of the Spanish explorers ? 

d. How did they treat the Indians ? 

§§ 13-16. — a. Describe a pueblo. What do the existing pueblos 
teach us about the Indians of Coronado's time ? 
3. Describe Coronado's march. 

c. What other band of Spaniards nearly approached Coronado's 
men ? Describe their march. 

d. What other places were explored by the Spaniards ? 

§§ 17-20. — a. Why did Verrazano explore the northeastern coasts? 
i>. Describe Cartier's experiences in the St. Lawrence. 

c. Describe the French expeditions to Carolina and Florida. 

d. What reason had the Spaniards for attacking the French ? 

Chapter 3 

§§21,22. — a. Look up something about the early voyages of 
Francis Drake. 

d. Compare Drake's route around the world with that of Magellan. 

§§23-25. — a. Explain carefully Ralegh's connection with our 

i. Was the territory Ralegh named Virginia just what is now the 
state of Virginia? 

c. What is sea-power ? 

d. What effect did the defeat of Spain have upon ota- history ? 

General Questions 

a. Draw upon an Outline Map the routes of all the explorers men- 
tioned. Place names and dates in their proper places. 

d. Arrange a table of the various explorers as follows, stating in two 
or three words what each accomplished : — 


Discovery and Exploration 








Topics for Special Work 

a. Columbus's first voyage, Irving (abridged edition). 

b. Coronado's expedition, Lummis's Spanish Pioneers. 

c. Verrazano and Cartier, Higginson's Explorers. 

d. The " Lost Colony," Higginson's Explorers. 

e. The England of Elizabeth (a study of any small history of Eng- 
land will suffice for this topic). 

Suggestions to the Teacher 

The teacher is recommended to study sources in preparing her work, 
making selections where possible, for the pupil's use. Some knowledge 
of European history (English especially) is essential for understandmg 
our early history, and definite work of this nature on the teacher's part, 
at least, is earnestly advised. 

Encourage outside reading by assigning subjects for individual prepa- 
ration, the results to be given to the class. Let the children keep note 
books for entering the important points thus given. 

Map study and map drawing .should be constant, but demand correct 
relations rather than fmished drawings. Geographical environment 
should be emphasized as well as the influence of natural resources and 
productions in developing the country and in determining its history. 

In laying out the work on this period the teacher should remember 
that this part is in the nature of an introduction. 


COLONIZATION, 1600-1660 

Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Fiske's United States for Schools, 59-133; Eg- 
gleston's United States and its People, 91-113 (for colonial life) ; 
Parkman's Pioneers (for French colonies) ; Bradford's Plyvio^ith 
Plantation (extracts in "American History Leaflets," No. 29). 

Home Readings. — Drake's Making of New England ; Drake's 
Making of Virginia and the Middle States; Eggleston's Poca- 
hontas and Powhatan ; Dix's Soldier Rigdale (Pilgrim children) ; 
Irving's Knickerbocker History; Webster's Plyinorith Oration ^ 
Longfellow's Myles Standish ; Moore's Pilgrims and Puritans. 



26. The French in Acadia. — For nearly forty years settlement 
after the destruction of the colony on the River of jgo/^ '^' 
May, Frenchmen were too busy fighting one another 
at home to send any more colonists to America. At 
length, in 1604, a few Frenchmen settled on an island 
in the St. Croix River. But the place was so cold 
and windy that after a few months they crossed the 
Bay of Fundy and founded the town of Port Royal. Port Royal. 
The country they called Acadia. 



Frcncli Colonists 

[§§ 27-30 

at I'lvmouth. 


27. Champlain and his Work. — The most famous 
of these colonists was Champlain. He sailed along 
the coast southward and westward as far as Plymouth. 
As he passed by the mouth of Boston harbor, a mist 
hung low over the water, and he did not see the 
entrance. This was fortunate ; for had he discovered 
Boston harbor and Charles River, the French colo- 
nists might have settled there. In 1608 Champlain 
built a trading-post at Quebec and lived there for 


(Purl lU til) ^. 





on I^ke 

He attacks 
the Iroquois. 

many years as governor or chief trader. He soon 
joined the St. Lawrence Indians in their war parties 
and explored large portions of the interior. In 1609 
he went with the Indians to a beautiful lake. Far 
away to the cast were mountains covered with snow. 
To the south were other mountains, but with no snow 
on their tops. To the lake the explorer gave his own 
name, and we still call it in his honor, Lake Cham- 
plain. While there, he drove away with his firearms 
a body of Iroquois Intlians. A few years later he 

i6o9] The Iroquois 21 

went with another war party to western New York 
and again attacked the Iroquois. 

28. The French on the Great Lakes. — Champlain French 

■ ir-.r T7i,j' o r missionaries 

was the hrst ot many i^rench discoverers. Some of and traders 
these were missionaries who left home and friends 
to bring the blessings of Christianity to the Red 
Men of the western world. Others were fur-traders, 
while still others were men who came to the wilder- 
ness in search of excitement. These French dis- They visit 
coverers found Lake Superior and Lake Michigan ; superior and 

they even reached the headwaters of the Wisconsin Lake Michi- 
River — a branch of the Mississippi. 

29. The French Missionaries. — The most active The Jesuits, 
of the French missionaries were the Jesuits. They ^^^.j^^ 
built stations on the shores of the Great Lakes. 

They made long expeditions to unknown regions. 
Some of them were killed by those whom they tried 
to convert to Christianity. Others were robbed and 
left to starve. Others still were tortured and cruelly 
abused. But the prospect of starvation, torture, and 
death only made them more eager to carry on their 
great work. 

30. The Iroquois. — The strongest of all the Indian The League 
tribes were the nations who formed the League of the iioquois. 
Iroquois. Ever since Champlain fired upon them they 

hated the sight of a Frenchman. On the other hand. Their hatred 
they looked upon the Dutch and the Enghsh as their p^ench. 

friends. French missionaries tried to convert them ^'^ impor- 
to Christianity as they had converted the St. Law- 
rence Indians. But the Iroquois saw in this only 

Frcncli Colonists 

[§§ 30-32 

The mission- another attempt at iM-ench conquest. So they hung 

im?uo'is'* ""■' red-hot stones about the missionaries' necks, or they 

burned them to death, or they cut them to pieces while 

vet livin-;. For a century and a half the Iroquois 


Stood between the Dutch and English settlers and 
their common enemies in Canada. Few events, 
in American hi.story, therefore, have had such great 
consequences as Champlain's unprovoked attacks 
upon the li'oquois. 

1607] The Founding of Janiestozvn 23 


31. The Virginia Company, 1606. — English peo- New condi- 
ple were now beginning to think in earnest of found- In^EngiinT^ 
ing colonies. It was getting harder and harder to 

earn one's living in England, and it was very difficult 
to invest one's money in any useful way. It followed, 
from this, that there were many men who were glad 
to become colonists, and many persons who were glad 
to provide money to pay for founding colonies. In 
1606 the Virginia Company was formed and coloni- The Virginia 

, • •■ 1 1 Company. 

zation began on a large scale. 

32. Founding of Jamestown, 1607. — The first colo- The Virginia 
nists sailed for Virginia in December, 1606. They jamesLVn 
were months on the way and suffered terrible hard- '^^■ 


ships. At last they reached Chesapeake Bay and 52,110-117; 

James River and settled on a peninsula on the James, ^^J,^. ^"' 

about thirty miles from its mouth. Across the little *£xpiorers, 

isthmus which connected this peninsula with the 

mainland they built a strong fence, or stockade, to 
keep the Indians away from their huts. Their settle- 
ment they named Jamestown. The early colonists, 
of Virginia were not very well fitted for such a work. 
Some of them were gentlemen who had never labored 
with their hands ; others were poor, idle fellows whose 
only wish was to do nothing whatever. There were 
a few energetic men among them as Ratcliffe, 
Archer, and Smith. But these spent most of their 


Virginia and Maryland 

[§§ 32-35 

time in exploring the bay and the rivers, in hunting 
for gold, and in quarreling with one another. With 

the summer came fevers, 
and soon fifty of the one 
hundred and five original 
colonists were dead. Then 
followed a cold, hard win- 
ter, and many of those who 
had not died of fever in the 
summer, now died of cold. 
The colonists brought little 
food with them, they were 
too lazy to plant much 
corn, and they were able 
to get only small supplies 
from the Indians. Indeed, 
the early history of Virginia 
is given mainly to accounts 
of "starving times." Of 
the first thousand colonists 
not one hundred lived to tell the tale of those early 

33. Sir Thomas Dale and Good Order. — In 161 1 Sir 
Thomas Dale came out as ruler, and he ruled with 
an iron liantl. If a man refused to work. Dale made 
a slave of him for three years; if he did not work 
hard enough. Dale had him soundly whipped. But 
Sir Thomas Dale was not only a severe man ; he was 
also a wise man. Hitherto everything had been in 
common. Dale now tried the experiment of giving 

i6ii] Sir TJionias Dale 25 

three acres of land to every one of the old planters, His wise 
and he also allowed them time to work on their own 

34. Tobacco-growing and Prosperity. — European Tobacco, 
people were now beginning to use tobacco. Most of 

it came from the Spanish colonies. Tobacco grew 
wild in Virginia. But the colonists at first did not 
know how to dry it and make it fit for smoking. 
After a few years they found out how to prepare it. 
They now worked with great eagerness and planted 
tobacco on every spot of cleared land. Men with 
tnoney came over from England. They brought Prosperity, 
many workingmen with them and planted large pieces 
of ground. Soon tobacco became the money of the 
colony, and the whole life of Virginia turned on its 
cultivation. But it was difficult to find enough la- 
borers to do the necessary work. 

35. Servants and Slaves. — Most of the laborers v^hite 
were white men and women who were bound to ser- 
vice for terms of years. These were called servants. 
Some of them were poor persons who sold their 
labor to pay for their passage to Virginia. Others 
were unfortunate men and women and even children 
who were stolen from their families and sold to the 
colonists. Still others were criminals whom King Criminals. 
James sent over to the colony because that was the 
cheapest thing to do with them. In 16 19 the first 

negro slaves were brought to Virginia by a Dutch Negro slaves, 
vessel. The Virginians bought them all — only ^ ^^" 
twenty in number. But the planters preferred white 


llrgiiiid and Mary/and 

[§§ 35-39 

Sir Edwin 

The first 

End of the 

Virginia a 



laborers. It was not until more than twenty-five 
years had passed away that the slaves really became 
numerous enough to make much difference in the life 
of the colony. 

36. The First American Legislature, 1619. — The 
men who first formed the Virginia Company had long 
since lost interest in it. Other men had taken their 
places. These latter were mostly Puritans (p. 29) or 
were the friends and workers with the Puritans. The 
best known of them was Sir lulwin Sandys, the 
playmate of William Brewster — one of the Pilgrim 
Fathers (p. 29). Sandys and his friends sent Sir 
George Yeardley to Virginia as governor. They 
ordered him to summon an assembly to be made 
up of representatives chosen by the freemen of the 
colony. These representatives soon did away with 
Dale's ferocious regulations, and made other and 
much milder laws. 

37. Virginia becomes a Royal Province, 1624. — 
The X'irginians thought this was a very good way 
to be governed. But King James thought that the 
new rulers of the Virginia Company were much too 
liberal, and he determined to destroy the company. 
The judges in those days dared not displease the king 
for he could turn them out of office at any time. So 
when he told them to destroy the Virginia charter 
they took the very first ojiportunity to declare it to 
be of no force. In this way the Virginia Company 
came to an end, and Virginia became a royal province 
with a governor appointed by the king. 

1632] Scttleinc7it of Maryland 27 

38. Religious Intolerance. — In 1625 King James intolerance 
died, and his son Charles became king. He left the "^ ""gmia. 
Virginians to themselves for the most part. They 

liked this. But they did not like his giving the 
northern part of Virginia to a Roman Catholic 
favorite, Lord Baltimore, with the name of Mary- 
land. Many Roman Catholics soon settled in Lord 
Baltimore's colony. The Virginians feared lest 
they might come to Virginia and made severe laws 
against them. Puritan missionaries also came from Persecution 
New England and began to convert the Virginians purifans 
to Puritanism. Governor Berkeley and the leading 
Virginians were Episcopalians. They did not like 
the Puritans any better than they liked the Roman 
Catholics. They made harsh laws against them and 
drove them out of Virginia into Maryland. 

39. Settlement of Maryland. — Maryland included Maryland 
the most valuable portion of Virginia north of the I'^ftimore 
Potomac. Beside being the owner of all this land, ^•532. 
Lord Baltimore was also the ruler of the colony. 

He invited people to go over and settle in Maryland 

and offered to give them large tracts of land on 

the payment of a small sum every year forever. Settlement of 

Each man's payment was small. But all the pay- jjYolh^son 

ments taken together, made quite a large amount 121-123; 

. ' Egg lest on, 

which went on growing larger and larger as Maryland 50-53 ; 
was settled. The Baltimores were broad-minded ^^^1' 48-51 
men. They gave their colonists a large share in 
the government of the colony and did what they 
could to bring about religious toleration in Maryland. 

28 Virginia and Maryland [§§ 40-43 

Roman 40. The Maryland Toleration Act, 1649. — The 

England? '" Kni^lish Roiiiaii Cutholics were cruelly oppressed. No 
priest of that faith was allowed to live in England. 
And Roman Catholics who were not priests had to 
pay heavy fines simply because they were Roman 
Catholics. Lord Baltimore hoped that his fellow 
Catholics might find a place of shelter in Maryland, 
and many of the leading colonists were Roman Cath- 
Roman oHcs. But uiost of the laborcrs were Protestants, 

and Pu'ri^tans ^t)on camc thc Puritans from Virginia. They were 
in Maryland, kjndly rcccivcd and given land. But it was evident 
that it would be difficult for Roman Catholics, Epis- 
copalians, and Puritans to live together without some 
kind of law to go by. So a law was made that any 
Christian might worship as he saw fit. This was the 
Thp Toiera- first tolcration act in the history of America. It was 
i&i'g. '' ' ^^^ ^^^^ toleration act in thc history of modern times. 
But the Puritan, Roger Williams, had already estab- 
lished religious freedom in Rhode Island (p. 34). 
Tobacco and 41. Maryland Industries. — Tobacco was the most 

grain. . . i •«»■ i i ,, 

important crop m early Maryland. But gram was 
raised in many parts of the colony. In time also 

Commerce, there grcw up a large trading town. This was Balti- 
more. Its shijiowncrs and merchants became rich 
and numerous, while there were almost no ship- 
owners or merchants in Virginia. There were also 

Servants and fewer slavcs in Maryland than in Virginia. Nearly 
all the hard labor in the former colony was done by 
white servants. In most other ways, however, Vir- 
ginia and Maryland were nearly alike. 

i62o] The Pilgrims 29 


42. The Puritans. — The New England colonies The English 
were founded by English Puritans who left England 
because they could not do as they wished in the 

home land. All Puritans were agreed in wishing 
for a freer government than they had in England 
under the Stuart kings and in state matters were 
really the Liberals of their time. In religious mat- 
ters, however, they were not all of one mind. Some 
of them wished to make only a few changes in the 
Church. These were called Non-Conformists. Others Non-Con- 
wished to make so many changes in religion that °™^^^' 
they could not stay in the English State Church. 
These were called Separatists. The settlers of Plym- separatists. 
outh were Separatists ; the settlers of Boston and 
neighboring towns were Non-Conformists. 

43. The Pilgrims. — Of all the groups of Separa- The Scrooby 
tists scattered over England none became so famous nJ^^i'nson, 
as those who met at Elder Brewster's house at Scrooby. 55-56 ; 


King James decided to make all Puritans conform 34. 
to the State Church or to hunt them out of the land. 
The Scrooby people soon felt the weight of perse- 
cution. After suffering great hardships and cruel 
treatment they fled away to Holland. But there they They flee to 
found it very difficult to make a living. They suf- 
fered so terribly that many of their P^nglish friends 
preferred to go to prison in England rather than lead 


Neiv Ejigland 

[§§ 43-46 

such a life of slavery in Holland. So the Pilgrims 
determined to found a colony in America. They 
reasoned that they could not be worse off in America, 
•because that would be impossible. At all events, 
their children would not grow up as Dutchmen, but 
would still be Englishmen. They had entire religious 
freedom in Holland; but they thought they would 
have the same in America. 

The voyage 
of the May- 

Bkkwstf.r's Housf, at Si:R()c)iiY. 

The Pilgrims held iheir services in the building on the left, now used as a cow-house. 

44. The Voyage across the Atlantic. — Brewster's 
old friend, Sir ICdwin Sandys, was now at the head 
of the Virginia Company. He easily procured land 
for the Pilgrims in northern Virginia, near the Dutch 
settlements (p. 41). Some London merchants lent 
them money, l^ut they lent it on such harsh condi- 
tions that the Pilgrims' early life in America was 
nearly as hard as their life had been in Holland. 
They had a dreadful voyage across the Atlantic in 


The Mayflower Compact 


the Mayflower. At one time it seemed as if the ship 
would surely go down. But the Pilgrims helped the 
sailors to place a heavy piece of wood under one of the 
deck beams and saved the vessel from going to pieces. 
On November 19, 1620, they sighted land off the TheA/a)/- 
coast of Cape Cod. They tried to sail around the cape'c^od 
cape to the southward, but storms drove them back, 
and they anchored in Provincetown harbor. 

45. The Mayflower Compact, 1620. — All the pas- The Piigrim 
sengers on the Mayflower were not Pilgrims. Some 1620. 

of them were servants sent out by the London mer- 
chants to work for them. These 
men said that as they were out- 
side of Virginia, the leaders of the 
expedition would have no power 
over them as soon as they got on 
land. This was true enough, so 
the Pilgrims drew up and signed 
a compact which obliged the 
signers to obey whatever was de- 
cided to be for the public good. 
It gave the chosen leaders power to make the unruly 
obey their commands. 

46. The First Winter at Plymouth. — For nearly The Pilgrims 
a month the Pilgrims explored the shores of Cape coast*."^ 
Cod Bay. Finally, on December 21, 1620, a boat *^xpiorers, 
party landed on the mainland inside of Plymouth 

harbor. They decided to found their colony on the 
shore at that place. About a week later the May- 
flower anchored in Plymouth harbor. For months 


Neiv Englmid 

[§§ 46-49 







Book, 39-41. 
Sickness and 

Tlie Pilgrims 
and the 

Success of 
the colony. 




Founders of 



the Pilgrims lived on the ship while working parties 
built the necessary huts on shore. It was in the 
midst of a cold New England winter. The work 
was hard and food and clothing were not well suited 
to the worker's needs. Before the Mayfloivcr sailed 
away in the spring one-half of the little band was 

47. New Plymouth Colony. — Of all the Indians 
who once had lived near Plymouth only one remained. 
His name was Squanto. He came to the Pilgrims 
in the spring. He taught them to grow corn and 
to dig clams, and thus saved them from starvation. 
The Pilgrims cared for him most kindly as long as 
he lived. Another and more important Indian also 
came to Plymouth. He was Massasoit, chief of the 
strongest Indian tribe near Plymouth. With him the 
Pilgrims made a treaty which both parties obeyed 
for more than fifty years. Before long the Pilgrims' 
life became somewhat easier. They worked hard to 
raise food for themselves, they fished off the coasts, 
and bought furs from the Indians. In these ways 
they got together enough money to pay back the Lon- 
don merchants. Many of their friends joined them. 
Other towns were settled near by, and Plymouth 
became the capital of the colony of New Plymouth. 
But the colony was never very prosperous, and in 
the end was added to Massachusetts. 

48. The Founding of Massachusetts, 1629-30. — 
Unlike the poor and humble Pilgrims were the foun- 
ders of Massachusetts. They were men of wealth and 


Founding of Massachusetts 


social position, as for instance, John Winthrop and *E.xpiorers 

341-361 ; 

Sir Richard Saltonstall. They left comfortable homes ^^Som-ce- 

in England to found a Puritan state in America. ^'"''^•45-48, 
° 74-76. 

They got a great tract of land 
extending from the Merrimac 
to the Charles, and westward 
across the continent. Hun- 
dreds of colonists came over 
in the years 1629-30. They 
settled Boston, Salem, and 
neighboring towns. In the 
next ten years thousands more 
joined them. From the begin- 
ning Massachusetts was strong 
and prosperous. Among so many people there were Settlement 
some who did not get on happily with the rulers of ggt^g jg,,,^ ^" 

the colony. mgg'mson, 

60-64 ; 
49. Roger Williams and Religious Liberty. — Eggieston, 

Among the newcomers was Roger Williams, a Puri- 39-4i- 

tan minister. He disagreed with the Massachusetts Roger 

leaders on several points. For instance, he thought Wiihams 

^ ' ^ expelled from 

that the Massachusetts people had no right to their Massacim- 


lands, and he insisted that the rulers had no power in Higginson, 

religious matters — as enforcing the laws as to Sun- ^^^°- 
day. He insisted on these points so strongly that the 
Massachusetts government expelled him from the 

colony. In the spring of 1636, with four companions He founds 

he founded the town of Providence. There he de- jJ^J' ^"*^'^' 

cided that every one should be free to worship God as *source- 

Book, 52-54. 

he or she saw fit. 


New England 

[§§ 50-S3 

Mrs. Hutch- 
inson and 
her friends. 

They settle 




The Con- 

Founding of 





50. The Rhode Island Towns. — Soon another band 
of exiles came from Massachusetts. These were 
Mrs. Hutchinson and her followers. Mrs. Hutchin- 
son was a brilliant Puritan woman who had come to 

aB......,.-..i. >......,.,. .l.....^;..;..:.^.^ Boston from England 

^ 'to enjoy the ministry of 

John Cotton, one of the 
Boston ministers. She 
soon began to find fault 
with the other minis- 
ters of the colony. Nat- 
urally, they did not 
like this. Their friends 
were more numerous 
than were Mrs. Hutch- 
inson's friends, and the 
latter had to leave Mas- 
sachusetts. They settled on the island of Rhode 
Island (1637). 

51. The Connecticut Colony. — Besides those Puri- 
tans whom the Massachusetts people drove from their 
colony there were other settlers who left Massachu- 
setts of their own free will. Among these were 
the founders, of Connecticut. The Massachusetts 
people would gladly have had them remain, but 
they were discontented 'and insisted on going away. 
They settled the towns of Hartford, Windsor, and 
Weathersfiekl, on tlie Connecticut River. At about 
the same time John Winthroj), Jr., led a colony to 
Saybrook, al the mouth of the Connecticut. Up to 


First American Constitntio7i 


of the 



this time the Dutch had seemed to have the best 
chance to settle the Connecticut Valley. But the 
control of that region was now definitely in the hands 
of the English. 

52. The Pequod War, 1637. — The Pequod Indians Destruction 
were not so ready as the Dutch to admit that re- 
sistance was hopeless. They 
attacked Weathersfield. They 
killed several colonists, and 
carried others away into cap- 
tivity. Captain John Mason 
of Connecticut and Captain 
John Underhill of Massachu- 
setts v/ent against them with 
about one hundred men. They 
surprised the Indians in their 
fort. They set fire to the 
fort, and shot down the In- 
dians as they strove to escape from their burning 
wigwams. In a short time the Pequod tribe was 

53. The First American Constitution, 1638-39. — 
The Connecticut colonists had leisure now to settle the 
form of their government. Massachusetts had such a 
liberal charter that nothing more seemed to be neces- 
sary in that colony. The Mayflower Compact did well 
enough for the Pilgrims. The Connecticut people 
had no charter, and they wanted something more defi- 
nite than a vague compact. So in the winter of 1638- 
39 they met at Hartford and set down on paper a 


Nciv EtiHand 

[§§ 53-55 


Orders of 

The New 



complete set of rules for their guidance. This was 
the first time in the history of the English race that 
any people had tried to do this. The Connecticut con- 
stitution of 1638-39 is therefore looked upon as "the 
first truly political written constitution in history." 

JOHN WiNTiiKor, Jr. 

The government thus established was very much the 
same as that of Massachusetts with the exception that 
in Connecticut there was no religious condition for 
the right to vote as there was in Massachusetts. 

54. New Haven, 1638. — The settlers of New 
Haven went even farther than the Massachusetts rul- 
ers and held that the State should really be a part of 

1643] New England Confederation 37 

the Church. Massachusetts was not entirely to their 

tastes. They passed only one winter there and then 

moved away and settled New Haven. But this New Haven 

colony was not well situated for commerce, and was ^g^g ^ ' 

too near the Dutch settlements (p. 41). It was never Higghisoii, 

as prosperous as Connecticut and was finally joined 

to that colony. 

55. The New England Confederation, 1643. — Be- Reasons for 
sides the settlements that have already been described ""^°"" 
there were colonists living in New Hampshire and in 
Maine. Massachusetts included the New Hampshire 
towns within her government, for some of those towns 
were within her limits. In 1640 the Long Parlia- 
ment met in England, and in 1645 Oliver Cromwell 
and the Puritans destroyed the royal army in the bat- 
tle of Naseby. In these troubled times England 
could do little to protect the New England colonists, 
and could do nothing to punish them for acting in- 
dependently. The New England colonists were sur- 
rounded by foreigners. There were the French on 
the north and the east, and the Dutch on the west. 
The Indians, too, were living in their midst and 
might at any time turn on the whites and kill them. 
Thinking all these things over, the four leading colo- 
nies decided to join together for protection. They 
formed the New England Confederation, and drew Articles or 
up a constitution. The colonists living in Rhode tion, 1643. 
Island and in Maine did not belong to the Confedera- 
tion, but they enjoyed many of the benefits flowing 
from it ; for it was quite certain that the Indians and 


Xiw Nctlicrlaiui and New Swcdcji [§§ 55-59 

ion, 47-79- 


the French and the Dutch would think twice before 
attacking any of the New England settlements. 

56. Social Conditions. — The 
New Eni;land colonics were all 
settled on the town system, for 
there were no industries which 
demanded large plantations — 
as tobacco-planting. The New 
Englandcrs were small farmers, . 
mechanics, ship-builders, and I 
fishermen. There were few) 
servants in New England and' 
almost no negro slaves. Most 
of the laborers were free men 
and worked for wages as la- 
borers now do. Above all, the 
New Englanders were very zeal- 
ous in the matter of education. 
Harvard College was founded in 
1636. A few years later a law was passed compelling 
every town to provide schools for all the children in 
the town. 


A Child's High Chair, auout 

The Dutch 
Elasl India 

57. The Dutch. — At this time the Dutch were 
the greatest traders and ship-owners in the world. 
They were especially interested in the commerce of 
the East Indies. Indeed, the Dutch India Company 
was the most successful trading company in exist- 

i6o9] Hudson s Voyage 39 

ence. The way to the East Indies lay through seas 
carefully guarded by the Portuguese, so the Dutch 
India Company hired Henry Hudson, an English 
sailor, to search for a new route to India. 

58. Hudson's Voyage, 1609. — He set forth in Henry 
1609 in the Half-Moon, a stanch little ship. At 

first he sailed northward, but ice soon blocked his 

way. He then sailed southwestward to find a 

strait, which was said to lead through America, 

north of Chesapeake Bay. On August 3, 1609, he He discovers 

reached the entrance of what is now New York har- Ri"er°i6oo 

bor. Soon the Half-Moon entered the mouth of the Higgimon, 

88-90 ; 

river that still bears her captain's name. Up, up the *Expiorers, 
river she sailed, until finally she came to anchor near ^ ^"^^ ' 
the present site of Albany. The ship's boats sailed 
even farther north. Everywhere the country was 
delightful. The Iroquois came off to the ship in 
their canoes. Hudson received them most kindly — 
quite unlike the way Champlain treated other Iro- 
quois Indians at about the same time, on the shore of 
Lake Champlain (p. 20). Then Hudson sailed down 
.the river again and back to Europe. He made one 
later voyage to America, this time under the English His death. 
flag. He was turned adrift by his men in Hudson's ^g^-^^ol"''^' 
Bay, and perished in the cold and ice. 

59. The Dutch Fur-Traders. — Hudson's failure to The Dutch 
find a new way to India made the Dutch India Com- 
pany lose interest in American exploration. But 

many Dutch merchants were greatly interested in Hud- 
son's account of the " Great River of the Mountain/' 


Ni'zv Xitluilaud atid New Sioaicn [§§ 59-61 

Settle on 



New Nether- 

The Dutch 

West India 






303-307 ; 

Book, 42-44. 




They thought that they could make money from trad- 
ing for furs with the Indians. They sent many expe- 
ditions to Hudson's River, and made a great deal of 
money. Some of their captains explored the coast 
northward and southward as far as Boston harbor 
and Delaware Bay. Their principal trading-posts 
were on Manhattan Island, and near the site of 
Albany. In 16 14 some of the leading traders ob- 
tained from the Dutch government the sole right 
to trade between New France and Virginia. They 
called this region New Netherland. 

60. The Founding of New Netherland. — In 162 1 
the Dutch West India Company was founded. Its 
first object was trade, but it also was directed " to 

advance the peopling" of 
the American lands claimed 
by the Dutch. Colonists 
now came over; they set- 
tled at New Amsterdam, 
on the southern end of 
Manhattan Island, and also 
on the western end of Long; 
Island. By 1628 there were 
four hundred colonists in 
New Netherland. But the 
colony did not grow rapidly, 
so the Company tried to 
interest rich men in the .scheme of colonization, by 
giving them huge tracts of land and large powers 
of government. These great land owners were called 

1 644] 

Kieft and the Indians 


patroons. Most of them were not very successful. 
Indeed, the whole plan was given up before long, 
and land was given to any one who would come out 
and settle. 

61. Kieft and the Indians, 1643-44. — The worst Governor 


of the early Dutch governors was William Kieft 
(Keeft). He was a bankrupt and a thief, who was 

The Dutch Colony of New Amsterdam. 

sent to New Netherland in the hope that he would 
reform. At first he did well and put a stop to the 
smuggling and cheating which were common in the 
colony. Emigrants came over in large numbers, and 
everything seemed to be going on well when Kieft's 
brutality brought on an Indian war that nearly des- 
troyed the colony. The Indians living near New 
•Amsterdam sought shelter from the Iroquois on the 
mainland opposite Manhattan Island. Kieft thought 

Nc%v Xctltcrland and Xciv Sivcden [§§ 61-64 
Kicft orders it woukl bc a gnuul thill- to kill all these Indian 

the Indians 
to bc killed. 

the Indians j^^ig^bors while they were collected together. He 

sent a party of soldiers across the river and killed 
Results of the many of them. The result was a fierce war with 
massacre. ^jj ^^^ neighboring tribes. The Dutch colonists 
were driven from their farms. Even New Am- 
sterdam with its stockade was not safe. For the 
Indians sometimes came within the stockade and 
killed the people in the town. When there were less 
than two hundred people left in New Amsterdam, 
Kieft was recalled, and Peter Stuyvesant was sent 
as governor in his stead. 
Peter 62. Stuyvcsaiit's Rule. — Stuyvesant was a hot- 

^nTln^on tempered, energetic soldier who had lost a leg in the 
97. Company's service. He ruled New Netherland for 

a long time, from 1647 to 1664. And he ruled so 
sternly that the colonists were glad when the Eng- 
lish came and conquered them. This unpopularity 
was not entirely Stuyvesant's fault. The Dutch 
West India Company was a failure. It had no 
money to spend for the defence of the colonists, 
and Stuyvesant was obliged to lay heavy taxes on 
the pcojilc. 
The Swedes 63. New Sweden. — When the French, the English, 
n"eiaware ^"^ the Dutch wcrc founding colonies in America, 
Hif^gnnon. t^g Swedcs also thought that they might as well 
have a colony there too. They had no claim to any 
land in America. But Swedish armies were fighting 
the Dutchmen's battles in Europe. So the Swedes 
sent out a colony to settle on lands claimed by the 

i66o] Summary 43 

Dutch. As long as the European war went on, the stuyvesant 
Swedes were not interfered with. But when the Euro- ^h"m!^^'^^ 
pean war came to an end, Stuyvesant was told to 
conquer them. This he did without much trouble, as 
he had about as many soldiers as there were Swedish 
colonists. In this way New Sweden became a part 
of New Netherland. 

64. Summary. — We have seen how the French, Summary. 
the Dutch, the Swedish, and the English colonies 
were established on the Atlantic seashore and in the 
St. Lawrence valley. South of these settlements there 
was the earlier Spanish colony at St. Augustine. The 
Spanish colonists were very few in number, but they 
gave Spain a claim to Florida. The Swedish colony 
had been absorbed by the stronger Dutch colony. 
We have also seen how very unlike were the two The 
English groups of colonies. They were both settled coionier.^ ^ 
by Englishmen, but there the likeness stops. For 
Virginia and Maryland were slave colonies. They 
produced large crops of tobacco. The New England The New 
colonists on the other hand were practically all free, colonies. 
They lived in towns and engaged in all kinds of 
industries. In the next hundred years we shall see 
how the English conquered first the Dutch and then 
the French ; how they planted colonies far to the 
south of Virginia and in these ways occupied the 
whole coast north of Florida. 

44 Colotii.':atioH 


Chaiter 4 

§§ 26, 27. — 17. Mark on a map all the places mentioned in these 

l>. Describe Champlain's attacks on the Iroquois. 

§§ 28-30. — a. Compare the reasons for the coming of the French 
and the Spaniards. 

/'. What work did the Jesuits do for the Indians? 

e. Explain carefully why the hostility of the Iroquois to the French 
was so important. 


§§31, 32. — a. Give two reasons for the revival of English colonial 

It. Describe the voyage and early experiences of the Virginia colonists. 
c. Give three reasons for the sufferings of the Virginia colonists. 

§§ 33-35- — ^- ^Vhat do you think of Sir Thomas Dale ? 

b. To what was the prosperity of Virginia due ? Why ? 

c. What classes of people were there in Virginia ? 

§§36-38. — a. What is the meaning of the word "Puritan" (see 
§43)? Why is Sir Edwin Sandys regarded as the founder of free 
government in the English colonies ? 

b. Describe the laws of Virginia as to Roman Catholics and Puritans. 

§§ 39-4'- — "• Describe Lord Baltimore's treatment of his settlers. 
What do you think of the wisdom of his actions ? 
/'. Mow were Roman Catholics treated in England ? 

c. What is meant by toleration ? Who would be excluded by the 
Maryland Toleration Act ? 

d. Describe the likenesses and the differences between Virginia and 

Chapter 6 

§§42-47. — a. Describe the voyage of the Mayjlcnuer, 
l>. What was the object of the Mayflower Compact ? 
c. Describe the Pilgrims' search for a place of settlement. 
(/. Read Bradford's account of the first winter at Plymouth. 

e. What did .Squanto do for the Pilgrims ? 

Questions and Topics 45 

§§ 48-50. — -a. What advantages did the founders of Massachusetts 
have over those of New Plymouth ? 

b. Look up the history of England, 1630-40, and say why so many 
colonists came to New England in those years. 

c. On what matters did Roger Williams disagree with the rulers of 
Massachusetts ? 

d. How are Williams's ideas as to religious freedom regarded now ? 

e. Why was Mrs. Hutchinson expelled from Massachusetts? 

§§ 5^~54- — ^' How did the Pequod War affect the colonists on the 

b. What is a constitution ? Why did the Connecticut people feel 
the need of one ? Why is the Connecticut constitution famous? 

c. Why did the New Haven settlers found a separate colony? 

§§ 55> 5^' — ^- What two parties were fighting in England ? 

b. Give all the reasons for the formation of the New England Con- 
federation. What were the effects of this union ? 

c. Compare the industries of New England with those of Virginia. 

Chapter 7 

§§ 57~59- — ^- Why did the Dutch East India Company wish a 
northern route to India ? 

b. Describe Hudson's and Champlain's expeditions, and compare 
their treatment of the Iroquois. 

c. What attracted the Dutch to the region discovered by Hudson ? 

§§ 60-62. — a. What was the object of the Dutch West India Com- 
pany ? What privileges did the patroons have ? 

b. Describe the career of Kieft. What were the results of his treat- 
ment of the Indians ? 

c. What kind of a governor was Stuyvesant? Why was he unpopular? 

§ 63. — a. In what European war were the Swedes and the Dutch 
engaged ? 

b. On what land did the Swedes settle ? 

c. Describe how New Sweden was joined to New Netherland. 

General Questions 

a. Mark on a map in colors the lands settled by the different Euro- 
pean nations. 

46 Colonization 

b. Note the position of the Dutch with reference to the EngHsh, and 
explain the importance of such position. 

<•. Give one fact about each of the colonies, and state why you think 
it important. 

</. Give one fact which especially interests you in connection with 
each colony, and explain your interest. 

e. In which colony would you have liked to live, and why? 

Topics for Spkcial Work 

a. Champlain's place in American history (Parkman's Pioneers). 

b. The First American Legislature and its work (Hart's Contempo- 
raries, I., No. 65). 

c. Why did the Pilgrims come to America? (Bradford's /'/I'WiJM/'//). 

d. Arrange a table of the several settlements similar to that described 
on page 18. 

e. Write a composition on life in early colonial days (Eggleston's 
United States, 9 1 - 1 1 3) . 

Suggestions to the Teacher 

In treating this chapter aim to make clear the reasons for and con- 
ditions of the settlement of each colony. Vividness can best be obtained 
by a study of the writings of the time, especially of Bradford's History 
of Plymouth. Use pictures in every possible way and molding board 
as well. 

Emphasize the lack of true lil)erty of thought, and lead the children 
to understand that persecution was a characteristic of the time and not 
a failing of any particular colony or set of colonists. 


HISTORY, 1660-1760 

Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Fiske's United States for Schools, 133-180; 
M.QM.2Js,itx'''s, School Histoiy , 93-108 (life in 1763); Source-Book, 
ch. vii ; Fisher's Colonial Era; Earle's Child Life. 

Home Readings. — Parkman's Montcalm and Wolfe ; Franklin's 
Autobiography ; Brooks's In Leisler''s Times ; Coffin's Old Times 
ifi the Colonies ; Cooper's Last of the Mohicans ; Scudder's Men 
and Manners One Hundred Years Ago. 


65. The Puritans and the Colonists, 1649-60. — The Puritan 
In 164Q Charles I was executed, and for eleven years '".'"s^"^- 

•^^ ' J riigginson 

the Puritans were supreme in England. During this and Chan- 

ning, Englisk 

time the New England colonists governed them- History for 

selves, and paid little heed to the wishes and orders ^'^■'"^■^"^'""' 
' ^ 182-195. 

of England's rulers. After some hesitation, the Vir- 
ginians accepted the authority of Cromwell and the The 
Puritans. In return they were allowed to govern them- ^5° ""go^' 
selves. In Maryland the Puritans overturned Balti- 
more's governor and ruled the province for some years. 



The Colonics under Charles II [§§ 66-69 

The Restora- 
tion, 1660. 
Iliilory for 

The Naviga- 
tion Laws. 

Charles II 
and Massa- 

setts and tlie 

Charters of 
and kliode 

66. Colonial Policy of Charles II. — In 1660 Charles 
II became king of England or was "restored" to the 
throne, as people said at the time. Almost at once 
there was a great revival of interest in colonization, 
and the new government interfered vigorously in 
colonial affairs. In 165 1 the Puritans had begun the 
.system of giving the English trade only to English 
merchants and shipowners. This system was now 
extended, and the more important colonial products 
could be carried only to English ports. 

67. Attacks on Massachusetts. — The new govern- 
ment was especially displeased by the independent 
spirit shown by Massachusetts. Only good Puritans 
could vote in that colony, and members of the Church 
of England could not even worship as they wished. 
The Massachusetts people paid no heed whatever to 
the navigation laws and asserted that acts of Par- 
liament had no force in the colony. It chanced that 
at this time Massachusetts had placed herself clearly 
in the wrong by hanging four persons for no other 
reason than that they were Quakers. The English 
government thought that now the time had come to 
assert its power. It ordered the Massachusetts rulers 
to send other Quakers to England for trial. But, 
when this order reached Massachusetts, there were 
no Quakers in prison awaiting trial, and none were 
ever sent to ICngland. 

68. Connecticut and Rhode Island. — While the 
English government was attacking Massachusetts 
it was giving most liberal charters to Connecticut and 


Conquest of New NetJierland 


to Rhode Island. Indeed, these charters were so 
liberal that they remained the constitutions of the 
states of Connecticut and Rhode Island until long 
after the American Revolution. The Connecticut New Haven 
charter included New Haven within the limits of the Connecticut, 
larger colony and thus put an end to the separate ex- 
istence of New Haven. 

The Oldest Church south of the Potomac. 

69. Conquest of New Netherland, 1664. — The The English 
English government now determined to conquer New^Neti^er- 
New Netherland. An English fleet sailed to New '^"'^' '^^^'^^ 


Amsterdam. Stuyvesant thumped up and down 97-98. 
on his wooden leg. But he was almost the only 
man in New Amsterdam who wanted to fight. He 
soon surrendered, and New Netherland became an 
English colony. The Dutch later recaptured it 


The Colonics under Charles II [§§ 69-74 

New Ncihcr- 
l.ind piven lo 
the Duke of 
York and 

and held it for a time ; but in 1674 they finally 
handed it over to England. 

70. New York. — Even before the colony was 
.seized in 1664, Charles II gave it away to his 
brother James, Duke of York and Albany, who after- 
ward became king as James II. The name of New 
Nctherland was therefore changed to New York, and 
the principal towns were also named in his honor, 
New Vork and Albany. Little else was changed in 
the colony. The Dutch were allowed to live very 
nearly as they had lived before, and soon became 
even happier and more contented than they had 
been under Dutch rule. Many English settlers 
now came in. The colony became rich and pros- 
perous, but the people had 
little to do with their own gov- 

71. New Jersey. — No sooner 
had James received New Nether- 
land from his brother than he 
hastened to give some of the 
•Jj best portions of it to two faithful 
A friends, Sir George Carteret and 
/jf' Lord Berkeley. Their territory ex- 
tended from New York harbor to the 
Delaware River, and was named New 
Jersey in honor of Carteret's defense of the island 
s.-itiemcnt of of Jersey against the Puritans. Colonists at once 

New Jersey. , 

began commg to the new province and settled at 

Origin of 
Nfw Jersey, 


1664] New Jersey 5 1 

72. Later New Jersey. — Soon New Jersey was East and 
divided into two parts, East Jersey and West Jersey. '^ J '' y- 
West Jersey belonged to Lord Berkeley and he sold 

it to the Quakers. Not very many years later the 
Quakers also bought East Jersey. The New Jersey 
colonists were always getting into disputes with one 
another, so they asked Queen Anne to take charge 
of the government of the province. This she did 
by telling the governor of New York to govern New 
Jersey also. This was not what the Jersey people 
had expected. But they had their own legislature. 
In time also they secured a governor all to them- 
selves and became a royal province entirely separate Prosperity. 
from New York. Pennsylvania and New York pro- 
tected the Jersey people from the French and the 
Indians, and provided markets for the products of 
the Jersey farms. The colonists were industrious, 
and their soil was fertile. They were very religious 
and paid great attention to education. New Jersey 
became very prosperous and so continued until the 

73. The Founding of Carolina. — The planting of Founding of 
New Jersey was not the only colonial venture of Car- ^^g^. Hi^gin- 
teret and Berkeley. With Lord Chancellor Clarendon ^°'^' 124-127. 
and other noblemen they obtained from Charles land 

in southern Virginia extending southward into Spanish 
Florida. This great territory was named Carolina. 

74. The Carolina Colonists. — In 1663, when the Northern 
Carolina charter was granted, there were a few 
settlers living in the northern part of the colony. 


The Colonies under diaries If [§§ 74-76 

Indian war. 

Other colonists came from outside mainly from the 
Barbadoes and settled on the Cape Fear River. In 
this way was formed a colony in northern Carolina. 
But the most important settlement was in the south- 
ern part of the prov- 
js,« ince at Charleston. 

'^yy\ Southern Carolina at 
^,^/ once becaijie prosperous. 
/>^ This was due to the fact 
that the soil and climate 
ol that region were well suited to 
the cultivation of rice. The rice 
^ v7yu.r)«toa swamps brought riches to the 
^^UJ*' planters, they also compelled the employ- 
V f^ ment of large numbers of negro slaves. 
Before long, indeed, there were more ne- 
irrocs than whites in southern Carolina. 
"^*' In this way there grew up two distmct 
centers of colonial life in the province. 

75. Bacon's Rebellion, 1676. — By this time the 
Virginians had become very discontented. There had 
been no election to the colonial assembly since 1660 
and Governor Berkeley was very tyrannical. The Vir- 
ginians also wanted more churches and more schools. 
To add to these causes of discontent the Indians 
now attacked the settlers, and Berkeley seemed to 
take very little interest in protecting the Virginians. 
Led by Nathaniel Bacon the colonists marched to 
Jamestown and demanded authority to go against 
the Indians. Berkeley gave Bacon a commission. 


Bacon's Rebellion 


But, as soon as Bacon left Jamestown on his ex- 
pedition, Berkeley declared tha.t he was a rebel. 
Bacon returned, and Berkeley fled. Bacon marched 
against the Indians again, and Berkeley came back, 
and so the rebellion went on until Bacon died. 

The House in which Nathaniel Bacon died. 

From an original sketch. 

Berkeley then captured the other leaders one after 
another and hanged them. But when he returned to 
England, Charles II turned his back to him, saying, 
" The old fool has killed more men in Virginia than 
I for the murder of my father." 

76. Virginia after Bacon's Rebellion. — The Virgin- Greedy 

111 r 1 governors. 

lans were now handed over to a set of greedy gov- 


The Colonics under Charles II [§§ 76-78 

tnftv tic- rf bciii'fitt tp .r** *iiP Oi**" i>i 


FoundinR of 
William and 

King Philip's 
War, 1675- 
76. J/i,i^,i,'in- 
son, 137-138; 
Egg lesion, 

The OrKMNc; Links ok the Pennsylvania Chaktek showing 

ernors. Some of them came to America to make 
their fortunes. But some of them were governors 
whom the people of other colonies would not have. 
The only event of importance in the history of the 
colony during the next twenty-five years was the 
founding of William and Mary College (1691) at 
Williamsburg. It was the second oldest college in 
the r^nglish colonies. 

77. King Philip's War, 1675-76. — It was not only 
in Virginia and Maryland that the Indians were 
restless at this time. In New England also they 
attacked the whites. They were led by Massasoit's 
son, King Phili]), an able and far-seeing man. He 
saw with dismay how rapidly the whites were driv- 
ing the Indians away from their hunting-grounds. 
The Indians burned the English villages on the 
frontier and killed hundreds of the settlers. The 


Tlte Pennsylvania Charter 


Imuili ^nmr limit u 


X^ rtii" tr tt,F.nii." iPcfc- pvcJiixH ^Eirtfi 

Ornamental Border and Portrait of Charles II. 

strongest chief to join Philip was Canonchet of the 
Narragansetts. The colonial soldiers stormed his 
fort and killed a thousand Indian warriors. Before 
long King Philip himself was killed, and the war 
slowly came to an end. 

78. William Penn. — Among the greatest English- 
men of that time was William Penn. He was a 
Quaker and was also a 
friend of Charles II and 
James, Duke of York. 
He wished to found a col- 
ony in which he and the 
Quakers could work out 
their ideas in religious and 
civil matters. It chanced 



V 111 


1 -^ 



Vl II , 

-- 1 

1 . 



The Penn- 

Charles seldom had any money, he was very glad to charter, i68i. 

that Charles owed Penn a large sum of money. As 


The Colonics iiiuhr Charles II [§§ 78-82 

Mason and 
Uixon's line. 

give Pcnii instead a large tract of land in America. 
In this way Penn obtained Pennsylvania. James, for 
his part, gave him Delaware. 

79. Founding of Pennsylvania, 1682. — William 
Pciin had a great reputation for honesty and fair 
dealing among the English Quakers and among the 
Quakers on the continent of Europe as well. As 
soon as it was known that he was to found a colony, 
great numbers of persons came to PennsyKania from 
England and from Germany. In a very short time 
the colony became strong and prosperous. In the 
first place, the soil of Pennsylvania was rich and 
productive while its climate was well suited to the 
growth of grain. In the second place, Penn was 
very liberal to his colonists. He gave them a large 
share in the government of the province and he 
allowed no religious persecution. He also insisted 
on fair and honest dealing with the Indians. 

80. Mason and Dixon's Line. — In the seventeenth 
century the geography of America was very little 
understood in lun-ope — and the persons who drew 
up colonial charters understood it least of all. Char- 
ter lines frequently overlapped and were often very 
indistinct. This was particularly true of the Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania boundaries. Penn and Balti- 
more tried to come to an agreement ; but they never 
could agree. Years afterward, when they were both 
dead, their heirs agreed to have a line drawn with- 
out much regard to the charters. This line was 
finally surveyed by two English engineers, Mason 

i682] Mason and Dixon s Line 57 

and Dixon, and is always called after their names. 
It is the present boundary line between Pennsylvania 
and Maryland. In colonial days it separated the its impor- 
colonies where slavery was the rule from those where history" 
labor was generally free. In the first half of the nine- 
teenth century it separated the free states from the 
slave states. Mason and Dixon's Hne, therefore, has 
been a famous line in the history of the United States. 


81. The Stuart Tyranny. — Instead of admiring New policy 
the growth of the colonies in strength and in liberty, °[*^^ 
Charles and James saw it with dismay. The colonies 

were becoming too strong and too free. They deter- 
mined to reduce all the colonies to royal provinces, 
like Virginia — with the exception of Pennsylvania 
which belonged to their friend, William Penn. There Reasons for 
was a good deal to be said in favor of this plan, for *^^."^^^ 
the colonists were so jealous of each other that 
they would not unite against the French or the In- 
dians. If the governments were all in the hands of 
the king, the whole strength of the British colonies 
could be used against any enemy of England. 

82. The Stuart Tyranny in New England. — The End of the 
Massachusetts charter was now taken away, and Sir ^^^ ^Qom- 
Edmund Andros was sent over to govern the colony, p^^^' ^684. 
He was ordered to make laws and to tax the people 
without asking their consent. He did as he was 


Colonial Development 

[§§ 82-85 

Andros of 

Fliglil of 
James II. 

ordered to do. Mc set up the Church of England. 
1 Ic taxed the people. He even took their lands from 
them, on the ground that the grants from the old 
Massachusetts government were of no value. When 
one man j^ointcd to the magistrates' signatures to his 
grant, Andros told him that their names were worth 
no more than a scratch with a bear's paw. He also 
enforced the navigation laws and took possession of 
Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New Plymouth. At 
the same time he was also governor of New Hamp- 
shire and of New York. 

83. The "Glorious Revolution " in America, 1689. 
— By this time Charles was dead, and James was 

^ King of England. 
The English people 
did not like James 
any better than the 
New Englanders 
liked Andros. In 
1688 they rebelled 
and made William 
of Orange and his 
wife Mary, James's 
eldest daughter, 
King and Queen oft 
England. On their} 
part, the Massachu- 
Reheiiion setts colonists seized Andros and his followers and 
Andros, 1689. ^hut them up in jirison (y\j)ril 18, 1689). The people 
of Connecticut and Rhode Island turned out Andros's 

H 7 THE 


•41,. ?■,.- fi Diiffe 
o.xontccc*, bold For- 


A Proclamation of 1690 forbidding 
THK Printing of Newspapers with- 
out Permission of the Governmen 1 . 

1700-60] TJie Colonies 59 

agents and set up their old governments. In New- 
York also Andres's deputy governor was expelled, 
and the people took control of affairs until the king 
and queen should send out a governor. Indeed, all 
the colonies, except Maryland, declared for William 
and Mary. 

84. The New Arrangements. — For a year or two Policy of 
William was very busy in Ireland and on the conti- y^^^^'^ ^" 
nent. At length he had time to attend to colonial 
affairs. He appointed royal governors for both Penn- 
sylvania and Maryland. William Penn soon had his 
colony given back to him ; but the Baltimores had 

to wait many years before they recovered Mary- 
land. In New York there was a dreadful tragedy. 
For the new governor. Slaughter, was persuaded to 
order the execution of the leaders in the rising against 
Andros. Massachusetts did not get her old charter The Massa- 
back, but she got another charter. This provided ^^^^^'*^ 

^ ■■■ Province 

that the king should appoint the governor, but the charter, 1691. 
people should elect a House of Representatives. 
The most important result of this new arrangement 
was a series of disputes between the king's governor 
and the people's representatives. Maine and New 
Plymouth were included in Massachusetts under the 
new charter. But New Hampshire remained a royal 

85. The Colonies, 1700-60. — During these years Prosperity 
immigrants thronged to America, and the colonies colonies, 
became constantly stronger. Commerce everywhere 1700-60. 
developed, and many manufactures were established. 


Colonial Development 

[§§ 85-88 

Bad govern- 
nienl of the 

Throughout the colonies the people everywhere 
gained power, and had it not been for the French 
and Indian wars they would have been happy. Aside 
from these wars the most important events of these 
years were the overthrow of the Carolina proprietors 
and the founding of Georgia. 

86. North and South Carolina. — The Carolina pro- 
prietors and their colonists had never got on well 
together. They now got on worse than ever. The 

Rebellion in 




--—^ />.4t»"^^-'^3*"**'^'^ 

Carolina Rice-fieli«. 

greater part of the colonists were not members of 
the Established Church ; but the proprietors tried to 
take away the right to vote from all persons who 
were not of that faith. They also interfered in 
elections, and tried to prevent the formation of a 
true representative assembly. They could not pro- 
tect the people against the pirates who blockaded 
Charleston for weeks at a time. In 17 19 the people 
of Charleston rebelled. The king then interfered, 
and appointed a royal governor. Later he bought 
out the rights of the proprietors. In this way Caro- 


Founding of Georgia 


lina became a royal province. It was soon divided 
into two provinces, North Carolina and South Caro- 
lina. But there had always been two separate colo- 
nies in Carolina (p. 52). 

87. Founding of Georgia, 1732. — In those days 
it was the custom in England to send persons who 
could not pay their debts to prison. Of course many 

of these poor debtors were really 
industrious persons whom mis- 
fortune or sickness had driven 
into debt. General Oglethorpe, 
ybee a mcmbcr of Parliament, looked 
into the prison management. He was 
greatly affected by the sad fate of these 
poor debtors, and determined to do some- 
thing for them. With a number of 
charitable persons he obtained a part of 
South Carolina for a colony, and named 
^^ it Georgia for George II, who gave the 

land. Parliament also gave money. For the govern- 
ment thought it very desirable to have a colony 
between the rich plantations of Carolina and the 
Spanish settlements in Florida. 

88. Georgia, 1733-52. — Naturally Oglethorpe had 
no difficulty in getting colonists. For the poor 
debtors and other oppressed persons were very glad 
to have a new start in life. Savannah was founded 
in 1733. The Spaniards, however, were not at all 
glad to have an English colony planted so near 
Florida. They attacked the Georgians, and Ogle- 

\ I yFrederica 

North and 




Grant of 

of Georgia, 


127-130 ; 
62-65 ; 
Book, 71-73. 


Exf'ithioii of the French 

[§§ 88-91 

Projjri'ss of 
the colony. 

thorpe spent years in fighting tiicni. The Georgia 
colonists found it very difficult to compete with the 
Carolina planters. For the Carolinians had slaves to 
work for them, and the proprietors of Georgia would 
not let the Georgians own slaves. Finally they gave 
way and permitted the colonists to own slaves. But 
this so disheartened the Georgia proprietors that they 
gave up the enterprise and handed the colony over 
to the king. In this way Georgia became a royal 



Louis of 
France and 
William of 

tages of 
the Knglish 

89. Causes of the French Wars. — At the time of 
the "Glorious Revolution" (p. 58) James II found 
refuge with Louis XIV, King of France. William 
and Louis had already been fighting, and it was easy 
enough to see that if William became King of Eng- 
land he would be very much more powerful than he 
was when he was only Prince of Orange. So Louis 
took up the cause of James and made war on the 
English and the Dutch. The conflict soon spread 
across the Atlantic. 

90. Strength of the Combatants. — At first sight 
it might seem as if the English colonists were much j 
stronger than the French colonists. They greatly! 
outnumbered the French. They were much more* 
prosperous and well-to-do. But their settlements 
were scattered over a great extent of seacoast from 


Kinsr William's War 


the Kennebec to the Savannah. Their governments 
were more or less free. But this very freedom weak- 
ened them for war. The French colonial government Advantages 
was a despotism directed from France. Whatever 

of the French 

resources the French had in America were certain to 
be well used. 

•vtj!'^ \^h\mhMM 

A "Garrison House" at York, Maine, built in 1676. 

War, 1689- 




91. King William's "War, 1689-97. — The Iroquois King 
began this war by destroying Montreal. The next 
winter the French invaded New York. They cap- 
tured Schenectady and killed nearly all the inhabi- 
tants. Other bands destroyed New England towns 
and killed or drove away their inhabitants. The 
English, on their part, seized Port Royal in Acadia, 
but they failed in an attempt against Quebec. In 
1697 this war came to an end. Acadia was given 
back to the French, and nothing was gained by all 
the bloodshed and suffering. 

64 Expulsion of the French [§§ 92-96 

Qm-on 92. Queen Anne's War, 1701-13. — In 1701 the 

iyoi-iV^'''* contlict began again. It lasted for twelve years, 
Higgmson, ^mtil 1713. It was in this war that the Duke of 
•S///S- Marlborough won the battle of Blenheim and made 
Book,^-^co. ^^^ himself a great reputation. In America the 
French and Indians made long expeditions to New 
England. The English colonists again attacked Que- 
bec and again failed. In one thing, however, they. 
were successful. They again seized Port Royal. 
This time the English kept Port Royal and all Aca- 
dia. Port Royal they called Annapolis, and the name 
of Acadia was changed to Nova Scotia. 
King 93. King George's War, 1744-48. — From 1713 

wrr'^^^744- ""ti^ ^ 744 there was no war between the English and 
48- the French. But in 1744 fighting began again in 

earnest. The French and Indians attacked the New 
England frontier towns and killed many people. But 
the New Englanders, on their part, won a great suc- 
cess. After the F"rench lost Acadia they built a 
strong fortress on the island of Cape Breton. To 
this they gave the name of Louisburg. The New 
Englanders fitted out a great expedition and captured 
Louisburg without much help from the English. But 
at the close of the war (1748) the fortress was given 
back to the French, to the disgust of the New 
La Salle on 94. The French in the Mississippi Valley. — The 
Spaniards had discovered the Mississippi and had ex- 
plored its lower valley. But they had found no gold 
there and had abandoned the country. It was left 

tlic Missis 
sippi, 1681 

1699] Founding of Louisiana 65 

for French explorers more than one hundred years McMaster, 
later to rediscover the great river and to explore it *source- 
from its upper waters to the Gulf of Mexico. The Book,g6-gS. 
first Frenchman to sail down the river to its mouth 
was La Salle. In 1681, with three canoes, he floated 
down the Mississippi, until he reached a place where 
the great river divided into three large branches. He 
sent one canoe down each branch. Returning, they 
all reported that they had reached the open sea. 

95. Founding of Louisiana. — La Salle named this La Saiie 

T . . . , r .^ T^ 1 attempts to 

immense region Louisiana m honor of the l^rench f^^^^jg^ 
king. He soon led an expedition to plant a colony on colony. 

° x- r- ./ McMaster, 

the banks of the Mississippi. Sailing into the Gulf 79-80. 
of Mexico, he missed the mouth of the Mississippi 
and landed on the coast of Texas. Misfortune after 
misfortune now fell on the unhappy expedition. La 
Salle was murdered, the stores were destroyed, the 
Spaniards and Indians came and killed or captured 
nearly all the colonists. A few only gained the Mis- 
sissippi and made their way to Canada. In 1699, Louisiana 
another French expedition appeared in the Gulf of ^^"^^'^' ^^99- 
Mexico. This time the mouth of the Mississippi 
was easily discovered. But the colonists settled on 
the shores of Mobile Bay. It was not until 171 8 that 
New Orleans was founded. 

96. Struggle for the Ohio Valley. — At the close The French 

of King George's War the French set to work to con- ^^^^ 

nect the settlements in Louisiana with those on the St. McMaster, 

Lawrence. In 1749 French explorers gained the 

Alleghany River from Lake Erie and went down the 


Expulsion of the French 

[§§ 96-100 

Ohio as far as the Miami. The next year (1750) 
King George gave a great tract of land on the Ohio 
River to an association of Virginians, who formed the 
Ohio Company. The struggle for the Ohio Valley 
had fairly begun. Governor Dinwiddle of Virginia 
learned that the French were building forts on the 
Ohio, and sent them a letter protesting against their 
so doing. The bearer of this letter was George 
Washington, a young Virginia surveyor. 

97. George Washington. — Of an old Virginia 
family, George Washington grew up with the idea 
that he must earn his own living. His father was 
a well-to-do planter. But Augustine Washington 
was the eldest son, and, as was the custom then 
in Virginia, he inherited most of the property. 
Augustine Washington was very kind to his younger 
brother, and gave him a good practical education as 
a land surveyor. The younger man was a bold ath- 
lete and fond of studying military campaigns. He 
was full of courage, industrious, honest, and of great 
common sense. Before he was twenty he had sur- 
veyed large tracts of wilderness, and had done his 
work well amidst great difficulties. When Dinwiddle 
wanted a messenger to take his letter to the French 
commander on the Ohio, George Washington's em- 
ployer at once suggested him as the best person to 
send on the dangerous journey. 

98. Fort Duquesne. — Instead of heeding Din- 
widdle's warning, the French set to work to build 
Fort Duquesne (Dii-kin') at the spot where the Alle- 



AS® aU' H r s 

(A T. ,^ np^[ j; p, 

1» ^lojp- fjjj. 

ALSO N.^ /V 
.-fl IT T 

>',„,--fri /fT '-.r T S U / !(0^ 


I) 'A, 

/ ^ Kicumogaz-f i ^ 

^;p^S '■^Cmfpeakc JSoj 

.Norfolk O 

I\-S A 


^ Orleans 

^\u I f „ f ,, 

' o/ iU e Of I < 

Kote : 

Xcw York claimed "westerii land 
as far south as the Tennessee River. 

lougiluJe West 80' from Grecn»icli 



Braddock's Defeat 


ghany and Monongahela join to form the Ohio, — 
near the site of the present city of Pittsburg. Din- 
widdie therefore sent Washington with a small force 
of soldiers to drive them away. But the French were 
too strong for Washington. 
They besieged him in Fort 
Necessity and compelled 
him to surrender (July 4, 


99. Braddock's Defeat, 
1755. — The English gov- 
ernment now sent General 
Braddock with a small 
army of regular soldiers to 
Virginia. Slowly and pain- 
fully Braddock marched 
westward. Learning of 

his approach, the French and Indians left Fort Du- 
quesne to draw him into ambush. But the two 
forces came together before either party was pre- 
pared for battle. For some time the contest was 
even, then the regulars broke and fled. Braddock 
was fatally wounded. With great skill, Washington 
saved the survivors, — but not until four shots had 
pierced his coat and only thirty of his three com- 
panies of Virginians were left alive. 

100. The War to 1759. — All the earlier French 
and Indian wars had begun in Europe and had 
spread to America. This war began in America 
and soon spread to Europe. At first affairs went 

ton's first 


:: '■:' y-'-'-^^ 

'■■"■ yS ■'■ ■. jk'tBraddook'a Rold 


yf^ ■■.■.■.'■': : P'.'-.'+'Tbrl Necessity 




Higg 1715 071, 

129-131 ; 

Braddock's Campaign. 

The French 
and Indian 


Expjilsioii of tJic Frc7ich [§§ 100-102 

very ill. But in 1757 William Pitt became the 
British war minister, and the war began to be 
waged with vigor and success. The old generals 
were called home, and new men placed in command. 
In 1758 Amherst and Wolfe captured Louisburg, 
and Forbes, greatly aided by Washington, seized Fort 
Duquesnc. Bradstreet captured Fort Frontenac, on 
Lake Ontario. There was only one bad failure, that 
of Abercrombie at Ticonderoga. But the next year 
Amherst captured Ticonderoga and Crown Point and 
opened the way to Canada by Lake Champlain. 

lOL Capture of Quebec, 1759. — Of all the younger 
generals James Wolfe was foremost. To him was 

given the task of 
capturing Quebec. 
Seated on a high bluff, 
Quebec could not be 
captured from the 
river. The only way 
to approach it was to 
gain the Plains of 
Abraham in its rear 
and besiege it on the 
land side. Again and 
again Wolfe sent his 
men to storm the 
bluffs below the town. 
Every time they failed. Wolfe felt that he must 
give up the task, when he was told that a path 
led from the river to the top of the bluff above 

WolJ-KS k.WlNK. 

This shows the gradual ascent of the path from 
the river to the top of the bUiff. 

1763] Peace of Paris 69 

the town. Putting his men into boats, they gained 
the path in the darkness of night. There was a 
guard at the top of the bluff, but the officer in com- 
mand was a coward and ran away. In the morning 
the British army was drawn up on the Plains of 
Abraham. The French now attacked the British, Battle of 
and a fierce battle took place. The result was doubt- 
f ul when Wolfe led a charge at the head of the Louis- 
burg Grenadiers. He was killed, but the French 
were beaten. Five days later Quebec surrendered. 
Montreal was captured in 1760, and in 1763 the war 
came to an end. 

102. Peace of Paris, 1763. — By this great treaty, Peace of 
or set of treaties, the French withdrew from the con- ^^^^' ^' 
tinent of North America. To Spain, who had lost 
Florida, the French gave the island of New Orleans 
and all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi. To Great 
Britain the French gave up all the rest of their 
American possessions except two small islands in 
the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Spain, on her part, gave 
up Florida to the British. There were now practically 
only two powers in America, — the British in the 
eastern part of the continent, and the Spaniards west 
of the Mississippi. The Spaniards also owned the 
island of New Orleans and controlled both sides of 
the river for more than a hundred miles from its 
mouth. But the treaty gave the British the free 
navigation of the Mississippi throughout its length. 

70 A Ccntuyy of Colonial History 


Chaj'tkr 8 

§§ 65, 66. — n. What government did England have after the exe- 
cution of Charles I ? Give three facts about Cromwell. 

b. How did the accession of Charles II affect the colonies ? 

c. What laws were made about the commerce of the colonies ? 

§ 67. — a. How did the new government of England regard Massa- 
chusetts ? Why ? 

b. Describe the treatment of the Quakers in Massachusetts. 

§ 68. — a. Describe the charters given to Connecticut and Rhode 
Island. W^hy diil Connecticut need a charter when she already had a 
constitution ? 

b. What other colony was united with Connecticut ? 

§§69,70. — (7. Why did England wish to conquer New Nether- 
land ? Why dill not the people of New Amsterdam wish to fight the 
English ? 

b. To whom did Charles give this territory ? 

§§ 71, 72. — a. Mark on a map the position of New Jersey. 

b. Describe the division of New Jersey and its sale to the Quakers. 

c. Why was the colony prosperous ? 

§§ 73, 74. — a. Describe the founding of Carolina. 
/'. Describe northern and southern Carolina, and note the differ- 
ences between them. 

§§75, 76. — a. What complaints did the people of Virginia 
make ? Was Bacon a rebel ? 

b. Describe the later government of Virginia. 

c. Why was the founding of William and Mary College important ? 

§ 77. — a. What was the cause of King Philip's War ? 
b. What were the results of the war ? 

§§ 78-80. — a. Find out three facts about the early life of William 
Penn. Why did colonists come to Pennsylvania ? 

b. What trouble arose with Maryland about the boundary line ? 

c. How was Mason and Dixon's line famous later ? 

Questions and Topics Ji 

Chapter 9 

§§ 81-84. — a. Why did Charles and James dislike the growing 
liberty of the colonies ? 

b. What changes did Andros make in New England ? 

c. Describe the " Glorious Revolution " in America. 

d. What changes did William and Mary make in the colonial gov- 
ernments ? 

§§ 85-88. — a. How did the Carolina proprietors treat their colonists? 
What was the result of their actions ? 

b. Explain the reasons for the founding of Georgia. 

Chapter 10 

§§ 89,90. — a. Compare the strength of the English and French 
colonies. What is a " despotism " ? 

b. Draw a map showing the position of the English and French 

§§ 91-93- — ^- Mark on a map all the places mentioned in the 

b. Describe the expedition against Louisburg. 

c. What was the result of these wars? 

§§ 94-97- — ^- Which country, England, France, or Spain, had the 
best claim to the Mississippi valley ? Why ? 

b. Follow route of La Salle on a map, marking each place men- 
tioned. Describe the settlement of Louisiana. 

c. Why did the struggle between England and France begin in the 
Ohio valley ? 

d. Describe Washington's early training. 

§§98-101. — a. Where was Fort Duquesne ? Why was its posi- 
tion important ? Describe Braddock's expedition and trace his route. 

b. Mark on a map the important routes to Canada. 

c. Describe the capture of Quebec. Why was it important ? 

§ \02. — a. What territory did England gain in 1763 ? What did 
Spain gain ? What did France lose ? 

b. WTiat was the great question settled by this war ? 

72 A Ccntii)-)' of Colonial History 

General Questions 

a. Were the New Kngland colonies difficult to govern ? Why ? 

/'. In what respects were the colonial governments alike ? In what 
respects were they unlike ? 

c. What events in any colony have shown that its people desired 
more liberty ? 

Tories FOR Special Work 

a. The Revolution of 1688 in England and America. 

h. Write an account of the life of a boy or girl in any colony; tell 
about the house, furniture, dress, school, and if a journey to another 
colony is made, how it is made and what is seen on the way. 

c. Arrange a table similar to that described on p. 18. 

Suggestions to the Teacher 

In this period the growing difficulties between England and the 
colonies can be traced — especially in commercial affairs and in gov- 
ernmental institutions. Thus many of the causes of the Revolution 
may be brought out as well as the difficulties in the way of colonial 
union. This may be emphasized by noting the difference between the 
English and French colonies. 


COLONIAL UNION, 1760-1774 

j Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Fiske's IVai' of Independence, 39-86 ; Scudder's 
George Washington ; Lossing's Field-Book of the Revolntion ; 
English History for Americans, 244-284 (English political 

Home Readings. — Irving's Washington (abridged edition) ; 
Cooke's Stories of the Old Dominion ; Cooper's Lionel Lincoln ; 
Long-fellow's Patd Revere' s Ride. 



103. Early Colonial Policy. — At the outset, Eng- England's 
land's rulers had been very kind to Englishmen who coLniai^'^^ 
founded colonies. They gave them great grants of policy, 
land. They gave them rights of self-government 
greater than any Englishmen living in England en- 
joyed. They allowed them to manage their own 
trade and industries as they saw fit. They even per- 
mitted them to worship God as their consciences told England's 
them to worship him. But, as the colonists grew in coiTi^ai 
strength and in riches, Britain's rulers tried to make po'^cy. 

• 73 


Britain's Colonial System [§§ 103-106 

in enforcing 
the naviga- 
tion laws. 

James Otis. 



His speech 

against writs 

of assistance, 

176 1. 


their trade profitable to British merchants and inter- 
fered in their government. On their part the colo- 
nists disobeyed the navigation laws and disputed with 
the royal officials. For years Britain's rulers allowed 
this to go on. But, at length, near the close of the last 
French war Mr. Pitt ordered the laws to be enforced. 

104. Writs of Assistance, 1761. — It was a good 
deal easier to order the laws to be carried out than 
it was to carry them out. It was almost impossible 
for the customs officers to prevent goods being 
landed contrary to law. When the goods were 
once on shore, it was difficult to seize them. So the 
officers asked the judges to give them writs of assist- 
ance. Among the leading lawyers of Boston was 
James Otis. He was the king's law officer in the 
province. But he resigned his office and opposed the 
granting of the writs. He objected to the use of writs 
of assistance because they enabled a customs officer 
to become a tyrant. Armed with one of them he 
could go to the house of a man he did not like and 
search it from attic to cellar, turn everything upside 
down and break open doors and trunks. It made 
no difference, said Otis, whether Parliament had said 
that the writs were legal. For Parliament could not 
make an act of tyranny legal. To do that was be- 
yond the power even of Parliament. 

105. The Parson's Cause, 1763. — The next impor- 
tant case arose in Virginia and came about in this 
way. The Virginians made a law regulating the 
salaries of clergymen in the colony. The king vetoed 

1761-63] Otis and Henry 75 

the law. The Virginians paid no heed to the veto. 
The clergymen appealed to the courts and the case 
of one of them was selected for trial. Patrick 
Henry, a prosperous young lawyer, stated the opin- 
ions of the Virginians in a speech which made his His speech 
reputation. The king, he said, had no right to veto parson' 
a Virginia law that was for the good of the people. Cause, 1763. 
To do so was an act of tyranny, and the people owed 
no obedience to a tyrant. The case was decided 
for the clergyman. For the law was clearly on his 
side. But the jurymen agreed with Henry. They 
gave the clergyman only one farthing damages, and 
,no more clergymen brought cases into the court. 
The king's veto was openly disobeyed. 

106. The King's Proclamation of 1763. — In the Prociama- 
'same year that the Parson's Cause was decided the ^^/^j^Jilr^' 
king issued a proclamation which greatly lessened "°- 
the rights of Virginia and several other colonies to 
western lands. Some of the old charter lines, as 
i those of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Virginia, and 
the Carolinas had extended to the Pacific Ocean. 
By the treaty of 1763 (p. 69) the king, for himself 
and his subjects, abandoned all claim to lands west of 
the Mississippi River. Now in the Proclamation of 
1763 he forbade the colonial governors to grant any 
lands west of the Alleghany Mountains. The west- 
ern limit of Virginia and the Carolinas was fixed. 
Their pioneers could not pass the mountains and 
settle in the fertile valleys of the Ohio and its 


Taxation without Representation [§§ 107-108 


George III. 


The British 

and repre- 

107. George III and George Grenville. — George III 
became king in 1760. He was a narrow, stupid, 
well-meaning, ignorant young man of twenty-one. 
He soon found in George Grenville a narrow, dull, 
well-meaning lawyer, a man who would do what he 
was told. So George Grenville became the head of 
the government. To him the law was the law. If 
he wished to do a thing and could find the law for 
it, he asked for nothing more. His military advisers 
told him that an army must be kept in America 
for years. It was Grenville's business to find the 
money to support this army. Great Britain was 
burdened with a national debt. The army was to be 
maintained, partly, at least, for the protection of the 
colonists. Why should they not pay a part of the 
cost of maintaining it .'' Parliament was the supreme 
power in the British Empire. It controlled the king, 
the church, the army, and the navy. Surely a Parlia- 
ment that had all this power could tax the colonists. 
At all events, Grenville thought it could, and Parlia- 
ment passed the Stamp Act to tax them. 

108. Henry's Resolutions, 1765. — The colonists, 
however, with one voice, declared that Parliament had, 
no power to tax them. Taxes, they said, could be: 
voted only by themselves or their representatives.. 
They were represented in their own colonial assem-- 

[765] The Stamp Act 'J7 

jlies, and nowhere else. Patrick Henry was now a Henry's 

nember of the Virginia assembly. He had just been ^^52. 

elected for the first time. But as none of the older Higginson, 


nembers of the assembly proposed any action, Henry mc Master, 

ore a leaf from an old law-book and wrote on it a 


Henry's First and Last Resolutions (Facsimile of the Original Draft). 

let of resolutions. These he presented in a burning 
peech, upholding the rights of the Virginians. He 
laid that to tax them by act of Parliament was tyr- 
inny. " Caesar and Tarquin had each his Brutus, 
"harles I his Cromwell, and George HI" — "Treason, 
reason," shouted the speaker. " May profit by 


Taxation ivithoiit Representation [§§ loS-no 

their example, " slowly Henry wont on. "If that be 
treason, make the most of it." The resolutions were 
voted. In them the Virginians declared that they 
were not subject to Acts of Parliament laying taxes 
or interfering in the internal affairs of Virginia. 

109. Stamp Act Riots, 1765. — Until the summer 
of 1765 the colonists contented themselves with 
passing resolutions. There was little else that they 
could do. They could not refuse to obey the law 
because it would not go into effect until November. 
They could not mob the stamp distributers because 
no one knew their names. In August the names of 
the stamp distributers were published. Now at last 
it was possible to do something besides passing reso- 
lutions. In every colony the people visited the stamp 
officers and told them to resign. If they refused, 
they were mobbed until they resigned. In Boston 
the rioters were especially active. They detested 
Thomas Hutchinson. He was lieutenant-governor 
and chief justice and had been active in enforcing 
the navigation acts. The rioters attacked his house. 
They broke his furniture, destroyed his clothing, and 
made a bonfire of his books and papers. 

110. The Stamp Act Congress, 1765. — Colonial 
congresses were no new thing. There had been 
many meetings of governors and delegates from colo- 
nial assemblies. The most important of the early 
congresses was the Albany Congress of 1754. It was 
important because it proposed a plan of union. The 
plan was drawn up by Benjamin Franklin. But 

Patrick Henry. 

' I am not a Virginian, but an American." 


Taxation without Representation [§§ 1 10-113 

Stamp Act 

neither the king nor the colonists liked it, and it was 
not adopted. All these earlier congresses had been 
summoned by the king's officers to arrange expedi- 
tions against the French or to make treaties with the 
Indians. The Stamp Act Congress was summoned 
by the colonists to protest against the doings of king 
and Parliament. 

111. Work of the Stamp Act Congress. — Delegates 
from nine colonies met at New York in October, 1765. 
They drew up a " Declaration of the Rights and 

>-5/i^ /i>\' J o IN OR D I E. --^ 
r.U-r 3j, rjet. ■?=* — " 

t • •. ■ . u 

T^c Cor.ftitutlooal || J . ^«,' 

CO b"k A^N>r>: 

and 1)0 wile i^pt'^art ioXot.^uX>' 

of the Rights 
and Griev- 
ances of the 





Grievances of the Colonists." In this paper they 
declared that the colonists, as subjects of the British 
king, had the same rights as British subjects living in 
Britain, and were free from taxes except those to 
which they had given their consent. They claimed 
for themselves the right of trial by jury — which 
might be denied under the Stamp Act. But the most 
important thing about the congress was the fact that 
nine colonies had put aside their local jealousies and 
had joined in holding it. 

112. Franklin's Examination. — Born in Boston, 
Benjamin Franklin ran away from home and settled 

1766] Repeal of the Stamp Act 81 

at Philadelphia. By great exertion and wonderful 
shrewdness he rose from poverty to be one of the 
most important men in the city and colony. He 
was a printer, a newspaper editor, a writer, and a 
student of science. With kite and string he drew 
down the lightning from the clouds and showed that 
lightning was a discharge of electricity. He was now 
in London as agent for Pennsylvania and Massachu- 
setts. His scientific and literary reputation gave him 
great influence. He was examined at the bar of the 
House of Commons. Many questions and answers Examined by 
were arranged beforehand between Franklin and his ^n^ House oi 

o Commons. 

friends in the House. But many questions were 
answered on the spur of the moment. Before the 
passage of the Stamp Act the feeling of the colonists 
toward Britain had been " the best in the world." So 
Franklin declared. But now, he said, it was greatly 
altered. Still an army sent to America would find 
no rebellion there. It might, indeed, make one. In - 
conclusion, he said the repeal of the act would not 
make the colonists any more willing to pay taxes. 

113. Repeal of the Stamp Act, 1766. — It chanced Fan of 
that at this moment George III and George Gren- 
ville fell out. The king dismissed the minister, and 
gave the Marquis of Rockingham the headship of a 
new set of ministers. Now Rockingham and his 
friends needed aid from somebody to give them the 
strength to outvote Grenville and the Tories. So 
when the question of what should be done about the 
Stamp Act came up, they listened most attentively to 

82 Tijxafion tvithoiit Representation [§§113-116 

what Mr. Pitt had to say. That great man said 
that the Stamp Act should be repealed wholly and 
at once. At the same time another law should be 
passed declaring that Parliament had power to legis- 
late for the colonies in all cases whatsoever. The 
Rockinghams at once did as Mr. Pitt suggested. 
The Stamp Act was repealed. The Declaratory Act 
was passed. In the colonies Pitt was praised, as a 
deliverer. Statues of him were placed in the streets, 
pictures of him were hung in public halls. But, in 
reality, the passage of the Declaratory Act was the 
beginning of more trouble. 

114. The Townshend Acts, 1767. — The Rocking- 
ham ministers did what Mr. Pitt advised them to do. 
He then turned them out and made a ministry of 
his own. He was now Earl of Chatham, and his 
ministry is the Chatham Ministry. The most active 
of the Chatham ministers was Charles Townshend. 
He had the management of the finances and found 
them very hard to manage. So he hit upon a scheme 
of laying duties on wine, oil, glass, lead, painter's 
colors, and tea imported into the colonies. Mr. Pitt 
had said that Parliament could regulate colonial trade. 
The best way to regulate trade was to tax it. At the 
same time that Townshend brought in this bill, he 
brought in others to reorganize the colonial customs 
service and make it possible to collect the duties. He 
even provided that offences against the revenue laws 
should be tried by judges appointed directly by the 
king, without being submitted to a jury of any kind. 

1767] TJie TownsJiend Acts 83 

115. Colonial Opposition, 1768. — Many years be- The Sugar 


fore this, Parliament had made a law taxing all sugar 

brought into the continental colonies, except sugar 

that had been made in the British West Indies. Had 

this law been carried out, the trade of Massachusetts 

and other New England colonies would have been 

ruined. But the law was not enforced. No one 

tried to enforce it, except during the few months of 

vigor at the time of the arguments about writs of 

assistance. As the taxes were not collected, no 

one cared whether they were legal or not. Now it Enforcement 

was plain that this tax and the Townshend duties gationActs. 

were to be collected. The Massachusetts House of 

Representatives drew up a circular letter to the 

other colonial assemblies asking them to join in 

opposing the new taxes. The British government 

ordered the House to recall the letter. It refused 

and was dissolved. The other colonial assemblies 

were directed to take no notice of the circular letter. 

They replied at the first possible moment and were 


116. The New Customs Officers at Boston, 1768. — 
The chief office of the new customs organization was 
fixed at Boston. Soon John Hancock's sloop. Liberty, 
sailed into the harbor with a cargo of Madeira wine. 

As Hancock had no idea of paying the duty, the Seizure of 
customs officers seized the sloop and towed her under uberty, 1768. 
the guns of a warship which was in the harbor. 
Crowds of people now collected. They could not 
recapture the Liberty. They seized one of the war- 


Tiixation luitJwui Rcprcscntatioii [§§ 116-119 

ship's boats, carried it to the Common, and had a 
famous bonfire. All this confusion frightened the 
chief customs officers. They fled to the castle in the 
harbor and wrote to the government for soldiers to 
protect them. 

tation Agree- 
ments, 1769. 

"*^— ..ssi^. 

O.NI-: UK John Hancock's BiLL-niiAUS. 

117. The Virginia Resolves of 1769. — Parliament 
now asked the king to have colonists, accused of certain 
crimes, brought to England for trial. This aroused 
the Virginians. They passed a set of resolutions, 
known as the Virginia Resolves of 1769. These re- 
solves asserted : ( i ) that the colonists only had the 
right to tax the colonists ; (2) that the colonists had 
the right to j^ctition either by themselves or with the 
people of other colonies; and (3) that no colonist 
ought to be sent to England for trial. 

118. Non-Importation Agreements, 1769. — When 
he learned what was going on, the governor of Vir- 
ginia dissolved the assembly. But the members met 
in the Raleigh tavern near by. There George Wash- 
ington laid before them a written agreement to no 
British goods upon which duties had been paid. They 
all signed this agreement. Soon the other colonies 


No7i-Importation Agreements 


The Raleigh Tavern. 

joined Virginia in the Non-Importation Agreement. 
English merchants found their trade growing smaller 
and smaller. They 
could not even collect 
their debts, for the 
colonial merchants 
said that trade in the 
colonies was so up- 
set by the Townshend 
Acts that they could 
not sell their goods, 
or collect the money 

owing to them. The British merchants petitioned 
Parliament to repeal the duties, and Parliament an- 
swered them by repealing all the duties except the 
tax on tea. 



119. The Soldiers at New York and Boston. — 

Soldiers had been stationed at New York ever since 
the end of the French war. because that was the most 
central point on the coast. The New Yorkers did 
not like to have the soldiers there very well, because 
Parliament expected them to supply the troops with 
certain things without getting any money in return. 
The New York Assembly refused to supply them, and 
Parliament suspended the Assembly's sittings. In Soldiers sent 
1768 two regiments came from New York to Boston 1768. 
to protect the customs officers. 

Partial repeal 
of the Town- 
shend Acts, 

The British 
soldiers at 
New York. 


Revolution Impending 

[§§ 120-123 

The Boston 







Town Com- 
mittees of 

120. The Boston Massacre, 1770. — There were 
not enough soldiers at Boston to protect the customs 
officers — if the colonists really wished to hurt them. 
There were quite enough soldiers at Boston to get 
themselves and the colonists into trouble. On 
March 5, 1770, a crowd gathered around the soldiers 
stationed on King's Street, now State Street. There 
was snow on the ground, and the boys began to throw 
snow and mud at the soldiers. The crowd grew 
bolder. Suddenly the soldiers fired on the people. 
They killed four colonists and wounded several more. 
Led by Samuel Adams, the people demanded the 
removal of the soldiers to the fort in the harbor. 

Hutchinson was now 
governor. He offered 
to send one regiment 
out of the town. "All 
or none," said Adams, 
and all were sent 

The true. Sons of Ubtrty 

And Supporters of the Non-Importation 

ARE determined to relent any the Icaft 
Infult or Menace offciJ to any one or 
more of the fcvcral C'omniittcc5 ap- 
pointed by the Bpdy at.Fancuil-Hall, and 
thaftifc any one (5c. more of them as th<.-)- 
Hcfcne -, and will alfo fiipport the Printers 
in ony Thing the Comniittics ffiall dclixe 
tbcm to print. 

'^e^Fti Wamingpitany one that (hall 
alfixint a^ afqiAid. upon (lire Infor- 
m:ition git'eo, one.of tbefc AdvertiTc- 
mcnt( will Iw pof^r*! up at the Door 
or D ." •• ' r ehc OB'eoder. 


Committees of 
Correspondence. — Up 
to this time the resist- 
ance of the colonists 
had been carried on 
in a haphazard sort 
of way. Now Com- 
mittees of Correspondence began to be appointed. 
These committees were of two kinds. First there 
were town Committees of Correspondence. These 


1769] Committees of Correspondence Sy 

were invented by Samuel Adams and were first ap- 
pointed in Massachusetts. But more important were 
the colonial Committees of Correspondence. The first Colonial 
of these was appointed by Virginia in 1 769. At first o "coTre-^^^ 

few colonies followed Massachusetts and Virginia in spondence, 

appointing committees. But as one act of tyranny 

succeeded another, other colonies fell into line. By 
1775 all the colonies were united by a complete sys- 
tem of Committees of Correspondence. 

122. The Tea Tax. — Of all the Townshend duties The tax 
only the tax on tea was left. It happened that the McMaster 
British East India Company had tons of tea in its ^^9- 
London storehouses and was greatly in need of money. 

The government told the company that it might send 
tea to America without paying any taxes in England, 
but the three-penny colonial tax would have to be paid 
in the colonies. In this way the colonists would get 
their tea cheaper than the people of England. But 
the colonists were not to be bribed into paying the 
tax in any such way. The East India Company sent 
over ship-loads of tea. The tea ships were either 
sent back again or the tea was stored in some safe 
place where no one could get it. 

123. The Boston Tea Party, 1773. — In Boston Boston Tea 
things did not go so smoothly. The agents of the ///^^/^^JJf' 
East India Company refused to resign. The col- 171-173; 


lector of the customs refused to give the ships per- x(is\*Source- 
mission to sail away before the tea was landed. "" ' ^^''" 
Governor Hutchinson refused to give the ship cap- 
tains a pass to sail by the fort until the collector gave 

88 Revolution Impoiding [§§ 123-127 

his permission. The commander at the fort refused 
to allow the ships to sail out of the harbor until they 
had the necessary papers. The only way to get rid 
of the tea was to destroy it. A party of patriots, 
dressed as Indians, went on board of the ships as 
they lay at the wharf, broke open the tea boxes, and 
threw the tea into the harbor. 
Repressive 124. Punishment of Massachusetts, 1774- — The 

acts 1774. Bi-itish king, the British government, and the mass 

Mc Master, '^' " 

120. of the British people were furious when they found 

that the Boston people had made "tea with salt 

water." Parliament at once went to work passing 

acts to punish the colonists. One act put an end to 

the constitution of Massachusetts. Another act closed 

the port of Boston so tightly that the people could 

not bring hay from Charlestown to give to their 

starving horses. A third act provided that soldiers 

who fired on the people should be tried in England. 

And a fourth act compelled the colonists to feed 

and shelter the soldiers employed to punish them. 

The colonists 125. Sympathy with the Bostonians. — King 

chlis'l^tJ.'''' Cieorgc thought he could punish the Massachusetts 

n,,^ghiwn, people as much as he wished without the people 

of the other colonies objecting. It soon appeared 

that the people of the other colonies sympathized 

most heartily with the Bostonians. They sent them 

GeorRe shccp and rice. They sent them clothes. George 

Washington. Washington was now a rich man. He offered to 

raise a thousand men with his own money, march 

with them to Boston, and rescue the oppressed people 

1774] Repressive Acts 89 

from their oppressors. But the time for war had not 
yet come although it was not far off. 

126. The Quebec Act, 1774. — In the same year The Quebec 
that ParHament passed the four acts to punish Massa- 
chusetts, it passed another act which affected the 

people of other colonies as well as those of Massa- 
chusetts. This was the Quebec Act. It provided 
that the land between the Ohio, the Mississippi, and 
the Great Lakes should be added to the Province of 
Quebec. Now this land was claimed by Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
Virginia. These colonies were to be deprived of 
their rights to land in that region. The Quebec Act 
also provided for the establishment of a very strong 
government in that province. This seemed to be an 
attack on free institutions. All these things drove 
the colonists to unite. They resolved to hold a con- 
gress where the leaders of the several continental 
colonies might talk over matters and decide what 
should be done. 

127. The First Continental Congress, 1774. — The The First 
members of the Continental Congress met in Carpen- congress, 
ter's Hall, Philadelphia, in September, 1774. Never, ^774- 
except in the Federal Convention (p. 137), have so 

many great men met together. The greatest delega- 
tion was that from Virginia. It included George 
Washington, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee. 
From Massachusetts came the two Adamses, John 
and Samuel. From New York came John Jay. 
From Pennsylvania came John Dickinson. Of all 


Revolittion h)ipi)uiing [§§ 1 27-131 

the greatest Americans only Thomas Jefferson and 
Benjamin FrankUn were absent. 

128. The American Association, 1774. — It soon 
became clear that the members of the Congress were 
opposed to any hasty action. They were not willing 
to begin war with Great Britain. Instead of so 

CARrENTKKS IlAI.I,, I'lUl.ADKLl'll l.\, 

doing they adopted a Declaration of Rights and 
formed the American Association. The Declaration ] 
of Rights was of slight importance. But the Associa- 
tion was of great importance, as the colonies joining 
it agreed to buy no more British goods. This policy 
was to be carried out by the Committees of Corre- 
spondence. Any colony refusing to join the Associa- 

1774] TJie American Association 91 

tion should be looked upon as hostile '* to the liberties 
of this country," and treated as an enemy. The 
American Association was the real beginning of the 
American Union. 

129. The Association carried out, 1774-75. — It Resistance 
was soon evident that Congress in forming the Asso- Jhe°coion^es 
elation had done precisely what the people wished to 1774-75- 
have done. For instance, in Virginia committees 

were chosen in every county. They examined the 
merchants' books. They summoned before them 
persons suspected of disobeying " the laws of Con- 
gress." Military companies were formed in every 
county and carried out the orders of the committees. 
The ordinary courts were entirely disregarded. In 
fact, the royal government had come to an end in 
the Old Dominion. 

130. More Punishment for Massachusetts, 1774-75. Parliament 
— George III and his ministers refused to see that Massachu- 

the colonies were practically united. On the con- setts, 1774- 

trary, they determined to punish the people of Mas- 
sachusetts still further. Parliament passed acts 
forbidding the Massachusetts fishermen to catch fish 
and forbidding the Massachusetts traders to trade 
with the people of Virginia, Pennsylvania, South 
Carolina, and all foreign countries. The Massachu- 
setts colonists were rebels, they should be treated as 
rebels. General Gage was given more soldiers and 
ordered to crush the rebellion. 

131. Gage in Massachusetts, 1774-75. — General General 
Gage found he had a good deal to do before he ^^^' 


Revolution Ivipcnding 

[§§ i3i-»32 

Opposed by 
the Massa- 

could begin to crush the rebellion. He had to find 
shelter for his soldiers. He also had to find food 
for them. The Boston carpenters would not work 
for him. He had to bring carpenters from Halifax 
and New York to do his work. The farmers of 
eastern Massachusetts were as firm as the Boston 
carpenters. They would not sell food to General 
Gage. So he had to bring food from England and 
from Halifax. He managed to buy or seize wood to 
warm the soldiers and hay to feed his horses. But 
the boats bringing these supplies to Boston were con- 
stantly upset in a most unlooked-for way. The 
colonists, on their part, elected a Provincial Congress 
to take the place of the regular government. The 
militia was reorganized, and military .stores gathered, 

132. Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775. — 
Gage had said that with ten thousand men he could 
march all over Massachusetts. In April, 1775, he 
began to crush the rebellion by sending a strong 
force to Concord to destroy .stores which his spies 
told him had been collected there. The soldiers 
began their march in the middle of the night. But 
Paul Revere and William Dawes were before them. 
"The regulars are coming," was the cry. At Lex- 
ington, the British found a few militiamen drawn 
up on the village green. Some one fired and a few 
Americans were killed. On the British marched to 
Concord. By this time the militiamen had gathered 
in large numbers. It was a hot day. The regulars 


Lexington and Concord 


were tired. They stopped to rest. Some of the 
miUtiamen attacked the regulars at Concord, and 
when the British started on their homeward march, the 
fighting began in earnest. Behind every wall and 

S^lfi Sarjli&j^ A (S^i/iSi? ./«;<».■ 

April 19, 1775, drawn and engraved by Two Men who took Part in the Action. 

Reproduced through the courtesy of Rev. E. G. Porter. 

bit of rising ground were militiamen. One soldier 
after another was shot down and left behind. At 
Lexington the British met reenforcements, or they 
Would all have been killed or captured. Soon they 
started again. Again the fighting began. It con- 
tinued until the survivors reached a place of safety 

94 Colonial Union 

under the guns of the warships anchored off Charles- 
town. The Americans camped for the night at Cam- 
bridge and began the siege of Boston. 


Chaffer i i 

§ 103. — a. Name some instances which illustrate England's early 
policy toward its colonies. 

b. Explain the later change of policy, giving reasons for it. 

§§ 104, 105. — a. What reasons did Otis give for his opposition to 
the writs of assistance ? Why are such writs prohibited by the Con- 
stitution of the United States ? 

b. What is a veto ? What right had the King of Great Britain to 
veto a Virginia law ? Which side really won in the Parson's Cause ? 

§ 106. — What colonies claimed land west of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains ? How did the king interfere with these claims ? 

Chaitkr 12 

§§ 107-109. — a. What reasons were given for keeping an army in 
America ? 

b. What is meant by saying that Parliament was " the supreme 
power in the British Empire " ? 

c. Is a stamp tax a good kind of tax ? 

d. Explain carefully the colonists' objections to the Stamp Act of 
1765. Do the same objections hold against the present Stamp tax ? 

§§ UO-113. — a. E.xplain the difference between the Stamp Act 
Congress and the earlier Congress. 

b. What did the Stamp Act Congress do ? 

c. Give an account of Franklin. What did Franklin say about the 
feeling in the colonies ? 

d. Explain carefully the causes wiiich led to the repeal of the Stamp ■ 

Questions and Topics 95 

e. Can the taxing power and the legislative power be separated ? 
What is the case to-day in your own state ? In the United States ? 

§§ 114-116. — a. How did Townshend try to raise money? How 
did this plan differ from the Stamp tax ? 

b. What was the Massachusetts Circular Letter ? Why was it im- 
portant ? 

c. What was the result of the seizure of the Liberty ? 

§§ 117, 118. — a. What were the Virginia Resolves of 1769 ? Why 
were they passed ? 

b. What were the Non-importation agreements ? 

c. What action did the British merchants take ? What results fol- 
lowed ? 

Chapter 13 

§§ 119, 120. — a. Why were the soldiers stationed at New York ? 
At Boston ? 

b. Describe the trouble at Boston. Why is it called a massacre ? 

§§ 121-123. — a. What was the work of a Committee of Correspond- 
ence ? 

b. What did the British government hope to accomplish in the tea 
business ? Why did the colonists refuse to buy the tea ? 

c. Why was the destruction of the tea at Boston necessary ? 

§§ 124-126. — a. How did Parliament punish the colonists of Massa- 
chusetts and Boston ? Which of these acts was most severe ? Why ? 

b. What effect did these laws have on Massachusetts ? On the 
other colonies ? 

c. Explain the provisions of the Quebec Act. 

d. How would this act affect the growth of the colonies ? 

§§ 127-129. — a. What was the object of the Continental Congress ? 

b. Why was the Association so important ? 

c. How was the idea of the Association carried out ? 

d. What government did the colonies really have ? 

§§ 130-132. — a. What is a rebel ? Were the Massachusetts colo- 
nists rebels ? 

b. Describe General Gage's difficulties. 

c. What was the result of Gage's attempt to seize the arms at Con- 
cord ? 

96 Colonial Union 

General Questions 

a. Arrange, with dates, all the acts of the British government which 
offended the colonists. 

/'. Arrange, with dates, all the important steps which led toward 
union. Why are these steps important ? 

c. Give the chief causes of the Revolution and explain why you 
select these. 

Topics for Special Work 

a. The early life of Benjamin Franklin {Franklin^s Autobiography). 

b. The early life of George Washington (Scudder's IVashingloti). 

c. The Boston Tea Party (Fiske's War of Independence). 

d. The Nineteenth of April, 1775 (Fiske's War of Independence; 
Lossing's Field- Book), 

Suggestions to the Teacher 

This section is not only the most important but the most difficult of 
any so far considered. Its successful teaching requires more prepara- 
tion than any earlier section. The teacher is advised carefully to 
peruse Channing's Students^ History, ch. iv., and to state in simple, 
clear language, the difference between the ideas on representation 
which prevailed in England and in the colonies. Another point to 
make clear is the legal supremacy of Parliament. The outbreak was 
hastened by the stupid use of legal rights which the supremacy of 
Parliament placed in the hands of Britain's rulers, who acted often 
in defiance of the real public opinion of the mass of the inhabitants of 
Great Britain. 



Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Fiske's War of Independence ; Higginson's 
Larger History, 249-293; McMaster's With the Fathers. 

Home Readings. — Scudder's Washington ; Holmes's Grand- 
viot]ier''s Story of Bunker Hill ; Cooper's Lionel Lincoln (Bunker 
Hill) ; Cooper's Spy (campaigns around New York) ; Cooper's 
Pilot (the war on the sea) ; Drake's Burgoy7ie''s Invasion ; Coffin's 
Boys of ''76; Abbot's Blue fackets of ''•jb; Abbot's Paul f ones ; 
Lossing's Two Spies. 


133. Advantages of the British. — At first sight Advantages 
it seems as if the Americans were very fooHsh to ° * ^ ""^ ' 
fight the British. There were five or six times as 
many people in the British Isles as there were in the 
continental colonies. The British government had 
a great standing army. The Americans had no 
regular army. The British government had a great 
navy. The Americans had no navy. The British gov- 
ernment had quantities of powder, guns, and cloth- 
H 97 


Bunkiy Hill to Trenton 

L§§ ^y:>-^i^ 

ing, while the Americans had scarcely any military 
stores of any kind. Indeed, there were so few guns 
in the colonies that one British officer thought if the 
few colonial gunsmiths could be bribed to go away, 
the Americans would have no guns to fight with 
after a few months of warfare. 

134. Advantages of the Americans. — All these 

things were clearly against the Americans. But 

they had some advantages on their side. In the 

first place, America was a long way off from Europe. 

I It was very difficult and very 

jl^ l^L ^^I^^^^ costly to send armies to 

Ip^l^BpiHH^^^^Hi America, and very difficult 

Jl^!^^^^^^^^~J and very costly to feed the 

^■Hlllll^HlllHliHH soldiers when they were 

^^^^^^'^'^'^^^^"^ fighting in America. In the 
" Grand Union Flag. , , , » 

second place, the Americans 

Hoisted at Cambridge, January, 

1776. The British Union and USUally foUght On the dcfcn- 
thirteen stripes. . , , 

sive and the country over 
which the armies fought was made for defense. In 
New England hill succeeded hill. In the Middle 
states river succeeded river. In the South wilderness 
succeeded wilderness. In the third place, the Ameri- 
cans had many great soldiers. Washington, Greene, 
Arnold, Morgan, and Wayne were better soldiers 
than any in the l-5ritish army. 

135. Disunion among the Americans. — We are apt 
to think of the colonists as united in the contest 
with the British. In reality the well-to-do, the 
well-born, and the well-educated colonists were as 


CJiaracter of the War 


The Siege of Boston. 

a rule opposed to independence. The opponents of 
the Revolution were strongest in the Carolinas, and 
were weakest in New England. 


Ihnikir Hill to Troiton 

[§§ 136-138 

Boston anil 
hood, 1775- 

of Dorchester 
and Charles- 

136. Siege of Boston. — It was most fortunate that 
the British army was at Boston when the war began, 
for Boston was about as bad a place for an army as 
could be found. In those days Boston was hardly 
more than an island connected with the mainland 
by a strip of gravel. Gage built a fort across this 
strip of, ground. The Americans could not get in. 
But they built a fort at the landward end, and the 
British could not get out. On either side of Boston 
was a similar peninsula. One of these was called 
Dorchester Heights ; the other was called Charles- 
town. Both overlooked Boston. To hold that town, 
Gage must possess both Dorchester and Charlestown. 
If the Americans could occupy only one of these, the 
British would have to abandon Boston. At almost the 
same moment Gage made up his mind to seize Dor- 
chester, and the Americans determined to occupy the 
Charlestown hills. The Americans moved first, and 
the first battle was fought for the Charlestown hills. 

137. Bunker Hill, June 17, 1775. — When the 
seamen on the British men-of-war waked up on the 

morning of 
June 17, the 
first thing they 
saw was a re- 
doubt on the 
top of one of 
the Charles- 
But in spite of 
the balls Colonel Prescott walked on the top of the 


town hills. The ships opened fire. 

1775] Bunker Hill lOl 

breastwork while his men went on digging. Gage Battle of 

sent three or four thousand men across the Charles ^^^ ^^ ' ' 

River to Charlestown to drive the daring Americans tJigginson, 

away. It took the whole mornmg to get them to McMaster, 

Charlestown, and then they had to eat their dinner. ^^9-130- 

This delay gave the Americans time to send aid to 

Prescott. Especially went Stark and his New 

Hampshire men, who posted themselves behind a 

breastwork of fence rails and hay. At last the 

British soldiers marched to the attack. When they 

came within good shooting distance, Prescott gave 

the word to fire. The British line stopped, hesitated, 

broke, and swept back. Again the soldiers marched 

to the attack, and again they were beaten back. 

More soldiers came from Boston, and a third time 

a British line marched up the hill. This time it 

could not be stopped, for the Americans had no 

more powder. They had to give up the hill and 

escape as well as they could. One-half of the British 

soldiers actually engaged in the assaults were killed 

or wounded. The Americans were defeated. But 

they were encouraged and were willing to sell Gage 

as many hills as he wanted at the same price. 

138. Washington in Command, July, 1775. — The 

Continental Congress was again sitting at Philadel- Washington 

phia. It took charge of the defense of the colonies. *^'^^^ '^°^' 

" mand of the 

John Adams named Washington for commander-in- army, 1775. 
chief, and he was elected. Washington took com- jss'-iq^ ' 
mand of the army on Cambridge Common, July 3, 
1775. He found everything in confusion. The sol- 


Blinker Hill to Tntiton 

[§§ 138-139 

;Kaw filling for t, 

dicrs of one colony were jealous of the soldiers of 
other colonies. Officers \vho had not been promoted 
were jealous of those who had been promoted. In 
the winter the army had to be made over. During 
all this time the people expected Washington to 

fight. But he 

TA^ fo^ rS^ . '^^^^ ^^^^ powder 

enough for half 
a battle. At 
last he got sup- 
plies in the fol- 
lowing way. In 
the spring of 
1775 P2than 
Allen and his 
Green Moun- 
tain Boys, with 
the help of the 
people of west- 
ern Massachu- 
setts and Con- 
necticut, had 
captured Ti- 
conderoga and 
Crown Point. These forts were filled with cannon 
and stores left from the French campaigns. Some 
of the cannon were now dragged by oxen over the 
snow and placed in the forts around Boston. Captain 
Manley, of the Massachusetts navy, captured a British 
brig loaded with powder. Washington now could 


In the ilarbour of i? /=: % ^ i 


A (treug, good T^fTjl foi tliai purjwf.' *i i<I .1 prime Oiler. 
. Aay Seamen or Laudaien tliM liavie an incUniitiav to 

Make their Fortunes in a few Months, 

M-y han »PpJ>orruiuty^.t)v .If plying ta. - 



1''ac-.slmii,l: uk a Kiaulltiunakv Poster. 


Siege of Boston 


attack. He seized and held Dorchester Heights. Evacuation 

The British could no longer stay in Boston. 

went on board their ships and sailed away (March, 


r-t^-L of Boston, 

They ,^^g. 

Site of Ticonderoga. 

139. Invasion of Canada, 1775-76. — While the The Canada 

, . . J expedition, 

siege of Boston was going on, the Americans under- 1775-75. 
took the invasion of Canada. There were very few 
regular soldiers in Canada in 1775, and the Cana- 
dians were not likely to fight very hard for their 
British masters, So the leaders in Congress thought 


Ihuikcr Hill to Trenton 

[§§ 139-140 

StrenRlh of 

that if an American force should suddenly appear 
before Quebec, the town might surrender. Mont- 
gomery, with a small army, was sent to capture 
Montreal and then to march down the St. Lawrence to 
Quebec. Benedict Arnold led another force through 
the Maine woods. After tremendous exertions and ter- 
rible sufferings he reached Quebec. But the garrison 

had been warned of his 
coming. He blockaded the 
town and waited for Mont- : 
gomery. The garrison was \ 
constantly increased, for 
Arnold \vas not strong 
enough fully to blockade 
the town. At last Mont- 
gomery arrived. At night, 
amidst a terrible snow- 
storm, Montgomery and 
Arnold led their brave fol- 
lowers to the attack. Thev 
were beaten back with 
cruel loss. Montgomery 
was killed, and Arnold was severely wounded. In 
the spring of 1776 the survivors of this little band 
of heroes were rescued — at the cost of the lives of 
five thousand American soldiers. 

140. British Attack on Charleston, 1776. — In June 
1 776 a British fleet and army made an attack on 
Charleston, South Carolina. This town has never 
been taken by attack from the sea. Sand bars guard 

•Ak.noi.d's March. 


Canada and Charleston 






Success of 
the defense. 

the entrance of the harbor and the channels through 
these shoals lead directly to the end of Sullivan's 
Island. At that point the Americans built a fort of Fort 
palmetto logs and sand. General Moultrie com- 
manded at the fort and it was named in his honor, 
Fort Moultrie. The British fleet sailed boldly in, but Attack on 
the balls from the 
ships' guns were 
stopped by the soft 
palmetto logs. At 
one time the flag 
was shot away and 
fell down outside 
the fort. But 
Sergeant Jasper 
rushed out, seized 
the broken staff, 
and again set it up 
on the rampart. 
Meantime, General 
Clinton had landed 
on an island and 
was trying to cross 

with his soldiers to the further end of Sullivan's 
Island. But the water was at first too shoal for the 
boats. The soldiers jumped overboard to wade. 
Suddenly the water deepened, and they had to jump 
aboard to save themselves from drowning. All this 
time Americans were firing at them from the beach. 
General Clinton ordered a retreat. The fleet also 

General Moultrie. 


Bimkcr Hill to Trenton 

[§§ 141-143 

Defense of 
New York, 


sailed out — all that could get away — and the whole 
expedition was abandoned. 

141. Long Island and Brooklyn Heights, 1776. — 
The very day that the British left Boston, Washing- 
ton ordered five regiments to New York. For he 
well knew that city would be the next point of at- 
tack. But he need not have been in such a hurry. 
General Howe, the new British commander-in-chief, 

sailed first to Hali- 
fax and did not be- 
gin the campaign 
in New York until 
the end of August. 
He then landed his 
soldiers on Long 
Island and pre- 
pared to drive the 
Americans away. 
Marching in a 
round-about way, 
he cut the Ameri- 

Battieof can army in two and captured one part of it. This 
i^ng Island. i^j-Qught him to the foot of Brooklyn Heights. On 
the top was a fort. Probably Howe could easily have 
captured it. But he had led in the field at Bunker 
Hill and had had enough of attacking forts defended 
by Americans. So he stopped his soldiers — with 
Escape of the some difficulty. That night the wind blew a gale, 
and the next day was foggy. The British fleet could 
not sail into the East River. Skillful fishermen safely 


1776] Long Island 1 07 

ferried the rest of the American army across to New 
York. When at length the British marched to the 
attack, there was no one left in the fort on Brooklyn 

142. From the Hudson to the Delaware, 1776. — Retreat from 
Even now with his splendid fleet and great army 

Howe could have captured the Americans. But 
he delayed so long that Washington got away in 
safety. Washington's army was now fast breaking 
up. Soldiers deserted by the hundreds. A severe 
action at White Plains only delayed the British ad- 
vance. The fall of Fort Washington on the end of 
Manhattan Island destroyed all hope of holding any- 
thing near New York. Washington sent one part of 
his army to secure the Highlands of the Hudson. 
With the other part he retired across New Jersey to Washington 
the southern side of the Delaware River. The end Delaware, 
of the war seemed to be in sight. In December, 
1776, Congress gave the sole direction of the war 
to Washington and then left Philadelphia for a place 
of greater safety. 

143. Trenton, December 26, 1776. — Washington Battle of 
did not give up. On Christmas night, 1776, he ^^^g ' 
crossed the Delaware with a division of his army. f^''gg"'fo»< 

2D2, ; "e7o 

A violent snowstorm was raging, the river was full Tales, 45-55. 
of ice. But Washington was there in person, and 
the soldiers crossed. Then the storm changed to sleet 
and rain. But on the soldiers marched. When the 
Hessian garrison at Trenton looked about them next 
morning they saw that Washington and Greene held 


Blinker Uill to Trenton 

[§§ 143-145 

the roads leading inland from the town. Stark and 

a few soldiers — among them James Monroe — held 

the bridge leading 

over the Assanpink 

to the next British 

post. A few horse- 
men escaped before Str 

could prevent them. But all 

the foot soldiers were killed or 

captured. A few days later nearly 

one thousand prisoners marched 

through Philadelphia. They were Germans, who had 

been sold by their rulers to Britain's king to fight 

his battles. They 
were called Hes- 
sians by the Ameri- 
cans because most 
of them came from 
the little German 
state of Hesse 

144. Princeton, 
January, i777- — 
Trenton saved the 
Revolution by giv- 
ing the Americans 
renewed courage. 
General Howe 



sent Lord Cornwallis with a strong force to destroy 
the Americans. Washington with the main part of 

1777] Princeton 109 

his army was now encamped on the southern side 
of the Assanpink. Cornwallis was on the other 
bank at Trenton. Leaving a few men to keep up 
the campfires, and to throw up a sHght fort by the 
bridge over the stream, Washington led his army 
away by night toward Princeton. There he found 
several regiments hastening to Cornwallis. He drove 
them away and led his army to the highlands of New 
Jersey where he would be free from attack. The 
British abandoned nearly all their posts in New 
Jersey and retired to New York. 



145. Growth of the Spirit of Independence. — Rising spirit 
The year 1776 is even more to be remembered for o^'^'iepend- 

-' ' ' ence, 1775- 

the doings of Congress than it is for the doings 76. 
of the soldiers. The colonists loved England. 
They spoke of it as home. They were proud of 
the strength of the British empire, and glad to 
belong to it. But their feelings rapidly changed 
when the British government declared them to be 
rebels, made war upon them, and hired foreign 
soldiers to kill them. They could no longer be 
subjects of George III. That was clear enough. 
They determined to declare themselves to be inde- 
pendent. Virginia led in this movement, and the 
chairman of the Virginia delegation moved a reso- 

I 10 

T)tc Gnat Declaration 

[§§ 146-147 

lution of independence. A committee was appointed 
to draw up a declaration. 

146. The Declaration of Independence, July 4, 
iyy6. — The most important members of this com- 
mittee were Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and 
Thomas Jefferson. Of these Jefferson was the 
youngest, and the least known. But he had al- 
ready drawn up a remarkable paper called A 
Summary Vieiv of the Rights of British America. 
The others asked him to write out a declaration. 

He sat down without book 
or notes of any kind, and 
wrote out the Great Decla- 
ration in almost the same 
form in which it now stands. 
The other members of the 
committee proposed a few 
changes, and then reported 
the declaration to Congress. 
There was a fierce debate in Congress over the 
adoption of the Virginia resolution for independence. 
But finally it was adopted. Congress then examined 
the Declaration of Independence as reported by the 
committee. It made a few changes in the words and 
struck out a clause condemning the slave-trade. The 
first paragraph of the Declaration contains a short, 
clear statement of the basis of the American sys- 
tem of government. It should be learned by heart 
by every American boy and girl, and always kept 
in mind. The Declaration was adopted on July 



First United statks 

Adopted by Congress in 1777. 


Declaration Adopted 




4, 1776. A few copies were printed on July 5, 

with the signatures of John Hancock and Charles signing of 

.-r-i . 1 ^ T , r -~. *he Declara- 

1 horapson, president and secretary of Congress. ^^^^ August 
On August 2, 1776, the Declaration was signed by 2, 1776. 
the members of Congress. 

147. The Loss of Philadelphia, 1777. — For some 
months after the battle of Princeton there was little 
fighting. But in 
the summer of 
1777, Howe set 
out to capture 
Philadelphia. In- 
stead of marching 
across New Jer- 
sey, he placed his 
army on board 
ships, and sailed 
to Chesapeake 
Bay. As soon 
as Washington 
learned what 
Howe was about, 

he marched to Chad's Ford, where the road from 
Chesapeake Bay to Philadelphia crossed Brandywine Battle of 
Creek. Howe moved his men as if about to attempt j^,^ 

to cross the ford. Meantime he sent Cornwallis with McMaster, 

1 • . ^ 137-138. 

a strong force to cross the creek higher up. Corn- 
wallis surprised the right wing of the American army, 
drove it back, and Washington was compelled to 
retreat. Howe occupied Philadelphia and captured 

il // a^eSw^oo''^ 


TJic Great Declaration 

[§§ I47-M9 

Battle of 
town, 1777. 

Tlie army 
at Valley 
Forge, 1777- 


the forts below the city. Washington tried to sur- 
prise a part of the British army which was posted 
at Germantown. But accidents and mist interfered. 
The Americans then retired to Valley Forge — a 
strong place in the hills not far from Philadelphia. 

148. The Army at Valley Forge, 1777-78. — The 
sufferings of the soldiers during the following winter 

can never be over- 
stated. They sel- 
dom had more than 
half enough to eat. 
Their clothes were 
in rags. Many of 
them had no blank- 
ets. Many more had 
no shoes. Wash- 
ington did all he 

From Title-i'age of an Ai,maxac of 1778. 

T , J • f J ■ 1, T5 could do for them. , 

lo show condition of wood-engraving in the Kevo- 

lutionary era. Y>\\t CoUgrCSS had 

no money and could not get any. At Valley Forge* 
the soldiers were drilled by Baron Steuben, a Prussian 
veteran. The army took the field in 1778, weak in 
numbers and poorly clad. But what soldiers there 
were were as good as any soldiers to be found any- 
where in the world. During that winter, also, an 
attempt was made to dismiss Washington from chief 
command, and to give his place to General Gates. 
But this attempt ended in failure. 

149. Burgoyne's March to Saratoga, 1777. — While 
Howe was marching to Philadelphia, General Bur- 


Valley Forge 


goyne was marching south- 
ward from Canada. It had 
been intended that Burgoyne 
and Howe should seize the 
Hne of the Hudson and cut 
New England off from the 
other states. But the orders 
reached Howe too late, and 
he went southward to Phila- 
delphia. Burgoyne, on his 
part, was fairly successful 
at first, for the Americans 
abandoned post after post. 
But when he reached the 
southern end of Lake Cham- 
plain, and started on his 
march to the Hudson, his 
troubles began. The way 
ran through a wilderness. 
General Schuyler had had 
trees cut down across its 
woodland paths and had 
done his work so well that 
it took Burgoyne about a 
day to march a mile and a 
half. This gave the Ameri- 
cans time to gather from all 
quarters and bar his south- 
ward way. But many of 
the soldiers had no faith in 

and Gates. 


The Gnat Declaration 

[§§ 15(^154 

Battle of 



Hero Tales, 


Battle of 



I''irst battle 
of Freeman's 
Farm, 1777. 

Schuyler and Congress gave the command to General 
Horatio Gates. 

150. Bennington, 1777. — Biirgoyne had with him 
many cavahymcn. But they had no horses. The 
army, too, was sadly in need of food. So Burgoyne 
sent a force of dismounted dragoons to Bennington 
in southern Vermont to seize horses and food. It 
happened, however, that General Stark, with soldiers 
from New Hampshire, Vermont, and western Massa- 
chusetts, was nearer Bennington than Burgoyne sup- 
posed. They killed or captured all the British soldiers. 
They then drove back with great loss a second party 
which Burgoyne had sent to support the first one. 

151. Oriskany, 1777. — Meantime St. Leger, with 
a large body of Indians and Canadian frontiersmen, 
was marching to join Burgoyne by the way of Lake 
Ontario and the Mohawk Valley. Near the site of 
the present city of Rome in New York was Fort 
Schuyler, garrisoned by an American force. St. 
Leger stopped to besiege this fort. The settlers on 
the Mohawk marched to relieve the garrison and St. 
Leger defeated them at Oriskany. But his Indians 
now grew tired of the siege, especially when they 
heard that Arnold with a strong army was coming. 
St. Leger marched back to Canada and left Burgoyne 
to his fate. 

152. Saratoga, 1777. — Marching southward, on 
the western side of the Hudson, Burgoyne and his 
army came upon the Americans in a forest clearing 
called Freeman's Farm. Led by Daniel Morgan 

1777] Burgoyne s Campaign 1 15 

and Benedict Arnold the Americans fought so hard 
that Burgoyne stopped where he was and fortified 
the position. This was on September 19. The 
American army posted itself near by on Bemis' 
Heights. For weeks the two armies faced each 
other. Then, on October 7, the Americans attacked. Second 
Again Arnold led his men to victory. They captured Freeman's 
a fort in the centre of the British line, and Burgoyne ^^^™' ^777' 
was obliged to retreat. But when he reached the 
crossing place of the Hudson, to his dismay he found 
a strong body of New Englanders with artillery on 
the opposite bank. Gates had followed the retiring Surrender 
British, and soon Burgoyne was practically sur- at Saratoga, 
rounded. His men were starving, and on October ^777- 
17 he surrendered. 

153. The French Alliance, 1778. — Burgoyne's 
defeat made the French think that the Americans 
would win their independence. So Dr. Franklin, 

who was at Paris, was told that France would recog- The Treaty 
nize the independence of the United States, would ° g '^"'^'^' 
make treaties with the new nation, and give aid openly. 
Great Britain at once declared war on France. The 
French lent large sums of money to the United 
States. They sent large armies and splendid fleets 
to America. Their aid greatly shortened the struggle 
for independence. But the Americans would proba- 
bly have won without French aid. 

154. Monmouth, 1778. — The first result of the The British 
French alliance was the retreat of the British from Philadelphia, 
Philadelphia to New York. As Sir Henry Clinton, ^778. 


Clark's CcDnpaign 

[§§ 154-156 

the new British commander, led his army across the 
Jerseys, Washington determined to strike it a blow. 
This he did near Monmouth. The attack was a 
failure, owing to the treason of General Charles Lee, 
who led the advance. Washington reached the front 
only in time to prevent a dreadful disaster. But he 
could not bring about victory, and Clinton seized 
the finst moment to continue his march to New York. 
There were other expeditions and battles in the 
North. But none of these had any important effect 
on the outcome of the war. 

155. Clark's Western Campaign, • 1778-79. — The 
Virginians had long taken great interest in the 

western country. 
Their hardy pio- 
neers had crossed 
the mountains and 
begun the settle- 
ment of Kentucky. 
The Virginians 
now determined to 
conquer the British 
posts in the country northwest of the Ohio. The 
command was given to George Rogers Clark. Gather- 
ing a strong band of hardy frontiersmen he set out 
on his dangerous expedition. He seized the posts 
in Illinois, and Vincennes surrendered to him. Then 
the British governor of the Northwest came from 
Detroit with a large force and recaptured Vincennes.] 
Clark set out from Illinois to surprise the British. It 



Clark's Campaign 


was the middle of the winter. In some places the 
snow lay deep on the ground. Then came the early- 
floods. For days the Americans marched in water up 
to their waists. At night they sought some httle hill 
where they could sleep on dry ground. Then on 
again through the flood. They surprised the British 
garrison at Vincennes and forced it to surrender. 
That was the end of the contest for the Northwest. 

West Point in 1790. 

156. Arnold and Andre, 1780. — Of all the leaders Benedict 
under Washington none was abler in battle than 
Benedict Arnold. Unhappily he was always in 
trouble about money. He was distrusted by Con- 
gress and was not promoted. At Saratoga he 



[§§ 156-158 

quarrelled with Gates and was dismissed from his 
command. Later he became military governor of 
Philadelphia and was censured by Washington for 
his doings there. He then secured the command 
of West Point and offered to surrender the post 
to the British. Major Andre, of Clinton's staff, 
met Arnold to arrange the final details. On his re- 
turn journey to New York Andre was arrested and 
taken before Washington. The American com- 
mander asked his generals if Andre was a spy. They 
replied that Andre was a spy, and he was hanged. 
Arnold escaped to New York and became a general 
in the British army. 


157. Fall of Charleston, 1780. — It seemed quite 
certain that Clinton could not conquer the Northern 
states with the forces given him. In the South 
there were many loyalists. Resistance might not 
be so stiff there. At all events Clinton decided to 
attempt the conquest of the South. Savannah was 
easily seized (1778), and the French and Americans 
could not retake it (1779). In the spring of 1780, 
Clinton, with a large army, landed on the coast be- 
tween Savannah and Charleston. He marched over- 
land to Charleston and besieged it from the land 
side. The Americans held out for a long time. 
But they were finally forced to surrender. Clinton 




then sailed back to New York, and left to Lord Corn- 
wallis the further conquest of the Carolinas. 



158. Gates's Defeat at Camden, 1780. — CornwalHs Battle of 
had little trouble in occupying the greater part of j-g'^^ ^"' 
South Carolina. 

LA i 
lf?^=^^ =^ 

Flight nf /AmtrUan, =g^i^^^=^ 

There was no one 
to oppose him, for 
the American army 
had been captured 
with Charleston. 
Another small 
army was got to- 
gether in North 
Carolina and the 
command given to 
Gates, the victor at 
Saratoga. One night both Gates and Cornwallis set 

41^1. J. 

^ ±t ^\ ^ \A i,, ^ ^ ^ ^^-TT^^ OF 

i i J, jA ^ ^ =isj^ J- £ 
M. A. 4pA ft j»_ 

J, A _ft. A it\ 

out to attack the other's camp. The two armies met 



[§§ 158-160 

at daybreak, the British having the best position. 
But this really made little difference, for Gates's 
Virginia militiamen ran away before the British came 
within fighting distance. The North Carolina militia 
followed the Virginians. Only the regulars from 
Maryland and Delaware were left. They fought on 
like heroes until their leader. General John De Kalb, 
fell with seventeen wounds. Then the survivors sur- 
rendered. Gates himself had been carried far to the 
rear by the rush of the fleeing militia. 

159. King's Mountain, October, 1780. — Cornwallis 
now thought that resistance surely was at an end. 
He sent an expedition to the settlements on the 
lower slopes of the Alleghany Mountains to get re- 
cruits, for there were many loyalists in that region. 
Suddenly from the mountains and from the settle- 
ments in Tennessee rode a body of armed frontiers- 
men. They found the British soldiers encamped 
on the top of King's Mountain. In about an hour 
they had killed or captured every British soldier. 

160. The Cowpens, 1781. — General Greene was 
now sent to the South to take charge of the resist- 
ance to Cornwallis. A great soldier and a great 
organizer Greene found that he needed all his abili- 
ties. His coming gave new spirit to the survivors of 
Gates's army. He gathered militia from all direc- 
tions and marched toward Cornwallis. Dividing his 
army into two parts, he sent General Daniel Morgan 
to threaten Cornwallis from one direction, while he 
threatened him from another direction. Cornwallis 

Cape Lookout 

The Southern Campaigns, 




[§§ 160-163 



Battle of 

at once became uneasy and sent Tarleton to drive 
Morgan away, but the hero of many hard-fought 

battles was not 
easily frightened. 
He drew up his 
little force so skill- 
fuUy that in a 
very few minutes 
the British were 
nearly all killed 
or captured. 

161. The Guil- 
ford Campaign, 
1 78 1 . — Corn wal- 
lis now made a 
desperate attempt 
to capture the 
Americans, but 
Greene and Mor- 
gan joined forces and marched diagonally across 
North Carolina. Cornwallis followed so closely that 
frequently the two armies seemed to be one. When, 
however, the river Dan was reached, there was an 
end of marching, for Greene had caused all the boats 
to be collected at one spot. His men crossed and 
kept the boats on their side of the river. Soon Greene 
found himself strong enough to cross the river again 
to North Carolina. He took up a very strong position 
near Guilford Court House. Cornwallis attacked. 
The Americans made a splendid defense before 

Gknkkal Morgan the Hero of Cowpens. 

1781] Greene s Campaigns 123 

Greene ordered a retreat, and the British won the 
battle of Guilford. But their loss was so great that 
another victory of the same kind would have de- 
stroyed the British army. As it was, Greene had 
dealt it such a blow that Cornwallis left his wounded 
at Guilford and set out as fast as he could for the 
seacoast. Greene pursued him for some distance and 
then marched southward to Camden. 

162. Greene's Later Campaigns. — At Hobkirk's Greene's 
Hill, near Camden, the British soldiers who had been ^^T ■ 


left behind by Cornwallis attacked Greene. But he 1781-83. 
beat them, off and began the siege of a fort on the 
frontier of South Carolina. The British then marched 
up from Charleston, and Greene had to fall back. 
Then the British marched back to Charleston and 
abandoned the interior of South Carolina to the 
Americans. There was only one more battle in the 
South — at Eutaw Springs. Greene was defeated 
there, too, but the British abandoned the rest of the 
Carolinas and Georgia with the exception of Savannah 
and Charleston. In these wonderful campaigns with 
a few good soldiers Greene had forced the British 
from the Southern states. He had lost every battle. 
He had won every campaign. 

163. Cornwallis in Virginia, 1781. — There were Lafayette 
already two small armies in Virginia, — the British ^amJ^^gV 
under Arnold, the Americans under Lafayette. 
Cornwallis now marched northward from Wilming- 
ton and added the troops in Virginia to his own 

force; Arnold he sent to New York. Cornwallis 



[§§ 163-166 

The French 
at Newport, 

Plans of the 

allies, 1781. 

The march 
to the 

then set out to capture Lafayette and his men. 
Together they marched from salt water across Virginia 
to the mountains — and then they marched back to 
salt water again. Cornwallis had called Lafayette 
"the boy" and had declared that "the boy should 
not escape him." Finally Cornwallis fortified York- 
town, and Lafayette settled down at Williamsburg. 
And there they still were in September, 1781. 

164. Plans of the Allies. — In 1780 the French 
government had sent over a strong army under Ro- 
chambeau. It was landed at Newport. It remained 
there a year to protect the vessels in which it had 
come from France from capture by a stronger British 
fleet that had at once appeared off the mouth of the 
harbor. Another French fleet and another French 
army were in the West Indies. In the summer of 
1781 it became possible to unite all these French 
forces, and with the Americans to strike a crushing 
blow at the British. Just at this moment Cornwallis 
shut himself up in Yorktown, and it was determinec 
to besiege him there. 

165. Yorktown, September-October, 1781. — Ro-i 
chambeau led his men to New York and joined the 
main American army. Washington now took com-i 
mand of the allied forces. He pretended that h« 
was about to attack New York and deceived Clintom 
so completely that Clinton ordered Cornwallis to sendjl 
some of his soldiers to New York. But the allied- 
were marching southward through Philadelphia be-' 
fore Clinton realized what they were about. The 


Cornwallis in Viro-inia 


French West India fleet under De Grasse reached Combat 
one end of the Chesapeake Bay at the same time prench and 
the alHes reached the other end. The British fleet the British 


attacked it and was beaten off. There was now no 
hope for Cornwallis. No help could reach him by 
sea. The soldiers of the allies outnumbered him two 
to one. On October 17, 1781, four years to a day 




since the surrender of Burgoyne, a drummer boy Surrender of 

appeared on the rampart of Yorktown and beat a October 19, 

parley. Two days later the British soldiers marched ^78i- 

^ ■' ■' Higginson, 

out to the good old British tune of " The world 211-212. 
turned upside down," and laid down their arms. 

166. Treaty of Peace, 1783. — This disaster put Treaty of 
an end to British hopes of conquering America. ^^^^' ^'^ ^' 
But it was not until September, 1783, that Benjamin 

126 hidepetidence [§ i66 

Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay brought the 
negotiations for peace to an end. Great Britain 
acknowledged the independence of the United States. 
The territory of the United States was defined as 
extending from the Great Lakes to the thirty-first 
parallel of latitude and from the Atlantic to the 
Mississippi. Spain had joined the United States 
and France in the war. Spanish soldiers had con- 
quered Florida, and Spain kept Florida at the peace. 
In this way Spanish Florida and Louisiana sur- 
rounded the United States on the south and the 
west. British territory bounded the United States 
on the north and the northeast. 


Chapter 14 

§§ 134-136. — n. Compare the advantages of the British and the 
Americans. Which side had the greater advantages? 

/'. Explain the influence of geographical surroundings upon the war. 
c. Why were there so many loyaHsts? 

§§ '37~'39' — ''• Mold or draw a map of Boston and vicinity and 
explain by it the important points of the siege. 

b. Who won the battle of Bunker Hill? What were the effects of)f 
the battle upon the Americans? Upon the British? 

c. Why was Washington appointed to chief command? 

d. What were the effects of the seizure of Ticonderoga on the siege 
of Boston? 

§§ 140, 141. — a. Why did Congress determine to attack Canada? 
/'. Follow the routes of the two invading armies. What was the 
result of the expedition? 

Questions and Topics I27 

r. Describe the harbor of Charleston. Why did the British attack 
at this point? 
ji. What was the result of this expedition? 

§§ 142, 143. — a. What advantage would the occupation of New 
York give the British? 

b. Describe the Long Island campaign. 

c. Why did Congress give Washington sole direction of the war? 
Who had directed the war before? 

§§ 144, 145. — a. Describe the battle of Trenton. Why is it 

b. Who were the Hessians? 

c. At the close of January, 1777, what places were held by the 

Chapter 15 

§§ 146, 147. — a. What had been the feeling of most of the colonists 
toward England? Why had this feeling changed? 

b. Why was Jefferson asked to write the Declaration? 

c. What great change was made by Congress in the Declaration? 

d. What truths are declared to be self-evident? Are they still self- 

e. What is declared to be the basis of government? Is it still the 
basis of government? 

/ When was the Declaration adopted? When signed? 

§§ 148, 149. — a. Describe Howe's campaign of 1777. 
b. What valuable work was done at Valley Forge ? 

§§ 150-153. — a. What was the object of Burgoyne's campaign? 
Was the plan a wise one from the British point of view? 

b. What do you think of the justice of removing Schuyler? 

c. How did the battle of Bennington affect the campaign ? What 
was the effect of St. Leger's retreat to Canada? 

d. Describe Arnold's part in the battles near Saratoga. 

§§ 154, 155. — a. What was the effect of Burgoyne's surrender on 
Great Britain? On France? On America? 

b. What were the results of the French alliance ? 

c. Describe the battle of Monmo, th. Who was Charles Lee? 

128 Independence 

§ 156. — a. Desciibe Qark's expedition and mark on a map the 
places named. 

b. How did this expedition affect the later growth of the United 

§ 157. — a. Describe Arnold's career as a soldier to 1778. 
/(. What is treason ? 

c. Was there the least injustice in the treatment of Andre? 

Chapter 16 

§§ 15S' '59- — '^- ^^"^y "^^'^ ^'^^ scene of action transferred to the 

b. What places were captured? 

c. Compare the British and American armies at Camden. What 
was the result of this battle ? 

§§ 160-163. — a. Describe the battle of King's Mountain. 

b. What was the result of the battle of the Cowpens? 

c. Follow the retreat of the Americans across North Carolina. What 
events showed Greene's foresight? 

d. What were the results of the battle of Guilford? 

e. Compare the outlook for the Americans in 1781 with that of 1780. 

§§ 164-166. — a. How did the British army get to Yorktown? 
/'. Describe the gathering of the Allied Forces. 
c. Descrilie the surrender and note its effects on America, France, 
and Great Britain. 

§ 167. — a. Where were the negotiations for peace carried on? 

b. Mark on a map the original territory of the United States. 

c. How did Spain get the Floridas? 

General Questions 

a. When did the Revolution begin? When did it end? 

b. Were the colonies independent when the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence was adopted ? 

c. Select any campaign and discuss its objects, plan, the leading 
battles, and the results. 

d. 1m)11ow Washington's movements from 1775-82. 

e. What do you consider the mos* decisive battle of the war? Why? 

Qtiestions and Topics 129 

Topics for Special Work 

a. Naval victories. 

b. Burgoyne's campaign. 

c. Greene as a general. 

d. Nathan Hale. 

e. The peace negotiations. 


The use of map or molding board should be constant during the 
study of this period. Do not spend time on the details of battles, but 
teach campaigns as a whole. In using the molding board the move- 
ments of armies can be shown by colored pins. 

The Declaration of Independence should be carefully studied, espe- 
cially the first portions. Finally, the territorial settlement of 1783 
should be thoroughly explained, using map or molding board. 



Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Higginson's Lan^^er History. 293-308; Fiske's 
Civil Govcnimoit, 186-267; McMaster's With the J-'athers. 

Home Readings. — Fi.ske's Critical Period, 144-231, 306-345; 
Captain Shays : /} Populist of 17S6. 



Disiinionand 167. Problems of Peace. — The war was overi 
*!sfl«rrJ- ^^^ ^^^ future of the American nation was still 
jjooi, 161- uncertain. Indeed, one can hardly say that there 
was an American nation in 1783. While the war 
lasted, a sense of danger bound together the people 
of the different states. But as soon as this peril! 
ceased, their old jealousies and self-seekings came 
back. There was no national government to smoot 
over these differences and to compel the states to ac 
justly toward one another. There was, indeed, th 
Congress of the Confederation, but it is absurd t 
speak of it as a national government. 



1781-88] Weakness of tJie Confederation 131 

168. The Articles of Confederation, 1781. — The Formationof 
Continental Congress began drawing up the Articles ofCon- 

of Confederation in June, 1776. But there were long federation, 
delays, and each month's delay made it more impos- 
sible to form a strong government. It fell out in Weakness of 
this way that the Congress of the Confederation had federa°tbn. 

no real power. It could not make a state or an indi- McMaster, 

. 163. 

vidual pay money or do anything at all. In the 

course of a few years Congress asked the states to 

give it over six million dollars to pay the debts and 

expenses of the United States. It received about 

a miUion dollars and was fortunate to get that. 

169. A Time of Distress. — It is not right to speak Distress 
too harshly of the refusal of the state governments to peop"f, 
give Congress the money it asked for, as the people 

of the states were in great distress and had no money 
to give. As soon as peace was declared British mer- 
chants sent over great quantities of goods. People 
bought these goods, for every one thought that good 
times were coming now that the war was over. But 
the British government did everything it could do to 
prevent the coming of good times. The prosperity 
of the northern states was largely based on a profit- 
able trade with the West Indies. The British govern- 
ment put an end to that trade. No gold and silver 
came to the United States from the West Indies 
while gold and silver constantly went out of the 
country to pay debts due to British merchants. Soon 
gold and silver grew scarce, and those who had any 
promptly hid it. The real reason of all this trouble 

132 The Confederation [§§ 169-173 

was the lack of a strong national government which 
could have compelled the British government to open 
its ports to American commerce. But the people 
only saw that money was scarce and called upon the 
state legislatures to give them paper money. 

i>.,per 170. Paper Money. — Most of the state legislatures 

money. ^j^j what they :yere asked to do. They printed quan- 

tities of paper money. They paid the public expenses 
with it, and sometimes lent it to individuals without 
much security for its repayment. Before long this 
paper money began to grow less valuable. For 
instance, on a certain day a man could buy a bag of 
flour for five dollars. In three months' time a bag 
of flour might cost him ten dollars. Soon it became 
difficult to buy flour for any number of paper dollars. 

Tender laws. 171 Tender Laws. — The people then clamored for 
"tender laws." These were laws which would make 
it lawful for them to tender, or offer, paper money 
in exchange for flour or other things. In some cases 
it was made lawful to tender paper money in pay- 
ments of debts which had been made when gold and 
silver were still in use. The merchants now shut up 
their shops, and business almost ceased. The lawyers 
only were busy. For those to whom money was owed 
tried to get it paid before the paper money became 
utterly worthless. The courts were crowded, and the 
prisons were filled with poor debtors. 

Stay laws. 172. Stay Laws. — Now the cry was for " stay 

laws." These were laws to prevent those to whom 
money was due from enforcing their rights. These 

1781-88] Weakness of the Confederation 


laws promptly put an end to whatever business was 
left The only way that any business could be carried 
on was by barter. For example, a man who had a 
bushel of wheat that he did not want for his family 
would exchange it for three or four bushels of pota- 

State Street, Boston, about 1790. 

The Boston Massacre occurred near where the two-horse wagon stands. 

toes, or for four or five days of labor. In some states 
the legislatures passed very severe laws to compel 
people to receive paper money. In one state, indeed, 
no one could vote who would not receive paper money. 
173. Shays's Rebellion, 1786-87. — In Massachu- 
setts, especially, the discontent was very great. The 
people were angry with the judges for sending men 

Disorder in 


The Co)ifcdcyation 

[§§ 173-176 

to prison who did not pay their debts. Crowds of 
armed men visited the judges and compelled them 
to close the courts. The leader in this movement 
was Daniel Shays. He even threatened to seize the 
United States Arsenal at Springfield. By this time 
Governor Bowdoin and General Lincoln also had 
gathered a small force of soldiers. In the midst of 
winter, through snowstorms and over terrible roads, 
Lincoln marched with his men. He drove Shays 
from place to place, captured his followers, and put 
down the rebellion. There were risings in other 
states, especially in North Carolina. But Shays's 
Rebellion in Massachusetts was the most important 
of them all, because it convinced the New Englanders 
that a stronger national government was necessary. 

174. Claims to Western Lands. — The Confedera- 
tion seemed to be falling to pieces. That it did not 
actually fall to pieces was largely due to the fact that 
all the states were interested in the settlement of the 
region northwest of the Ohio River. It will be well to. 
stop a moment and see how this came about. Under 
their old charters Massachusetts, Connecticut, Vir- 
ginia, Carolina, and Georgia had claims to lands west 
of the Alleghanies. Between 1763 and 1776 the 
British government had paid slight heed to these 
claims (pp. 75, 89). But Daniel Boone and other 
colonists had settled west of the mountains in what 
are now the states of Kentucky and Tennessee. 
When the Revolution began the states having claims 
to western lands at once put them forward, and New 

1781-84] Claims to Western Lands 135 

York also claimed a right to about one-half of the 
disputed territory. Naturally the states that had no 
claims to these lands had quite different views. The 
Marylanders, for example, thought that the western Opposition 
lands should be regarded as national territory and and'of other 
used for the common benefit. Maryland refused to states. 
join the Confederation until New York had ceded 
her claims to the United States, and Virginia had 
proposed a cession of the territory claimed by her. 

175. The Land Cessions. — In 1784 Virginia gave The states 
up her claims to the land northwest of the Ohio River ^Lml tTthe 
with the exception of certain large tracts which she United 


reserved for her veteran soldiers. Massachusetts McMaster, 
ceded her claims in 1785. The next year (1786) ^^^"^ °' 
Connecticut gave up her claims. But she reserved 
a large tract of land directly west of Pennsylvania. 
This was called the Connecticut Reserve or, more 
often, the Western Reserve. South Carolina and 
North Carolina ceded their lands in 1787 and 1790, 
and finally Georgia gave up her claims to western 
lands in 1802. 

176. Passage of the Ordinance of 1787. — What Reasons 
should be done with the lands which in this way had ordinance 
come into the possession of the people of all the 

states .-* It was quite impossible to divide these lands 
among the people of the thirteen states. They never 
could have agreed as to the amount due to each state. 
In 1785 Congress took the first step. It passed a law 
or an ordinance for the government of the Territory 
Northwest of the Ohio River. This ordinance was 


TJic Confederation 

[§§ 17^179 

imperfect, and few persons emigrated to the West. 
There were many persons who wished to emigrate 
from the old states to the new region. But they were 
unwilHng to go unless they felt sure that they would 
not be treated by Congress as the British government 
had treated the people of the original states. Dr. 
Cutler of Massachusetts laid these matters before 
Congress and did his work so well that Congress' 
passed a new ordinance. This was in 1787. The 
ordinance is therefore called the Ordinance of 1787. 
It was so well suited to its purpose that nearly all 
the territories of the United States have been settled 
and governed under its provisions. It will be well to 
study this great document more at length. 

177. The Ordinance of 1787. — In the first place 
the ordinance provided for the formation of one terri- 
tory to be called the Territory Northwest of the Ohio. 
But it is more often called the Northwest Territory 
or simply the Old Northwest. At first it was to be 
governed by the persons appointed by Congress. 
But it was further provided that when settlers should 
arrive in sufficient numbers they should enjoy self- 
government. When fully settled the territory should 
be divided into five states. These should be admitted 
to the Confederation on a footing of equality with the 
original states. The settlers in the territory should 
enjoy full rights of citizenship. Education should 
be encouraged. Slavery should never be permitted. 
This last provision is especially important as it saved 
the Northwest to freedom. In this way a new po- 

1787] Ordinance of I'jS'j 137 

litical organization was invented. It was called a 
territory. It was really a colony; but it differed from 
all other colonies because in time it would become a 
state on a footing of entire equality with the parent 


178. Necessity for a New Government. — At this 
very moment a convention was making a constitution 

to put an end to the Confederation itself. It was w^eakness 
quite clear that something must be done or the states federation.' 
soon would be fighting one another. Attempt after 
attempt had been made to amend the Articles of 
Confederation so as to give Congress more power. 
But every attempt had failed because the consent 
of every state was required to amend the Articles. 
And one state or another had objected to every 
amendment that had been proposed. It was while Meeting of 
affairs were in this condition that the Federal convention 
Convention met at Philadelphia in May, 1787. ^787- 

179. James Madison. — Of all the members of the james 
Convention, James Madison of Virginia best deserves 

the title of Father of the Constitution. He drew up 
the Virginia plan which was adopted as the basis 
of the new Constitution. He spoke convincingly 
for the plan in the Convention. He did more than 
any one else to secure the ratification of the Consti- 
tution by Virginia. He kept a careful set of Notes of 


Making of tJic Constitution [§§ 1 79-181 

the debates of the Convention which show us pre- 
cisely how the Constitution was made. With Alex 
ander Hamilton and John Jay he wrote a series of - 
papers which is called the Federalist and is still the 
best guide to the Constitution. 



JAMI-.^ i\1.a1Mm_».n. 

ton Presi- 
dent of the 

180. Other Fathers of the Constitution. — George 
Washington was chosen President of the Convention. 
He made few speeches. But the speeches that he 
made were very important. And the mere fact that 
he approved the Constitution had a tremendous influ- 
ence throughout the country. The oldest man in the 


The Federal Convention 


Convention was Benjamin Franklin. His long ex- Franklin, 
perience in politics and in diplomacy with his natural 
shrewdness had made him an unrivaled manager of 
men. From all the states came able men. In fact, 
with the exception of John Adams, Samuel Adams, 
Patrick Henry, and Thomas Jefferson, the strongest 
men in political life were in the Federal Conven- 

The Old State House, Philadelphia. 

Meeting place of the Continental Congress and of the Federal Convention — now 
called Independence Hall. 

tion. Never in the history of the world have so 
many great political leaders, learned students of pol- 
itics, and shrewd business men gathered together. 
The result of their labors was the most marvelous 
product of political wisdom that the world has ever 

181. Plans for a National Government. — As soon The Virginia 
as the Convention was in working order, Governor p^"' 
Randolph of Virginia presented Madison's plan for 
a "national " government. Charles Pinckney of 

140 Making of the Constitution [§§181-183 

South Carolina also brought forward a plan. His 
scheme was more detailed than was Madison's plan. 
But, like it, it provided for a government with 
"supreme legislative, executive, and judicial powers." 
On May 30 the Convention voted that a " national 
government ought to be established, consisting of 
a supreme Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary." 
It next decided that the legislative department 
should consist of two houses. But when the dele- 
gates began to talk over the details, they began to 

182. Disagreement as to Representation. — The 
Virginia plan proposed that representation in one 
branch of the new Congress should be divided among 
the states according to the amount of money each 
state paid into the national treasury, or according to 
the number of the free inhabitants of each state. 
The Delaware delegates at once said that they 
must withdraw. In June Governor Patterson of 
New Jersey brought forward a plan which had 
been drawn up by the delegates from the smaller 
states. It is always called, however, the New Jer- 
sey plan. It proposed simply to amend the Arti- 
cles of Confederation so as to give Congress more • 
power. After a long debate the New Jersey plan 
was rejected. 

183. The Compromise as to Representation. — The 
discussion now turned on the question of representa- 
tion in the two houses of Congress. After a long 
debate and a good deal of excitement Benjamin 

Benjamin Franklin. 

" He snatched the lightning from Heaven, and the sceptre from tyrants." 

— Turcot. 


Making of the Constitution [§§ 183-185 

The federal 

Power of 
over com- 

Franklin and Roger Sherman proposed a compro- 
mise. This was, that members of the House of 
Representatives should be apportioned among the 
states according to their population and should be 
elected directly by the people. In the Senate they 
proposed that each state, regardless of size, popula- 
tion, or wealth, should have two members. The 
Senators, representing the states, would fittingly be 
chosen by the state legislatures. It was agreed 
that the states should be equally represented in 
the Senate. But it was difficult to reach a conclu- 
sion as to the apportionment of representatives in 
the House. 

184. Compromise as to Apportionment. — Should 
the' members of the House of Representatives be 
distributed among the states according to population } 
At first sight the answer seemed to be perfectly 
clear. But the real question was, should slaves who 
had no vote be counted as a part of the population } 
It was finally agreed that the slaves should be 
counted at three-fifths of their real number. This 
rule was called the' "federal ratio." The result of 
this rule was to give the Southern slave states repre- 
sentation in Congress out of all proportion to their 
voting population. 

185. Compromise as to the Slave-Trade. — When the 
subject of the powers to be given to Congress came 
to be discussed, there was even greater excitement. 
The Northerners wanted Congress to have power to 
regulate commerce. But the Southerners opposed 


The Great Compromises 


it because they feared Congress would use this power 
to put an end to the slave-trade. John Rutledge of 
South Carolina even went so far as to say that 
unless this question was settled in favor of the 
slave-holders, the slave states would " not be parties Restriction 

Signing of the Constitution, September 17, 1787. 

From an early unfinished picture. This shows the arrangement of the room and 
the sun behind Washington's chair. 

to the Union." In the end this matter also was as to slave- 
compromised by providing that Congress could not 
prohibit the slave-trade until 1808. These were the 
three great compromises. But there were compro- 
mises on so many smaller points that we cannot 
even mention them here. 


Making of the Constitution [§§ 186-189 

186. Franklin's Prophecy. — It was with a feeling 
of real relief that the delegates finally came to the 
end of their labors. As they were putting their 
names to the Constitution, Franklin pointed to a 
rising sun that was painted on the wall behind the 
presiding officer's chair. He said that painters often 
found it difficult to show the difference between a 
rising sun and a setting sun. " I have often and 
often," said the old statesman, "looked at that behind 
the President, without being able to tell whether it 
was rising or setting ; but now, at length, I have the 
happiness to know that it is a rising and not a setting 
sun." And so indeed it has proved to be. 

187. The Constitution. — It will be well now to 
note some of the points in which the new Constitu- 
tion was unlike the old Articles of Confederation. 
In the first place, the government of the Confedera- 
tion had to do only with the states ; the new govern- 
ment would deal directly with individuals. For 
instance, when the old Congress needed money, it 
called on the states to give it. If a state refused to 
give any money, Congress could remonstrate — and 
that was all. The new government could order indi- 
viduals to pay taxes. Any one who refused to pay 
his tax would be tried in a United States court and 
compelled to pay or go to prison. In the second 
place the old government had almost no executive 
powers. The new government would have a very ■ 
strong executive in the person of the President of the 
United States. 

1787] TJie Constitution 1 45 

188. The Supreme Court. — But the greatest differ- interpreta- 
ence of all was to be found in the Supreme Court of constitutLn. 
the United States provided in the Constitution. The 
new Congress would have very large powers of mak- 
ing laws. But the words defining these powers were 
very hard to understand. It was the duty of the 
Supreme Court to say what these words meant. 
Now the judges of the Supreme Court are very inde- 
pendent. It is almost impossible to remove a judge 
of this court, and the Constitution provides that his 
salary cannot be reduced while he holds office. It 
fell out that under the lead of Chief Justice John John 

]Vl3.rsli 3.11*3 

Marshall the Supreme Court defined the doubtful decisions, 
words in the Constitution so as to give the greatest 
amount of power to the Congress of the United 
States. As the laws of the United States are the 
supreme laws of the land, it will be seen how impor- 
tant this action of the Supreme Court has been. 

189. Objections to the Constitution. — The great Opposition 
strength of the Constitution alarmed many people, cons^titution. 
Patrick Henry declared that the government under *Source- 

-' ° Book, \T2.- 

the new Constitution would be a national government 175. 
and not a federal government at all. Other persons 
objected to the Constitution because it took the con- 
trol of affairs out of the hands of the people. For 
example, the Senators were to be chosen by the state 
legislatures, and the President was to be elected in 
a roundabout way by presidential electors. Others 
objected to the Constitution because there was no Bill 
of Rights attached to it. They pointed out, for in- 


Making of the Constitution [§§ 189-191 

injure r/^mcj//c jJan c/n£t/y y^7£>i'/c/cy^^ ^^ c^m m on c^^/Jce/^^o^^^ 
<inc/ oar aMf<{'r/yi^,<^C ore/at n c/?7<^e^dz/i:Ciy{ //fl/ ^^^^^^/iy//,?/7yf'^/y^^ 

Openinc Links of the 

Stance, that there was nothing in the Constitution to 
prevent Congress from passing laws to destroy the 
freedom of the press. Finally a great many people 
objected to the Constitution because there was no 
provision in it reserving to the states or to the people 
those powers that were not expressly given to the new 

190. The First Ten Amendments. — These defects 
seemed to be so grave that patriots like Patrick Henry, 
R. H. Lee, Samuel Adams, and John Hancock could 
not bring themselves to vote for its adoption. Con- j 
ventions of delegates were elected by the people of 
the several states to ratify or to reject the Consti- , 
tution. The excitement was intense. It seemed as | 
if the Constitution would not be adopted. But a way 
The first ten was found out of the difficulty. It was suggested 

amendments. -,11 , 1 • 

that the conventions should consent to the adoption 
of the Constitution, but should, at the same time, 
propose amendments which would do away with many 
of these objections. This was done. The first Con- 

1787] The Constitittion 147 


fo aur^deCvej, 

Constitution of the United States. 

gress under the Constitution and the state legislatures 
adopted most of these amendments, and they became 
a part of the Constitution. There were ten amend- 
ments in all, and they should be studied as carefully 
as the Constitution itself is studied. 

191. The Constitution Adopted, 1787-88. — In Constitution 
June, 1788, New Hampshire and Virginia adopted the ^"^'^^'l;^, 
Constitution. They were the ninth and tenth states to 216 ; *Source- 
take this action. The Constitution provided that it iSo. 
should go into effect when it should be adopted by 
nine states, that is, of course, it should go into effect 
only between those states. Preparations were now 
made for the organization of the new government. 
But this took some time. Washington was unani- 
mously elected President, and was inaugurated in 
April, 1789. By that time North Carolina and Rhode 
Island were the only states which had not adopted the 
Constitution and come under the " New Roof," as it 
was called. In a year or two they adopted it also, and 
the Union of the thirteen original states was complete. 

148 Tlic Critical Period 


Chapter 17 

§§ 168, 169. — a. What were the chief weaknesses of the Confedera- 
tion? Why (lid not Congress have any real power? 
/'. How did some states treat other states? Why? 

§§ 170-173. — a. Explain the distress among the people. 

b. Describe the attitude of the British government and give some 
reason for it. 

c. Why did the value of paper pioney keep changing? 

d. What were the "tender laws "? The "stay laws"? 

e. Give some illustration of how these laws would affect trade. 

§ 174. — a. Describe the troubles in Massachusetts. 
b. What was the result of this rebellion? 

§§ '75~'7^' — ^- What common interest did all the states have? 

b. What did Maryland contend ? State carefully the result of Mary- 
land's action. Describe the land cessions. 

c. How did the holding these lands benefit the United States? 

d. Give the provisions of the Ordinance of 1787. What was the 
result of the declaration as to slaves? 

e. What privileges were the settlers to have? Why is this Ordinance 
so important? 

Chaiter 18 

§§ 179-181. — a. What difficulties in the United States showed the 
necessity of a stronger government? 

b. How could the Articles of Confederation be amended? 

c. What was the important work of Madison? 

d. What was the advantage of having Washington act as President 
of the Convention? 

§§ 182, 183. — a. Explain fully the provisions of the Virginia plan. 
W'hat departments were decided upon? 

/'. Why did New Jersey and Delaware oppose the Virginia plan? 
What were the great objections to the New Jersey plan? 

§§ 184-186. — a. What is a compromise? What are the three great 
compromises of the Constitution? 

Questions and Topics 


b. Explain the compromise as to representation. What does the 
Senate represent? What the House? 

c. Define apportionment. What do you think of the wisdom of 
the compromise as to apportionment? What of its justice? 

d. Why was there a conflict over the clause as to commerce? How 
was the matter settled? 

§§ 187-189. — a. What events at first seemed to disprove Franklin's 

b. Compare the Constitution with the Articles of Confederation and 
show in what respects the Constitution was much stronger. 

c. Explain how the new government could control individuals. 

d. What were some of the duties of the President? Of Congress? 
Of the Supreme Court? 

§§ 190-192. — a. What is the difference between a national and a 
federal government? Was Henry's criticism true? 

b. Study the first ten amendments and state how far they met the 
objections of those opposed to the Constitution. 

c. Repeat the Tenth Amendment from memory. 

d. How was the Constitution ratified? 

e. How did the choice of Washington as first President influence 
popular feeling toward the new government? 

General Questions 

a. Why should the people have shown loyalty to the states rather 
than to the United States? 

h. Analyze the Constitution as follows : — 




Method of Appoint- 
ment or Election. 

Term of Office. 

Duties and Powers. 

150 The Critical Period 

Topics for SricciAi. Work 

The career of any one man prominent in the Convention, as Madi- 
son, Hamilton, Franklin, Washington, Robert Morris, etc. Write a 
brief biography. 

Suggestions to the Teacher 

This period should be taught very slowly and very thoroughly, as it 
demands much more time than any of the earlier periods. A clear 
understanding of the Constitution is of the most practical value, not 
merely to enable one to comprehend the later history, but also to 
enable one to understand present duties. Note carefully the " federal 
ratio " and the functions of the Supreme Court. Use the text of the 
Constitution and emphasize especially those portions of importance in 
the later history. 

This work is difficult. It should therefore be most fully illustrated 
from recent political struggles. Let the children represent characters 
in the Convention and discuss the various plans proposed. Encourage 
them also to suggest transactions which might represent the working 
of the tender laws, the commercial warfare between the states, the 
" federal ratio," etc. Especially study the first ten amendments and 
show how they limit the power of the general government to-day. 



Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Higginson's Larger- History, 309-344 ; Eggle- 
ston's United States and its People, ch. xxxiv (the people in 
1790) ; McMaster's School History, ch. xiv (the people in 1790). 

Home Readings. — Drake's Making of the West; Scribner's 
Popular History, IV"; Coffin's Building the Nation; Bolton's 
Famous Americans ; Holmes's Ode on Washington'' s Birthday; 
Seawell's Little Jarvis. 



192. Washington elected President. — In the early The first way 
years under the Constitution the Presidents and Vice- p^esidenf 
Presidents were elected in the following manner. Constitution, 
First each state chose presidential electors usually by McMaster', 
vote of its legislature. Then the electors of each state ^70-171- 
came together and voted for two persons without 
saying which of the two should be President. When 
all the electoral votes were counted, the person hav- 
ing the largest number, provided that was more than 
half of the whole number of electoral votes, was 


152 Organization of the Government [§§192-195 

and Adams. 

declared President. The person having the next 
largest number became Vice-President. At the first 
election every elector voted for Washington. John 
Adams received the ne.xt largest number of votes and 
became Vice-President. 

Federal Hall, 1797. 

Washington took the oath of office on the balcony. 

Washing- 193. Washington's Journey to New York. — At ten 

ton's journey , 

lo New York, o clock iu the morning of April 14, 1789, Washington 

^^zTs.""' ^^^^ ^^- Vernon and set out for New York. Wherever 

he passed the people poured forth to greet him. At 

Trenton, New Jersey, a triumphal arch had been 

erected. The school girls strewed flowers in his path 

1789] hiaugiiration of Washington 153 

and sang an ode written for the occasion. A barge 
manned by thirteen pilots met him at the water's 
edge and bore him safely to New York. 

194. The First Inauguration, April 30, 1789. — Washington 
Long before the time set for the inauguration cere- pr^g^fj^Jnt^'^ 
monies, the streets around Federal Hall were closely ^789- 


packed with sightseers. Washington in a suit of Book,i2,T.- 
velvet with white silk stockings came out on the ^^^' 
balcony and took the oath of office ordered in the 
Constitution, " I will faithfully execute the office of The oath of 
President of the United States, and will to the best °^''^' 
of my Ability preserve, protect, and defend the Con- 
stitution of the United States." Cannon roared forth 
a salute and Chancellor Livingston turning to the 
people proclaimed, " Long live George Washington, 
President of the United States." Reentering the 
hall Washington read a simple and solemn address, 

195. The First Cabinet. — Washington appointed Jefferson, 
Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State. Since writing of state. 
the Great Declaration, Jefferson had been governor 

of Virginia and American minister at Paris. The 

Secretary of the Treasury was Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton, 

Born in the British West Indies, he had come to New the Treasury. 

York to attend King's College, now Columbia Uni- ^gg^"t<'>^' 
° '^ ' 215, 

versify. For Secretary of War, Washington selected 

Henry Knox. He had been Chief of Artillery during Knox, Secre- 

the Revolution. Since then he had been head of the ^^'^ ° 

War Department. Edward Randolph became Attor- Randolph, 

ney General. He had introduced the Virginia plan GeneraL' 
of union into the Federal Convention. But he had 

1 54 Organization of the Government [§§ i95-'99 

Jay, Chief 




not signed the Constitution in its final form. These 
four officers formed the Cabinet. There was also a 

Postmaster General. 
But his office was of 
slight importance at 
the time. 

196. Appointments 
toOfiice.— The Pres- 
ident now appointed 
the necessary officers 
to execute the na- 
tional laws. These 
were mostly men who had been prominent in the 
Revolutionary War. For instance, John Jay (p. 126) 
was appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, 
and General Lincoln (p. 134) was appointed Collector 
of Customs at Boston. It was in having officers of 
its own to carry out its laws, that the new govern- 
ment seemed to the people to be so unlike the old 
government. Formerly if Congress wanted anything 
done, it called on the states to do it. Now Congress, 
by law, authorized the United States officials to do 
their tasks. The difference was a very great one, 
and it took the people some time to realize what a 
great change had been made. 

197. The Question of Titles. — The first fiercely 
contested debate in the new Congress was over the 
question of titles. John Adams, the Vice-President 
and the presiding officer of the Senate, began the 
conflict by asking the Senate how he should address 

1789-92] Ceremonies 155 

the President. One senator suggested that the 
President should be entitled " His Patriotic Majesty." 
Other senators proposed that he should be addressed 
as "Your Highness, the President of the United States 
and Protector of their Liberties." Fortunately, the 
House of Representatives had the first chance to 
address Washington and simply called him " Mr. 
President of the United States." 

198. Ceremonies and Progresses. — Washington Ceremonies, 
liked a good deal of ceremony and was stiff and ^^i-z^^^' 
aristocratic. He soon gave receptions or " levees " 

as they were called. To these only persons who 
had tickets were admitted. Washington stood on 
one side of the room and bowed stiffly to each guest 
as he was announced. When all were assembled, 
the entrance doors were closed. The President then 
slowly walked around the room, saying something 
pleasant to each person. In 1789 he made a journey 
through New England. Everywhere he was received 
by guards of honor, and was splendidly entertained. 
At one place an old man greeted him with "God bless 
Your Majesty." This was all natural enough, for 
Washington was "first in the hearts of his country- 
men." But many good men were afraid that the Monarchical 
new government would really turn out to be a ^pp^^^^"*^^^- 

199. First Tariff Act, 1789. — The first important struggle over 

1 .,, J. protection, 

business that Congress took m hand was a bill tor 1^89. 
raising revenue, and a lively debate began. Repre- *^^"^"L_ 
sentatives from New England and the Middle states 186. 

156 Orgcxnization of the Government [§§ 199-201 

wanted protection for their commerce and their strug- 
gUng manufactures. Representatives from the South- 
ern states opposed all protective duties as harmful to 
agriculture, which was the only important pursuit of 
the Southerners. But the Southerners would have 
been glad to have a duty placed on hemp. This the 
New Englandcrs opposed because it would increase 
the cost of rigging ships. The Pennsylvanians were 
eager for a duty on iron and steel. But the New 
Englanders opposed this duty because it would add 
to the cost of building a ship, and the Southerners 
opposed it because it would increase the cost of 
agricultural tools. And so it was as to nearly every 
duty that was proposed. But duties must be laid, 
and the only thing that could be done was to com- 
promise in every direction. Each section got some- 
thing that it wanted, gave up a great deal that it 
wanted, and agreed to something that it did not want 
at all. And so it has been with every tariff act from 
that day to this. 

200. The First Census, 1791. — The Constitution 
provided that representatives should be distributed 
among the states according to population as modified 
by the federal ratio (p. 142). To do this it was neces- 
sary to find out how many people there were in each 
state. In 1791 the first census was taken. By that 
time both North Carolina and Rhode Island had 
joined the Union, and Vermont had been admitted 
as the fourteenth state. It appeared that there were 
nearly four million people in the United States, or 


The First Census 


not as many as one hundred years later lived around 
the shores of New York harbor. There were then 
about seven hundred thousand slaves in the country. 
Of these only fifty thousand were in the states north 
of Maryland. The country, therefore, was already 
divided into two sections : one where slavery was of 
little importance, and another where it was of great 

201. New States. — The first new state to be ad- 
mitted to the Union was Vermont (1791). The land 


Center of Population 

which formed this state was claimed by New Hamp- Higginson, 
shire and by New York. But during the Revolution ^^^' 
the Green Mountain Boys had declared themselves in- 
dependent and had drawn up a constitution. They 
now applied to Congress for admission to the Union 
as a separate state. The next year Kentucky came Kentucky 
into the Union. This was originally a part of Vir- ^ ™' ^ ' 

ginia, and the colonists had brought their slaves with ti>gginson, 

them to their new homes. Kentucky, therefore, was 

a slave state. Vermont was a free state, and its 

constitution forbade slavery. 

158 Organization of the Government [§§202-204 

Hamilton as 
a financier. 

His plan. 

to it. 

202. The National Debt. — The National Debt was 
the price of independence. During the war Con- 
gress had been too poor to pay gold and silver 
for what it needed to carry on the war. So it had 
given promises to pay at some future time. 
promises to pay were called by various names as 
bonds, certificates of indebtedness, and paper money. 
Taken all together they formed what was called the 
Domestic Debt, because it was owed to persons liv- 
ing in the United States. There was also a Foreign 
Debt. This was owed to the King of France and to 
other foreigners who had lent money to the United 

203. Hamilton's Financial Policy. — Alexander 
Hamilton was the ablest Secretary of the Treasury 
the United States has ever had. To give people con- 
fidence in the new government, he proposed to re- 
deem the old certificates and bonds, dollar for dollar, 
in new bonds. To this plan there was violent ob- 
jection. of the original holders of the cer- 
tificates and bonds had sold them long ago. They 
were now mainly held by speculators who had paid 
about thirty or forty cents for each dollar. Why 
should the speculator get one dollar for that which 
had cost him only thirty or forty cents.'' Hamilton 
insisted that his plan was the only way to place the 
public credit on a firm foundation, and it was finally 

204. Assumption of State Debts. — A further part 
of Hamilton's original scheme aroused even greater 

Alexander Hamilton. 

" He smote the rock of the national resources and abundant streams of revenue gushed forth. 
He touched the dead corpse of the public credit and it sprang upon its feet." 

— Webster. 


OiX(iiii:;atii>ii of tin- Government [§§ 204-205 

Tlie state 
Book, 186- 

plan of 

to it. 

Failure of 
the bill. 

Question of 
the site of 
the national 

opposition. During the Revolutionary War the 
states, too, had become heavily in debt. They had 
furnished soldiers and supplies to Congress. Some 
of them had undertaken expeditions at their own 
expense. Virginia, for example, had borne all the 
cost of Clark's conquest of the Northwest (p. 116). 
She had later ceded nearly all her rights in the 
conquered territory to the United States (p. 135). 
These debts had been incurred for the benefit of 
the people as a whole. Would it not then be fair 
for the people of the United States as a whole to 
pay them .? Hamilton thought that it would. It 
chanced, however, that the Northern states had much 
larger debts than had the Southern states. One re- 
sult of Hamilton's scheme would be to relieve the 
Northern states of a part of their burdens and to 
increase the burdens of the Southern states. The 
Southerners, therefore, were strongly opposed to the 
plan. The North Carolina representatives reached 
New York just in time to vote against it, and that 
part of Hamilton's plan was defeated. 

205. The National Capital. — In these days of fast 
express trains it makes little difference whether one 
is going to Philadelphia or to Baltimore — only a 
few hours more or less in a comfortable railroad car. 
But in 1791 it made a great deal of difference 
whether one were going to Philadelphia or to Balti- 
more. Traveling was especially hard in the South. 
There were few roads or taverns in that part of the 
country, and those few were bad. The Southerners 


Assumption of State Debts 


were anxious to have the national capital as far south 
as possible. They were also opposed to the assump- 
tion of the state debts by the national government. 
Now it happened that the Northerners were in favor 

An Old Stagecoach. 

The house was built in Lincoln County, Kentucky, in 1783. 

of the assumption of the debts and did not care very 
much where the national capital might be. In the end 
Jefferson and Hamilton made "a deal," the first of Jefferson and 

1 . 1 . 1 . T^ 101 1 Hamilton. 

Its kmd m our history. Enough boutherners voted 
for the assumption bill to pass it. The Northerners, 
on their part, agreed that the temporary seat of 
government should be at Philadelphia, and the per- 

1 62 Organization of the Govcrtiuioit [§§ 205-207 

The District 
of Columbia. 

manent seat of government on the Potomac. Vir- 
ginia and Maryland at once ceded enough land to 
form a "federal di.strict." This was called the Dis- 
trict of Columbia. Soon preparations were begun 

to build a capital 
city there — the city 
of Washington. 

206. The First 
Bank of the United 
States. — Two parts 
of Hamilton's plan 
were now adopted. 
To the third part 
of his scheme there 
was even more op- 
position. This was 
the establishment of 
a great Bank of the; 
United States. The 
government in 1 790 
had no place in 
which to keep its money. Instead of establishing 
government treasuries, Hamilton wanted a great 
national bank, controlled by the government. This 
bank could establish branches in important cities. 
The government's money could be deposited at any of 
these branches and could be paid out by checks sent 
from the Treasury. Furthermore, people could buy 
a part of the stock of the bank with the new bonds of 
the United States. This would make people more 



. ( 



plan for a 





United States 



I, ^ w^^B 









fli y" ■■■. 










Copyrigh', l>. Appleton & Co. 

A Lady of tiik " Rkpuulican Court. 

1791] First Bank of the United States 163 

eager to own the bonds, and so would increase their 
price. For all these reasons Hamilton thought the 
bank would be very useful, and therefore "necessary 
and proper " for the carrying out of the powers given 
by the Constitution to the national government. Jef- 
ferson, however, thought that the words " necessary Jefferson's 
and proper " meant necessary and not useful. The aga^insHt. 
bank was not necessary according to the ordinary use 
of the word. Congress therefore had no business to 
estabhsh it. After thinking the matter over. Wash- The bank 
ington signed the bill and it became a law. But Jef- 
ferson had sounded the alarm. Many persons agreed 
with him, many others agreed with Hamilton. Two 
great political parties were formed and began the con- 
test for power that has been going on ever since. 


207. The Federalists. — There were no political Formation of 

parties in the United States in 1 789. All the leading ^^^^^^^^^^ ' 

men were anxious to give the new Constitution a fair McMaster, 

trial. Even Patrick Henry supported Washington. 

Many men, as Alexander Hamilton and Gouverneur 
Morris, believed a monarchy to be the best form of 
government. But they saw clearly that the Ameri- 
can people would not permit a monarchy to be 
established. So they supported the Constitution 
although they thought that it was " a frail and worth- 


Rise of Political J^artics [§§ 207-210 

less fabric." But they wished to establish the strong- 
est possible government that could be established 
under the Constitution. This they could do by de- 
fining in the broadest way the doubtful words in the 
Constitution as Hamilton had done in the controversy 
over the bank charter (p. 162). Hamilton had little 
confidence in the wisdom of the plain people. He 
believed it would be safer to rely on the richer 
classes. So he and his friends wished to give to the 
central government and to the rjcher classes the great- 
est possible amount of power. Those who believed 
as Hamilton believed called themselves Federalists. 
In" reality they were Nationalists. 

208. The Republicans. — Thomas Jefferson, James 
Madison, Albert Gallatin, and their friends entirely 
disagreed with the Federalists on all of these points. 
They called themselves Republicans. In the Great 
Declaration Jefferson had written that government 
rested on the consent of the governed. He also 
thought that the common sense of the plain people 
was a safer guide than the wisdom of the richer 
classes. He was indignant at the way in which Ham- 
ilton defined the meaning of phrases in the Constitu- 
tion. He especially relied on the words of the Tenth 
Amendment. This amendment provided that " all 
powers not delegated to the United States by the 
Constitution nor prohibited by it to the states are 
reserved to the states respectively or to the people." 
Jefferson thought that phrases like " not delegated " 
and "necessary and proper" should be understood] 

1793] Political Parties 165 

in their ordinary meanings. He now determined to 
arouse public opinion. He once declared that if he 
had to choose between having a government and 
having a newspaper press, he should prefer the news- 
paper press. He established a newspaper devoted to 
his principles and began a violent and determined 
attack on the Federalists, calling them monarchists. 
These disputes became especially violent in the treat- 
ment of the questions which grew out of the French. 

209. The French Revolution. — In 1 789 the French The French 

1 • . ^1 • . T ,1 Revolution, 

people rose agamst their government. In 1792 they i^gg. 
imprisoned their king and queen. In 1793 they be- 
headed them, and set up a republic. The monarchs 
of Europe made common cause against this spirit of 
revolution. They made war on the French Republic 
and began a conflict which soon spread to all parts 
of the world. 

210. The French Revolution and American Politics. Effect of 
— Jefferson and his political friends rejoiced at the Revo|^t"on 
overthrow of the French monarchy and the setting o" American 


up of the Republic. It seemed as if American ideas McMaster, 
had spread to Europe. Soon Jefferson's followers 2°^"207. 
began to ape the manners of the French revolution- 
ists. They called each other Citizen this and Citizen 
that. Reports of French victories were received with 
rejoicing. At Boston an ox, roasted whole, bread, and 
punch were distributed to the people in the streets, 
and cakes stamped with the French watchwords, Lib- 
erty and Equality, were given to the children. But, 

1 66 

Rise of Political Parties [§§ 210-213 

The Treaty of 
Alliance of 

while the Republicans were rejoicing over the down- 
fall of the French monarchy, the Federalists were far 
from being happy. Hamilton had no confidence in 
government by the people anywhere. Washington, 
with his aristocratic ideas, did not at all like the way 
the Republicans were acting. He said little on the 
subject, but Lady Washington expressed her mind 
freely and spoke of Jefferson's followers as " filthy 

211. Citizen Genet. — The new French government 
soon sent an agent or minister to the United States. 
He was the Citizen Genet. He landed at Charleston, 
South Carolina. He fitted out privateers to prey on 
British commerce and then set out overland for 
Philadelphia Washington had recently made a tour 
through the South. But even he had not been re- 
ceived with the enthusiasm that greeted Genet. But 
when Genet reached Philadelphia, and began to con- 
fer with Jefferson about getting help from the govern- 
ment, he found little except delay, trouble, and good 
advice. Jefferson especially tried to warn Genet not 
to be over confident. But Genet would not listen. He 
even appealed to the people against Washington, and 
the people rallied to the defense of the President. 
Soon another and wiser French minister came to the 
United States. 

212. The Neutrality Proclamation, 1793. — Wash- 
ington and his advisers had a very difficult question 
to settle. For the Treaty of 1778 with France (p. 
115) gave to P^rench ships the use of United States 

1793] Neutrality Proclamation 167 

ports in war time, and closed those ports to the ene- 
mies of France. The treaty might also oblige the 
United States to make war on Great Britain in order 
to preserve the French West India Islands to France. 
It was quite certain, at all events, that if French 
warships were allowed to use American ports, and 
British warships were not allowed to do so, Great 
Britain would speedily make war on the United 
States. The treaty had been made with the King of 
France. Could it not be set aside on the ground 
that there was no longer a French monarchy .-• 
Washington at length made up his mind to regard 
it as suspended, owing to the confusion which ex- 
isted in France. He therefore issued a Proclama- 
tion of Neutrality. In this proclamation he warned The Neutrai- 
all citizens not to aid either of the fighting nations. Jj^^ "1703™^' 
It was in this way that Washington began the policy 
of keeping the United States out of European con- 
flicts (p. 224). 

213. The Whiskey Insurrection, 1794. — The in- internal 
creasing expenses of the government made new taxes [^^g"*^^ 
necessary. Among the new taxes was an internal 
revenue tax on whiskey. It happened that this tax 
bore heavily on the farmers of western Carolina and 
western Pennsylvania. The farmers of those regions 
could not take their grain to the seaboard because 
the roads were bad and the distance was great. So 
they made it into whiskey, which could be carried 
to the seaboard and sold at a profit. The new tax 
on whiskey would make it more difficult for these 

1 68 

A'/jv of rulitual Parties [§§213- 


The Whiskey 



western farmers to earn a living and to support their 
families. They refused to pay it. They fell upon 
the tax collectors and drove them away. Washing- 
ton sent commissioners to explain matters to them. 
But the farmers paid no heed to the commissioners. 
The President then called out fifteen thousand militia- 
men and sent them to western Pennsylvania, under 
the command of Henry Lee, governor of Virginia. 
The rebellious farmers yielded without fighting. Two 
of the leaders were convicted of treason. But Wash- 
ington pardoned them, and the conflict ended there. 
The new government had shown its strength, and had 
compelled people to obey the laws. That in itself 
was a very great thing to have done. 

214. Jay's Treaty, 1794. — Ever since 1783 there 
had been trouble with the British. They had not 
surrendered the posts on the Great Lakes, as the 
treaty of 1783 required them to do. They had op- 
pressed American commerce. The American states 
also had broken the treaty by making laws to prevent 
the collection of debts due to British subjects by 
American citizens. The Congress of the Confedera- 
tion had been too weak to compel either the British 
government or the American states to obey the treaty. 
But the new government was strong enough to make 
treaties respected at home and abroad. Washington 
sent Chief Justice John Jay to London to negotiate a 
new treaty. He found the British government very 
hard to deal with. At last he made a treaty. But 
there were many things in it which were not at all 


Jays Treaty 


favorable to the United States. For instance, it pro- Jay's Treaty, 
vided that cotton should not be exported from the ^'^^ 
United States, and that American commerce with 
the British West Indies should be greatly restricted. 

215. Ratification of Jay's Treaty, 1795. — After Contest over 
a long discussion the Senate voted to ratify the treaty ofws'°" 
without these two clauses. In the House of Repre- Treaty, 1795. 
sentatives there was a fierce debate. For although 
the House has nothing to do with ratifying treaties, 
it has a great deal to do with voting money. And 

money was needed to carry out this treaty. At last 
the House voted the necessary money. The British 
surrendered the posts on the Great Lakes, and the 
debts due to British subjects were paid. Many people 
were very angry with Jay and with Washington for 
making this treaty. Stuffed figures of Jay were 
hanged, and Washington was attacked in the papers 
as if he had been " a common pickpocket " — to use 
his own words. 

216. The Spanish Treaty of 1795. — France and 


Kisc of Political Partils [§§ 216-219 

Great Britain were not the only countries with which 
there was trouble. The Spaniards held posts on the 
Mississippi, within the limits of the United States and 
refused to give them up. For a hundred miles the 
Mississippi flowed through Spanish territory. In 
those days, before steam railroads connected the 
Ohio valley with the Eastern seacoast, the farmers 
of Kentucky and Tennessee sent their goods by boat 
or raft down the Mississippi to New Orleans. At 
that city they were placed on sea-going vessels and 
carried to the markets of the world. The Spaniards 
refused to let this commerce be carried on. In 1795, 
however, they agreed to abandon the posts and to per- 
mit American goods to be deposited at New Orleans 
while awaiting shipment by sea-going vessels. 

217. Washington's Farewell Address. — In 1792 
Washington had been reelected President. In 1796 
there would be a new election, and Washington de- 
clined another nomination. He was disgusted with 
the tone of public life and detested party politics, and 
desired to pass the short remainder of his life in quiet 
at Mt. Vernon. He announced his intention to retire 
in a Farewell Address, which should be read and 
studied by every American. In it he declared the 
Union to be the main pillar of independence, pros- 
perity, and liberty. Public credit must be carefully 
maintained, and the United States should have as 
little as possible to do with European affairs. In 
declining a third term as President, Washington set 
an example which has ever since been followed. 

1796] Presidential Election 1 71 


218. John Adams elected President, 1796. — In Hamilton's 
1706 Tohn Adams was the Federalist candidate for ^"'"g"f^ 

' " •> against 

President. His rival was Thomas Jefferson, the Adams, 
founder and chief of the RepubHcan party. Alex- 
ander Hamilton was the real leader of the Federalists, 
and he disliked Adams. Thomas Pinckney was the 
Federalist candidate for Vice-President. Hamilton 
suggested a plan which he thought would lead to the 
election of Pinckney as President instead of Adams. Adams 
But Hamilton's scheme did not turn out very well, president 
For by it Jefferson was elected Vice-President. In- 1796. 
deed, he came near being President, for he had only 
three less electoral votes than Adams. 

219. More Trouble with France. — F'rance was Relations 
now (1796-97) governed by five chiefs of the Revo- ^ g^^'^" ' 
lution, who called themselves "the Directory." McMaster, 

210-212 ; 

They were very angry when they heard of Jay's *source- 
Treaty (p. 168), for they had hoped that the Ameri- °° '^^^~ 
cans would make war on the British. James Monroe 
was then American minister at Paris. Instead of 
doing all he could to smooth over this difficulty, he 
urged on the wrath of the Directory. Washington 
recalled Monroe, and sent in his stead General The French 
Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina, declines to 
The Directory promptly refused to receive Pinckney, •"^ceive an 

A nicric3.n 

and ordered him to leave France. News of this minister. 

172 The Last Federalist Admitiistration [§§219-223 

action of the Directory reached Philadelphia three 
days after Adams's inauguration. 
Adamss 220. The X. Y. Z. Affair, 1797-98. — Adams at 

message, qucc Summoned Congress and addressed the mem- 
bers in stirring words. He denied that the Ameri- 
cans were a " degraded people, humiliated under a 
colonial sense of fear . . . and regardless of national 
honor, character, and interest." It seemed best, how- 
ever, to make one more effort to avoid war. Adams 
A commis- therefore sent John Marshall, a Virginia Federalist, 

sion sent to , ._,, . , _, _ _ , , . 

France, 1797. ^rid Elbndge Gerry, a Massachusetts Republican, to 
France. They were to join Pinckney and together; 
were to negotiate with the French Directory. When 

The X. Y. z. they reached Paris three men came to see them. , 

^^ar, 797 'p]-j(^j,g VL\Q.Vi Said that America (i) must apologize for; 
the President's vigorous words, (2) must lend money 
to France, and (3) must bribe the Directory and the 
Minister of Foreign Affairs. These outrageous sug- 
gestions were emphatically put aside. In sending 
the papers to Congress, the three men were called 
Mr. X., Mr. Y., and Mr. Z., so the incident is always 
known as the "X. Y. Z. Affair." 

Excitement 221. Indignation in America. — Federalists and 

in America. 

Republicans joined in indignation. " Millions for 
defense, not one cent for tribute," was the cry of the 
day. French flags were everywhere torn down. 
" Hail Columbia " was everywhere sung. Adams 
declared that he would not send another minister to 
France until he was assured that the representative; 
of the United States would be received as "the 

1797-98] War with Frmice 173 

representative of a great, free, powerful, and inde- 
pendent state." 

222. War with France, 1797-98. — The organiza- Washington 
tion of a provisional army was now at once begun, coi'^mander- 
Washington accepted the chief command on condi- in-chief. 

^ ^ Hamilton 

tion that Hamilton should have the second place, and Adams. 
There were already a few vessels in the navy. A 
Navy Department was now organized. The building The navy. 
of more warships was begun, and merchant vessels 
were bought and converted into cruisers. French 
privateers sailed along the American coasts and Naval war- 
captured American vessels off the entrances of the McAflffer^^' 
principal harbors. But this did not last long. For 213-214. 
the American warships drove the privateers to the 
West Indies and pursued them as they fled south- 
ward. Soon the American cruisers began to capture 
French men-of-war. Captain Truxton, in the Cou- 
stellation, captured the French frigate U Insurgent. 
Many other French vessels were captured, and prep- 
arations were made to carry on the naval war even 
more vigorously when a treaty with France was 

223. Treaty with France, 1800. — This vigor con- Another 

1 1 T^ , , 1 111 1 . 1 . commis 

vmced the French that they had been hasty m their gent to 
treatment of the Americans. They now said that if F''^""^*^- 
another minister were sent to France, he would be 
honorably received. Adams wished to send one of the 
American ministers then in Europe, and thus end 
the dispute as soon as possible. But the other Fed- 
eraHst leaders thought that it would be better to wait 


1/4 ^/i^^' Last Ft'iUralist Ad)iniiistration [§§223-225 

The treaty 
of 1800. 


The naturali- 
zation act. 

The alien 

until France sent a minister to the United States. 
Finally they consented to the appointment of three 
commissioners. Napoleon Bonaparte was now the 
ruler of France. He received the commissioners 
honorably, and a treaty was soon signed. On two 
points, however, he refused to give way. He de- 
clined to pay for American property seized by the 
French, and he insisted that the treaty of 1778 (pp. 
1 15, 166) was still binding on both countries. It was 
finally agreed that the Americans should give up 
their claims for damages, and the French government 
should permit the treaty to be annulled. John Adams 
always looked upon this peaceful ending of the dis- 
pute with France as the most prudent and successful 
act of his whole life. But Hamilton and other Fed- 
eralists thought it was treachery to the party. 
They set to work to prevent his reelection to the 

224. Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798. — The Feder- 
alists, even if they had been united, would probably 
have been defeated in the election of 1800. For 
they had misused their power to pass several very 
foolish laws. The first of these laws was the Natu- 
ralization Act. It lengthened the time of residence 
in the United States from five to fourteen years be- 
fore a foreign immigrant could gain the right to vote. 1 
This law bore very harshly on the Republicans, be- ' 
cause most of the immigrants were Republicans. 
Other laws, called the Alien Acts, were also aimed 
at the Republican immigrants. These laws gave the | 

1798-99] Virginia and Kentucky Resohitions 175 

President power to compel immigrants to leave the 
United States, or to live in certain places that he 
named. The worst law of all was the Sedition Act. The Sedition 
This was aimed against the writers and printers of 
Republican newspapers. It provided that any one 
who attacked the government in the press should be 
severely punished as a seditious person. Several 
trials were held under this law. Every trial made 
hundreds of persons determined to vote for the 
Republican candidate at the next election. 

225. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 1798-99. Virginia and 
— In the exciting years before the Revolutionary Res"orutions 
War the colonial legislatures had passed many reso- 1798-99- 

® . McMaster, 

lutions condemning the acts of the British govern- 212-213. 
ment (see pp. yj, 84). Following this example 
Jefferson and Madison now brought it about that the Jefferson and 
Virginia and Kentucky legislatures passed resolutions ^^t^'g"" 
against the Alien and Sedition Acts. They declared Constitution, 
that the Constitution was a compact between the 
states. It followed from this that any state could 
determine for itself whether any act of Congress 
were constitutional or not. It followed from this, 
again, that any state could refuse to permit an Act 
of Congress to be enforced within its limits. In 
other words, any state could make null or nullify 
any Act of Congress that it saw fit to oppose. This 
last conclusion was found only in the Kentucky Res- The 
olutions of 1799. But Jefferson wrote to this effect Resolutions 
in the original draft of the Kentucky Resolutions of 0^^799- 
1798. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 

176 The Last Federalist Aduiinistratioii [§§ 225-227 

The election 
in the Mouse 
of Repre- 

called the voter's attention to the Federalist abuse 
of power and did much to form public opinion. 

226. Death of Washington, 1799. — In the midst 
of this excitement George Washington died. People 
forgot how strongly he had taken the Federalist side 
in the last few years, and united to do honor to his 
memory. Henry Lee spoke for the nation when he 
declared that Washington was " first in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." 
To this day, we commemorate Washington's birth- 
day as we do that of no other man, though of late 
years we have begun to keep Lincoln's birthday 

227. Election of 1800. — It was for a moment only 
that the noise of party conflict was hushed by the 
death of America's first President. The strife soon 
began anew. Indeed, the election of 1800 was fought 
with a vigor and violence unknown before, and 
scarcely exceeded since. John Adams was the Feder- 
alist candidate, and he was defeated. Jefferson 
and Burr, the Republican candidates, each received 
seventy-three electoral votes. But which of them 
should be President } The Republican voters clearly 
wished Jefferson to be President. But the Federalists 
had a majority in the House of Representatives. 
They had a clear legal right to elect Burr President. 
But to do that would be to do what was morally wrong. 
After a useless struggle the Federalists permitted 
Jefferson to be chosen, and he was inaugurated on 
March 4, 1801. 

President Washington, 1790. 

Observe good faith and justice towards all nations." 

-Farewell Address, 

178 Federalist Supremacy 


CiiArrER 19 • 

§§ 192-194. — a. Descril)e the method of electing President em- 
ployed at first. 

/;. Describe Washington's journey to New York and the inaugural 
ceremonies, and compare them with the inauguration of the last 

§§ I95> 19^- — ''• I" whose hands do appointments to federal officesj 

b. What was the great difference mentioned in § 196? Why was. 
the difference so great? 

§§ 197, 198. — a. Why was Washington " stiff and aristocratic"? 
b. Would Washington have accepted the title of king? Give the 
reasons for your answer. 

§§ 199-202. — a. Give the reasons for the different views expressed 
in Congress as to customs duties. What are customs duties? 

b. Explain how slavery influenced the views of the Southern 

c. Compare the extent and population of the United States in 1791 
with the extent and population to-day. 

d. What two new states were admitted in 1791-92? What was 
their attitude on slavery? What changes would their admission make 
in Congress? 

§§203,204. — a. Explain carefully Hamilton's plan. What were 
its advantages? What is meant by the phrase " public credit " ? 
h. What is meant by the phrase "assumption of the state debts"? 

§§ 205, 206. — a. What (juestion arose concerning the site of the 
national capital? Mow was it settled? Was this a good way to settle 
important ([ucstions? 

b. Why did Hamilton want a Bank of the United States? W^as this 
bank like one of the national Ijanks of to-day? 

CuAiTKK 20 

§§ 207, 208. — a. Compare carefully the principles of the Federalists 
and the Republicans. Which party would you have joined had you 
lived then? Why? Which ideas prevail to-day? 

b. Discuss Jefferson's views as to the value of newspapers. 

Questions and Topics 1 79 

§§ 209-212. — a. Why did the Republicans sympathize with the 
French Revolution? 

h. How was the action of the Republicans regarded by Washington? 
By Hamilton? 

c. Why did Washington issue the Proclamation of Neutrality? 

§ 213. — a. What is the difference between a tax laid by a tariff on 
imported goods and an internal revenue tax? 

b. How was the rebellion suppressed? Compare this with Shays's 

§§ 214-216.- — a. State the reasons for the trouble with Great 
Britain. How was the matter settled? 

b. Explain the trouble over the traffic on the Mississippi. 

c. How was this matter settled? 

§ 217. — a. Why did Washington decline a third term? 

b. What are the important points in his Farewell Address? 

c. How far has later history proved the truth of his words? 

Chapter 21 

§ 218. — a. How did Hamilton set to work to defeat Adams? Do 
you think his action justifiable? 

b. What was the result of Hamilton's intrigues? 

§§ 219-221. — a. To what was the refusal to receive Pinckney 
equivalent? Describe the X. Y. Z. Affair. 

b. What is a bribe? How must bribery in political life affect a 
government ? 

c. How was the news of this affair received in America? What 
does this show about the feeling of both parties toward the govern- 

§§ 222,223. — '^- Describe the preparations for war. Why was a 
Navy Department necessary? 

b. Why was France wise to make peace with the United States? 

c. How was the matter finally settled? 

§§ 224, 225. — a. Describe the Naturalization Act. 

b. What power did the Alien Act give the President? What danger 
is there in such power? 

c. What is sedition? Compare the Sedition Act with the First 

d. What were the theories on which the Kentucky and Virginia 
Resolutions were based? 

l8o Federalist Supremacy 

§§ 226, 227. — a. What position does Washington hold in oui 
history? Why is it deserved ? 

b. Describe the election of iSoo. Why was it fought so bitterly? 

c. Why should disputes as to elections for President go to th I 

d. How was it known that Jefferson's election was the wish of th 
voters ? f i 


a. Write an account of life in the United States about 1 790, or 1 ^ 
in I'hiladelphia, New York, I5oston, Charleston. . 

/'. I'repare a table of the two political parties mentioned, with dal 3 
and account of origin. As you go on, note upon this table changes \ 
these j)arties and the rise of new ones. | 

c. On an Outline Map color the thirteen original states and th_n 
in, with dates, new states as they are admitted. V. rite on each st 
F. for free or S. for slave, as the case may be. 


Topics for .Stecial Work 

a. E?rly life of Washington, John Adams, Jefferson, or Hamilton ;, 
/'. Washington's l-'arewell Address. V' 



In this period we meet two questions, which are still import; 
tarilf legislation and political parties. In connection with tiie 'la ^ 
Act of 1789 (§ 200), touch upon the industries of the different secti> 
of the country and explain how local interests affected men's actii 
Show how compromise is often necessary in political action. 

It is a good plan to use Outline Maps to show the important line: 
development, as the gradual drifting apart of the North and the So. 
on the slavery question. 

Illustrate by supposed transactions the working of Hamilton's fin; 
cial measures. By all means do not neglect a study of Washingtc 
Farewell Address. Particular attention should be given to the t 
views of constitutional interpretation mentioned in § 207, ami C( 
siderablc time should be spent on a study of §§ 224 and 225. 


CANS, 1801-1812 

Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Higginson's Larger History, 344-365 ; Scribner's 
Popular History, IV, 127-184; Schoulers /^^rj'C'^. 

Home Reading. — Coffin's Building the Natioti ; Drake's Mak- 
ing the Ohio Valley States ; Hale's Afan Without a Country and 
Philip Nolan'' s Friends. 


228. Area and Population, 1800. — The area of Area. 
the United States in 1 800 was the same as at the 
close of the Revolutionary War. But the population 
had begun to increase rapidly. In 1791 there were Population, 
nearly four million people in the United States. By 
1800 this number had risen to five and one-quarter 
millions. Two-thirds of the people still lived on or 
near tide-water. But already nearly four hundred 
thousand people lived west of the Alleghanies. In 
1 791 the centre of population had been east of Balti- 
more. It was now eighteen miles west of that city 

(P- i57> 


I 82 

The United States in 1800 [§§ 229-231 

Phiiaddphia. 229. Citics and Towns in 1800. — Philadelphia was 
the largest city in the United States. It had a popu- 

New York, lation of scvcnty thousand. But New York was not 
far behind Philadelphia in population. Except these 
two, no city in the whole United States had more than 
thirty thousand inhabitants. The seat of govern- 

The new ment had been removed from Philadelphia to Wash- 

capita, ington. But the new capital was a city only in name. 

One broad long street, Pennsylvania Avenue, led from 
the unfinished Capitol to the unfinished White House. 
Congress held its sessions in a temporary wooden 
building. The White House could be lived in. But 
Mrs. Adams found the unfinished reception room very 
convenient for drying clothes on rainy Mondays. A 
few cheaply built and very uncomfortable boarding- 
houses completed the city. 

230. Traveling in 1800. — The traveler in those 
days had a very hard time. On the best roads of 
the north, in the best coach, and with the best 
weather one might cover as many as forty miles a 
day. But the traveler had to start very early in 
the morning to do this. Generally he thought him- 
self fortunate if he m.ade twenty-five miles in the 
twenty-four hours. South of the Potomac there 
were no public coaches, and the traveler generally . 
rode on horseback. A few rich men like Washing- 
ton rode in their own coaches. Everywhere, north 
and south, the inns were uncomfortable and the 
food was poor. Whenever it was possible the trav- 
eler went by water. But that was dangerous work. 


The " Clermont'' 


Lighthouses were far apart, there were no public 
buoys to guide the mariner, and almost nothing 
had been done to improve navigation. 

231. The Steamboat. — The steamboat came to The first 
change all this. While Washington was still Presi- 
dent, a queer-looking boat sailed up and down the 


The " Clermont," 1807. 

Delaware, She was propelled by oars or paddles 

which were worked by steam. This boat must 

have been very uncomfortable, and few persons 

wished to go on her. Robert Fulton made the first Fulton's 

successful steamboat. She was named the Cler- jg^^ 

mont and was launched in 1807. She had paddle ^'gg'nson, 

wheels and steamed against the wind and tide of 

the Hudson River. At first some people thought 

1 84 

The United States in 1800 [§§ 231-234 

that she was bewitched. But when it was found 
that she ran safely and regularly, people began to 
travel on her. Before a great while steamboats ap- 
peared in all parts of the country. 

232. Making of the West. — Even before the Revo- 
lutionary War explorers and settlers had crossed the 
Alleghany Mountains. In Washington's time pio- 
neers, leaving Pittsburg, floated down the Ohio 
River in fiatboats. Some of these settled Cincinnati. 
Others went farther down the river to Louisville, in 
Kentucky, and still others founded Wheeling and 
Marietta. In 181 1 the first steamboat appeared on 
the Western rivers. The whole problem of living in 
the West at once changed. For the steamboat could 
go up stream as well as down stream. Communica- 
tion between the new settlements, and New Orleans 
and Pittsburg, was now much safer and very much 

233. Cotton Growing in the South. — Cotton had 
been grown in the South for many years. It had 
been made on the plantations into a rough cloth. 
Very little had been sent away. The reason for this 
was that it took a very long time to separate the 
cotton fiber from the seed. One slave working for 
a whole day could hardly clean more than a pound 
of cotton. Still as time went on more cotton was 
grown. In 1784 a few bags of cotton were sent to 
luigland. The I^nglishmcn promptly seized it because 
they did not believe that so much cotton could be 
grown in America. In 1791 nearly two hundred 

1793] Whitney s Cotton Gin 185 

thousand pounds of cotton was exported from the 
South. Then came Whitney's great invention, which 
entirely changed the whole history of the country. 

234. "Whitney's Cotton Gin, 1793. — Eli Whitney eu Whitney, 
was a Connecticut schoolmaster. He went to 

The University of Virginia. 

As designed by Thomas Jefferson. 

Georgia to teach General Greene's children. He 
was very ingenious, and one day Mrs, Greene sug- 
gested to him that he might make a machine which 
would separate the cotton fiber from the cotton seed. 
Whitney set to work and soon made an engine or His cotton 
gin, as he called it, that would do this. The first 5/"'//Sr, 
machine was a rude affair. But even with it one 195-196. 

1 86 

The United States in j8oo [§§ 234-238 

slave could clean one hundred pounds of cotton in 
a day. Mrs. Greene's neighbors promptly broke 
into Whitney's shop and stole his machine. Whit- 
ney's cotton gin made the growing of cotton profitable 
and so fastened slavery on the South. With the 
exception of the steam locomotive (p. 241) and the 
reaper (p. 260), no invention has so tremendously 
influenced the history of the United States. 

235. Colonial Manufactures. — Before the Revolu- 
tionary War there were very few mills or factories in 
the colonies. There was no money to put into such 
undertakings and no operatives to work the mills if 
they had been built. The only colonial manufactures 
that amounted to much were the making of nails and 
shoes. These articles could be made at home on the 
farms, in the winter, when no work could be done 
out of doors. 

236. Growth of Manufactures, 1 789-1 800. — As 
soon as the new government with its wide powers 
was established, manufacturing started into life. 
Old mills were set to work. While the Revolution 
had been going on in America, great improvements 
in the spinning of yarn and the weaving of cloth 
had been made in England. Parliament made laws 
to prevent the export from England of machinery 
or patterns of machinery. But it could not pre- 
vent Englishmen from coming to America. Among 
the recent immigrants to the United States was 
Samuel Slater. He brought no patterns with him. 
But he was familiar with the new methods of spinning. 

i8oi] President Jejferson 187 

He soon built spinning machinery. New cotton mills introduction 

were now set up in several places. But it was some spinnkig 

time before the new weaving machinery was intro- machinery. 
duced into America. 


237. President Jefferson. — Thomas Jefferson was 

a Republican. He believed in the republican form Jefferson's 
of government. He believed the wisdom of the p°'""^^^ 

o ideas. 

people to be the best guide. He wished the Presi- Higginson, 

239 ; 

dent to be simple and cordial in his relations with his McMaster, 
fellow-citizens. Adams had ridden to his inaugura- ^^^' 
tion in a coach drawn by six cream-colored horses. 
Jefferson walked with a few friends from his board- Republican 
ing house to the Capitol. Washington and Adams ^™pi'"'y- 
had gone in state to Congress and had opened the 
session with a speech. Jefferson sent a written mes- 
sage to Congress by a messenger. Instead of bowing 
stiffly to those who came to see him, he shook hands 
with them and tried to make them feel at ease in 
his presence. 

238. The Civil Service. — One of the first matters 

to take Jefferson's attention was the condition of the Proscription 

civil service. There was not a Republican office- of Republi- 
cans by the 
holder in the government service. Washington, in Federalists. 

the last years of his presidency, and Adams also had 

given office only to Federalists. Jefferson thought it 

was absolutely necessary to have some officials upon 

1 88 

Jcffcrsori s Administrations [§§ 238-239 

whom he could rely. So he removed a few Federal- 
ist officeholders and appointed Republicans to their 
places. Adams had even gone so far as to appoint 
officers up to midnight of his last day in office. 
Indeed, John Marshall, his Secretary of State, was 
busy signing commissions when Jefferson's Attorney 
General walked in with his watch in hand and told 
Marshall that it was twelve o'clock. Jefferson and 
Madison, the new Secretary of State, refused to 
deliver these commissions even when Marshall as 
Chief Justice ordered Madison to deliver them. 

239. The Judiciary Act of 1801. — One of the last 
laws made by the Federalists was the Judiciary Act 
of 1 80 1. This law greatly enlarged the national 
judiciary, and Adams eagerly seized the opportunity 
to appoint his friends to the new offices. The Re- 
publican Congress now repealed this Judiciary Act 
and "legislated out of office" all the new judges. 
For it must be remembered that the Constitution 
makes only the members of the Supreme Court sure 
of their offices. Congress also got rid of many other 
Federalist officeholders by repealing the Internal 
Revenue Act (p. 167). But while all this was done, 
Jefferson steadily refused to appoint men to office 
merely because they were Republicans. One man 
claimed an office on the ground that he was a Repub- 
lican, and that the Republicans were the saviors of 
the republic. Jefferson replied that Rome had been 
saved by geese, but he had never heard that the 
geese were given offices. 

Thomas Jefferson. 

Honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none, . . . economy in the public expense, 
the honest payment of our debts, and sacred preservation of the public faith." 

— Jeffersoi s l-'irst hiaKgurnl. 


Jefferson s Adviinistratio)is [§§ 240-242 


Spaniards in 
and Florida. 
Mc Master, 

240. Paying the National Debt. — Jefferson was 
especially anxious to cut clown the expenses of the 
government and to pay as much as possible of the 
national debt. Madison and Gallatin worked heartily 
with him to carry out this policy. The repeal of the 
Internal Revenue Act took much revenue from the 
government. But it also did away with the salaries 
of a great many officials. The repeal of the Judiciary 
Act also put an end to many salaries. Now that the 
dispute with France was ended, Jefferson thought 
that the army and navy might safely be reduced. 
Most of the naval vessels were sold. A few good 
ships were kept at sea, and the rest were tied up at 
the wharves. The number of ministers to European 
states was reduced to the lowest possible limit, and 
the civil service at home was also cut down. The 
expenses of the government were in these ways 
greatly lessened. At the same time the revenue 
from the customs service increased. The result was 
that in the eight years of Jefferson's administrations 
the national debt shrank from eighty-three million 
dollars to forty-five million dollars. Yet in the same 
time the United States paid fifteen million dollars for 
Louisiana, and waged a series of successful and costly 
wars with the pirates of the northern coast of Africa. 

241. Louisiana again a French Colony. — Spanish 
territory now bounded the United States on the 
south and the west. The Spaniards were not good 
neighbors, because it was very hard to make them 
come to an agreement, and next to impossible to 


TJie Louisiana PiircJiase 


make them keep an agreement when it was made. 
But this did not matter very much, because Spain was 
a weak power and was growing weaker every year. 
Sooner or later the United States would gain its 
point. Suddenly, however, it was announced that 
France had got back Louisiana. And almost at the France 
same moment the Spanish governor of Louisiana said- Loyj^slana 
that Americans could no longer deposit their goods 

Jackson Square, New Orleans. 

at New Orleans (p. 170). At once there was a 
great outcry in the West. Jefferson determined to 
buy from France New Orleans and the land eastward 
from the mouth of the Mississippi. 

242. The Louisiana Purchase, 1803. — When Na- 
poleon got Louisiana from Spain, he had an idea of 
again founding a great French colony in America. 
At the moment France and Great Britain were at 
peace. But it soon looked as if war would begin 



Jefferson s Administratiotis [§§ 242-245 


244-245 ; 

234 ; * Source- 
Hook, 200- 

of tlie 

again. Napoleon knew that the British would at 
once seize Louisiana and he could not keep it any- 
way. So one day, when the Americans and the 

French were talking 
about the purchase 
of New Orleans, the 
French minister sud- ! 
denly asked if the 
United States would 
not like to buy the 1 
whole of Louisiana. I 
Monroe and Living- 
ston, the American 
ministers, had no au- 
thority to buy Louisi- 
ana. But the pur- 
chase of the whole 
colony would be a 
great benefit to the 
United States. So they quickly agreed to pay fifteen 
million dollars for the whole of Louisiana. 

243. The Treaty Ratified. — Jefferson found him- 
self in a strange position. The Constitution nowhere 
delegated to the United States power to acquire 
territory (p. 164). But after thinking it over Jeffer- 
son felt sure that the people would approve of the^ 
purchase. The treaty was ratified. The money was 
paid. This purchase turned out to be a most fortu- 
nate thing. It gave to the United States the whole 
western valley of the Mississippi. It also gave to 

kollKKr k. LniNCSToN. 

1803] Loidsiaiia PiircJiase 193 

Americans the opportunity to explore and settle Ore- 
gon, which lay beyond the limits of Louisiana. 

244. Lewis and Clark's Explorations. — Jefferson Lewis and 
soon sent out several expeditions to explore the un- ^g^"^^^ 
known portions of the continent. The most important i-^igginson, 
of these was the expedition led by two army officers, McMaster, 
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, brother of f^'^'^^'' 

' *i)Ource- 

General George Rogers Clark (p. 1 16). Leaving ^"'^^^ 206- 
St. Louis they slowly ascended the muddy Missouri. 
They passed the site of the present city of Omaha. 
They passed the Council Bluffs. The current of the 
river now became so rapid that the explorers left 
their boats and traveled along the river's bank. They 
gained the sources of the Missouri, and came to a 
westward-flowing river. On, on they followed it The mouth 
until they came to the river's mouth. A fog hung Oregon 
low over the water. Suddenly it lifted. There before 
the explorers' eyes the river "in waves like small 
mountains rolled out in the ocean." They had traced 
the Columbia River from its upper course to the 
Pacific. Captain Gray in the Boston ship Columbia 
had already entered the mouth of the river. But 
Lewis and Clark were the first white men to reach it 

245. The Twelfth Amendment, 1804. — Four presi- Amendment 
dential elections had now been held under the method ^f '° """^ ^ 

election of 

provided by the Constitution. And that method had President, 
not worked well (pp. 171, 176). It was now (1804) 
changed by the adoption of the Twelfth Amendment, 
which is still in force. The old machinery of presi- 


Jefferson s Administrations [§§ 245-247 

The Twelfth clcntial clectors was kept. But it was provided that 

Amendment, j^^ ^j^^ ^^ ,^ clcctor should votc for President 


and for Vice-President on separate and distinct bal- 
lots. The voters had no more part in the election 
under the new system than they had had under the 
old system. The old method of apportioning electors 
among the states was also kept. This gives to each 
state as many electors as it has Senators and Repre- 
sentatives in Congress. No matter how small its 
territory, or how small its population, a state has at 
least two Senators and one Representative, and, 
therefore, three electors. The result is that each 
voter in a small state has more influence in choosing 
the President than each voter in a large state. In- 
deed, several Presidents have been elected by minori- 
ties of the voters of the country as a whole. 

246. Reelection of Jefferson, 1804. — Jefferson's 
first administration had been most successful. The 
Republicans had repealed many unpopular laws. 
By the purchase of Louisiana the area of the 
United States had been doubled and an end put 
to the dispute as to the navigation of the Missis- 
sippi. The expenses of the national government 
had been cut down, and a portion of the national 
debt had been j)aid. The people were prosperous 
and happy. Under these circumstances Jefferson 
was triumphantly reelected. He received one hun- 
dred and sixty-two electoral votes to only fourteen 
for his Federalist rival. 


Tripolitau War 





237-239 ; 


247. The North Africa Pirates. — Stretching along The Afric 
the northern shores of Africa from Egypt westward 
to the Atlantic were four states. These states were 
named Tunis, Tri- 
poli, Algiers, and 
Morocco. Their 
people were Mo- 
hammedans, and 
were ruled over by 
persons called Deys 
or Beys, or Pachas. 
These rulers found 
it profitable and 
pleasant to attack 
and capture Chris- 
tian ships. The car- 
goes of the captured 
vessels they sold at 
good prices, and the 

seamen and passengers they sold at good prices too — 
as slaves. The leading powers of Europe, instead of 
destroying these pirates, found it easier to pay them Tribute 
to let their ships alone. Washington and Adams also Paying- 
paid them to allow American ships to sail unharmed. 
But the pirates were never satisfied with what was 
paid them. Jefferson decided to put an end to this 

Stephen Decatur. 


Causes of the War of 1B12 [§§ 247-250 

tribute paying. He sent a few ships to seize the 
pirates and shut up their harbors. More and more 
vessels were sent, until at last the Deys and Beys 
and Pachas thought it would be cheaper to behave 
themselves properly. So they agreed to release their 
American prisoners and not to capture any more 
American ships (1805). In these little wars Ameri- 
can naval officers gained much useful experience and 
did many glorious deeds. Especially Decatur and 
Somers won renown. 

248. America, Britain, and France. — Napoleon 
Bonaparte was now Emperor of the French. In 
1804 he made war on the British and their allies. 
Soon he became supreme on the land, and the 
British became supreme on the water. They could 
no longer fight one another very easily, so they 
determined to injure each other's trade and com- 
merce as much as possible. The British declared 
continental ports closed to commerce, and Napoleon 
declared all British commerce to be unlawful. Of 
course under these circumstances British and Con- 
tinental ships could not carry on trade, and Ameri- 
can vessels rapidly took their places. The British 
shipowners called upon their government to put 
an end to this American commerce. Old laws 
were looked up and enforced. American vessels 
that disobeyed them were seized by the British. 
But if any American vessel obeyed these laws. 
Napoleon seized it as soon as it entered a French 

1807-9] Tlie Embargo 197 

249. The Impressment Controversy. — With the impress- 
British the United States had still another cause of ^^^leston 
complaint. British warships stopped American ves- ^40- 
sels and took away all their seamen who looked like 
Englishmen. These they compelled to serve on 
British men-of-war. As Americans and Englishmen 
looked very much alike, they generally seized all the 
best-looking seamen. Thousands of Americans were 
captured in this way and forced into slavery on 
British men-of-war. This method of kidnaping was 
called impressment. 

250. The Embargo, 1807-1809. — Jefferson hardly The em- 
knew what to do. He might declare war on both ^^^^i'^^^' 
Great Britain and on France. But to do that would =41; 


surely put a speedy end to all American commerce. 226-227,228. 
In the old days, before the Revolutionary War, the 
colonists had more than once brought the British to 
terms by refusing to buy their goods (pp. 84, 85). 
Jefferson now thought that if the people of the 
United States should refuse to trade with the British 
and the P>ench, the governments both of Great 
Britain and of France would be forced to treat 
American commerce properly. Congress therefore 
passed an Embargo Act. This forbade vessels to 
leave American ports after a certain day. If the Failure of 
people had been united, the embargo might have ^^l^^^^T^^' 
done what Jefferson expected it would do. But the Book, 209- 


people were not united. Especially in New Eng- 
land, the shipowners tried in every way to break 
the law. This led to the passing of stricter laws. 


Ca/tscs of the War of 2812 [§§ 250-253 

Outrage on 
the Chfsa- 
petikt-, 1807. 
Ate Master , 


Finally the New Englanders even talked of seceding 
from the Union. 

251. The Outrage on the Chesapeake, 1807. — The 
British now added to the anger of the Americans by 
impressing seamen from the decks of an American 
warship. The frigate Chesapeake left the Norfolk 
navy yard for a cruise. At once the British vessel 
Leopard sailed toward her and ordered her to stop. 
As the Chesapeake did not stop, the Leopard fired on 
her. The American frigate was just setting out, and 

everything was in confu- 
sion on her decks. But 
a coal was brought from 
the cook's stove, and one 
gun was fired. Her flag 
was then hauled down. 
The British came on board 
and seized four seamen, 
who they said were deserters from the British navy. 
This outrage aroused tremendous excitement. Jeffer- 
son ordered all British warships out of American 
waters and forbade the people to supply them with 
provisions, water, or wood. The British offered to 
restore the imprisoned seamen and ordered out of 
American waters the admiral under whose direction 
the outrage had been done. But they would not 
give up impressment. 

252. Madison elected President, 1808. — There is 
nothing in the Constitution to limit the number of 
times a man may be chosen President. Many per- 

An Early Steam Fkrhviuai, Ai;ouT 1810. 

Madison elected President 


sons would gladly have voted a third time for Jeffer- 
son. But he thought that unless some limit were set, 
the people might keep on reelecting a popular and 
successful President term after term. This would 
be very dangerous to the republican form of govern- 
ment. So Jefferson followed Washington's example 
and declined a third term. Washington and Jeffer- 
son thus established a custom that has ever since 
been followed. The 
Republicans voted for 
James Madison, and 
he was elected Presi- 
dent (1808). 

253. The Non-Inter- 
course Act, 1809. — 
By this time the em- 
bargo had become so modern double-decked ferryboat. 
very unpopular that it 

could be maintained only at the cost of civil war. 
Madison suggested that the Embargo Act should 
be repealed, and a Non-Intercourse Act passed in 
its place. Congress at once did as he suggested. 
The Non-Intercourse Act prohibited commerce with 
Great Britain and with France and the countries 
controlled by France. It permitted commerce with 
the rest of the world. There were not many Euro- 
pean countries with which America could trade under 
this law. Still there were a few countries, as Norway 
and Spain, which still maintained their independence. 
And goods could be sold through them to the other 

course Act, 


Causes of the War of 1812 [§§ 253-257 

European countries. At all events, no sooner was 
the embargo removed than commerce revived. Rates 
of freight were very high and the profits were very 
large, although the French and the British captured 
many American vessels. 

254, Two British Ministers. — Soon after Madi- 
son's inauguration a new British minister came to 
Washington. His name was Erskine, and he was 
very friendly. A treaty was speedily made on con- 
ditions which Madison thought could be granted. 
He suspended non-intercourse with Great Britain, 
and hundreds of vessels set sail for that country. 
But the British rulers soon put an end to this 
friendly feeling. They said that Erskine had no 
authority to make such a treaty. They refused to 
carry it out and recalled Erskine. The next British 
minister was a person named Jackson. He accused 
Madison of cheating Erskine and repeated the 
accusation. Thereupon Madison sent him back to 
London. As the British would not carry out the 
terms of Erskine's treaty, Madison was compelled to 
prohibit all intercourse with Great Britain. 

255. British and French Trickery. — The scheme 
of non-intercourse did not seem to bring the British 
and the French to terms much better than the em- 
bargo had done. In 18 10, therefore, Congress set to 
work and produced a third plan. This was to allow 
intercourse with both Great Britain and France. 
But this was coujiled with the promise that if one 
of the two nations st()j)]~»ed seizing American ships 

i8io] Indian Troubles 20 1 

and the other did not, then intercourse with the French 
unfriendly country should be prohibited. Napoleon "'^ ^^'^' 
at once said that he would stop seizing American 
vessels on November i of that year if the British, on 
their part, would stop their seizures before that time. 
The British said that they would stop seizing when 
Napoleon did. Neither of them really did anything British 
except to keep on capturing American vessels when- trickery, 
ever they could get a chance. 

256. Indian Troubles, 1810. — To this everlasting Indians of 

trouble with Great Britain and France were now ^^^ North- 

added the horrors of an Indian war. It came about Eggieston, 
in this way. Settlers were pressing into Indiana ^'*^' 
Territory west of the new state of Ohio. Soon the 
lands which the United States had bought of the 
Indians would be occupied. New lands must be 
bought. At this time there were two able Indian 
leaders in the Northwest. These were Tecumthe, Tecumthe. 
or Tecumseh, and his brother, who was known as 
"the Prophet." These chiefs set on foot a great 
Indian confederation. They said that no one Indian 
tribe should sell land to the United States without 
the consent of all the tribes of the Confederation. 

257. Battle of Tippecanoe. — This determined atti- Battle of 
tude of the Indians seemed to the American leaders 'pp^*=^"°^' 

lol I. 

to be very dangerous. Governor William Henry 
Harrison of Indiana Territory gathered a small army 
of regular soldiers and volunteers from Ohio, Ken- 
tucky, and Indiana. He marched to the Indian 
settlements. The Indians attacked him at Tippe- 


Causes of the War of 1812 [§§ 257-259 

canoe. He beat them off and, attacking in his turn, 
routed them. Tecumthe was not at the battle. But 
he immediately fled to the British in Canada. The 
Americans had suspected that the British were stir- 
ring up the Indians to resist the United States. The 
reception given to Tecumthe made them feel that 
their suspicions were correct. 

258. The War Party in Congress. — There were 
abundant reasons to justify war with Great Britain, 



Mkdai, presentkd to Hknky Ci.ay. ^ 

or with France, or with both of them. But there 
would probably have been no war with either of them 
had it not been for a few energetic young men in Con- 
gress. The leaders of this war party were Henry 
Henry Clay. Clay and Johu C. Calhoun, Clay was born in Vir- 

i8i2] Madison s War Proclamation 203 

ginia, but as a boy he had gone to Kentucky. He 
represented the spirit of the young and growing 
West. He was a true patriot and felt angry at the 
way the British spoke of America and Americans, 
and at the way they acted toward the United States. 
He was a very popular man and won men to him by 
his attractive qualities and by his energy. Calhoun John c. 
was a South Carolinian who had been educated in ^^''^°""- 
Connecticut. He was a man of the highest personal 
character. He had a strong, active mind, and he was 
fearless in debate. As with Clay so with Calhoun, 
they both felt the rising spirit of nationality. They 
thought that the United States had been patient 
long enough. They and their friends gained a ma- 
jority in Congress and forced Madison to send a 
warlike message to Congress. 

259. Madison's Reasons for War, 1812. — In his Madison's 
message Madison stated the grounds for complaint ^^^ message, 
against the British as follows: (i) they impressed McMaster, 
American seamen ; (2) they disturbed American com- ^Book,2il-"' 
merce by stationing warships off the principal ports ; ^'^^■ 
(3) they refused to permit trade between America 
and Europe ; (4) they stirred up the western Indians 
to attack the settlers; (5) they were really making 
war on the United States while the United States 
was at peace with them. For these reasons Madison 
advised a declaration of war against Great Britain, 
and war was declared. 

204 Jefferson id >i Ri'piiblicaiis 

Chapter 22 

§§228,229. — a. Draw a map showing the states and territories in 

h. How and why had the center of popuhition changed since 1791 ? 
Where is it now? 

c. Why did so many people live near tide water? Do the same 
reasons exist to-day? 

§§ 230-232. — a. What were the "best roads"' in 1800? 

l>. Describe the dangers and discomforts of traveling in 1800. 

c. What were the early steamboats like? 

§§ 233, 234. — a. What fact hindered the growth of cotton on a 
large scale in colonial times? 

b. How did Whitney's cotton gin change these conditions? 

§§ 235, 236. — a. Why had manufacturing received so little atten- 
tion before the Revolution? 

/'. How did the new government encourage manufacturing? 

Chaiter 23 

§ 237. — a. How did Jefferson's inauguration illustrate his political 
ideas ? 

b. Compare his method of opening Congress with that employed by 
Washington and Adams. Which method is followed to-day? 

§ 238. — a. What is the Civil Service? How had Washington and 
Adams filled offices? Was their action wise? 

§ 239. — a. Explain the Judiciary Act of 1 801. 

b. What power has Congress over the Judiciary? (Constitution, 
Art. HI). 

§ 240. — a. What was Jefferson's policy toward expenses? How 
did he carry it out? What was the result of these economies? 

/'. Was the reductit)n of the navy wise? What conditions make a 
large navy necessary? 

§§ 241-244. — a. When and how had Louisiana changed hands 
since its settlement? Why were the Spaniards poor neighbors? 

Questions and Topics 205 

b. How did the United States acquire Louisiana? 

c. Trace on a map the boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase. Com- 
pare its value to-day with the price paid. 

(/. What important discoveries did Lewis and Clark make? 

§§ 245, 246. — a. Give instances which illustrate the disadvantages 
of the old way of electing the President and Vice-President. 

b. Explain carefully the changes made by the Twelfth Amendment, 
and show how a President may be elected by a minority of the voters. 

Chapter 24 

§ 247. — a. Describe the doings of the African pirates. Why had 
"Washington and Adams paid them? 

b. Describe Jefferson's action and state the results. 

§§ 248, 249. — a. Compare the power of France and Great Britain 
at this time. 

b. How did they try to injure one another? How did they treat 
American ships? 

c. Explain the impressment of sailors by the British. 

§§ 250, 251. — a. Describe the difficulties of Jefferson's position. 

b. Give instances of refusal to buy British goods and the results. 

c. Explain the Embargo Act. Why was it a failure ? 

d. Describe the outrage on the Chesapeake. Was the offer of the 
British government enough ? What more should have been promised ? 

§§ 252, 253. — a. What were Jefferson's objections to a third term? 
What custom was established by these early Presidents? 

b. Where have we found Madison prominent before? 

c. Explain the difference between the Embargo Act and the Non- 
Intercourse Act. 

§§ 254, 255. — a. Describe the attempt to renew friendly intercourse 
with Great Britain. 

/'. What do you think of Napoleon's treatment of the United States? 

§ 256. — a. What caused the trouble with the Indians? 
b. Describe Harrison's action. How were the British connected 
with this Indian trouble? 

§§ 257-259. — a. How did all these affairs affect the relations be- 
tween the United States and Great Britain? 

2o6 Jeffersouian Republicans 

h. Explain the attitude of Clay and Calhoun. 

c. What is meant by the " rising spirit of nationality "? 

d. Illustrate, by facts already studied, the reasons given in Madison's 

General Questions 

a. How has machinery influenced the history of the United States? 

/'. Draw a map showing the extent of the United States in 1802 and 

c. What were the four most important things in Jefferson's adminis- 
trations? Why do you select these? 

Topics for Special W^ork 

a. Robert Fulton or Eli Whitney, 
/'. Exploration of the Northwest. 

c. W^ar with the African pirates. 

d. Life and manners in 1800. 


The purchase of Louisiana and the early development of the West 
are leading points in this period. With the latter must be coupled the 
important inventions which made such development possible. Commer 
cial questions should receive adecjuate attention and should be illuS' 
trated by present conditions. 

Jefferson's attitude toward both the Louisiana Purchase and the 
enforcement of the Embargo Act is an illustration of the effect which 
power and responsiliility have on those placed at the head of the 
government. This can also be illustrated by events in our own time. 


WAR AND PEACE, 1812-1829 

Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Higginson's Z^r^^r A'z^/t'r/, 365-442 ; Scribner's 
Popular History, IV ; Lossing's Field-Book of the War of 18 12 ; 
Coffin's Btiildmg the Natmi, 149-231. 

Home Readings. — Barnes's Yankee Ships ; Roosevelt's Naval 
War of 1812 ; Seawell's Midshipman Paulding; Holmes's Old 
Ironsides ; Goodwin's Dolly Madison. 



260. Plan of Campaign, 1812. — The American American 
plan of campaign was that General Hull should in- campaign, 
vade Canada from Detroit. He could then march ^812. 
eastward, north of Lake Erie, and meet another army 
which was to cross the Niagara River. These two 
armies were to take up the eastward march and join 
a third army from New York. The three armies 
then would capture Montreal and Quebec and gen- 
erally all Canada. It was a splendid plan. But objections 
there were three things in the way of carrying it 
out: (i) there was no trained American army; (2) 
there were no supplies for an army when gathered 



Second War of Indipcndincc [§S 260-263 

Hull's march 
to Uctroit. 

His mis- 

He sur- 
Detroit, 1812. 

Battle of 
Lake Erie, 

Mc Master, 

and trained; and (3) there was a small, well-trained 
and well-supplied arni)' in Canada. 

261. Hull's Surrender of Detroit, 1812. — In those 
days Detroit was separated from the settled parts of 

Ohio by two hundred 
miles of wilderness. 
To get his men and 
su])plies to Detroit, 
Hull had first of all 
to cut a road through 
— the forest. The Brit- 

DEIKOIT, AliUUT 18IS. • , 1 1 r ,1 

ish learned of the 
actual declaration of war before Hull knew of it. 
They dashed down on his scattered detachments 
and seized his provisions. Hull sent out expedition 
after expedition to gather supplies and bring in the 
scattered settlers. Tecumthe and the other Indian 
allies of the British captured one expedition after 
another. The British advanced on Detroit, and Hull 
surrendered. By this disaster the British got control 
of the upper lakes. They even invaded Ohio. 

262. Perry's Victory on Lake Erie, 1813. — But 
the British triumph did not last long. In the winter 
of 18 1 2-1 3 Captain Oliver Hazard Perry built a 
fleet of warships on Lake Erie. They were built 
of green timber cut for the purpose. They were 
poor vessels, but were as good as the British ves- 
sels. In September, 18 13, Perry sailed in search 
of the British ships. Coming up with them, he 
hoisted at his masthead a large blue flag with Law- 


Battle of Lake Erie 


rence's immortal words, " Don't give up the ship " 
(p. 212), worked upon it. The battle was fiercely- 
fought. Soon Perry's flagship, the Lawrence, was 
disabled and only nine 
of her crew were un- 
injured. Rowing to 
another ship. Perry 
continued the fight. 
In fifteen minutes 
more all the British 
ships surrendered. 
The control of Lake 
Erie was now in 
American hands. 
The British retreated 
from the southern 

side of the lake. General Harrison occupied De- 
troit. He then crossed into Canada and defeated Battle of the 
a British army on the banks of the river Thames 1813. 
(October, 18 13). 

263. The Frigate ConstHuiion. — One of the first Th&Constitu- 
vessels to get to sea was the Constitution, commanded 
by Isaac Hull. She sailed from Chesapeake Bay 
for New York, where she was to serve as a guard- 
ship. On the way she fell in with a British squadron. Chased by 
The Constitution sailed on with the whole British fleet, 1812. 
fleet in pursuit. Soon the wind began to die away. 
The Constitution' s sails were soaked with water 
to make them hold the wind better. Then the 
wind gave out altogether. Captain Hull lowered his 

Perry's Battle Flag. 


Second War of Indcpendftice [§§263-265 

boats and the men began to tow the ship. But the 
British lowered their boats also. They set a great 
many boats to towing their fastest ship, and she began 
to gain on the Constitution. Then Captain Hull 

found that he was sail- 
ing over shoal water, 
although out of sight 
of land, so he sent a 
small anchor ahead in 
a boat. The anchor 
was dropped and men 
on the ship pulled in 
the anchor line. This 
was done again and 
again. The Constitu- 
tion now began to gain 
on the British fleet. 
Then a sudden squall 
burst on the ships. 
Captain Hull saw it 
coming and made every 
preparation to take ad- 
vantage of it. When 

the Rritish fleet. The men in the boat are preparing to carry thc raiu clcared aWaV, 
out a small anchor. 

the Constitution was 
She escapes, bcyoud fear of pursuit. But she could not go 
to New York, so Captain Hull took her to Boston. 
The government at once ordered him to stay where 
he was ; but, before the orders reached Boston, the 
Constitution was far away. 

The " Constitution. 

From an early painting of the escape of the Constitution from 

i8i2] The Frigate Constitution 2ii 

264. Consiiiuiion 2mA Guerrierey 1812. — For some 
time Hull cruised about in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 

One day he sighted a British frigate — the Gjier- Constitution 
rihe — one of the ships that had chased the Con- ^Guerriere 
stitntion. But now that Hull found her alone, he ^^^^• 
steered straight for her. In thirty minutes from the 
firing of the first gun the Gnerrikre was a ruinous 
wreck. All of her masts and spars were shot away 
and most of her crew were killed or wounded. The 
Constitution was only slightly injured, and was soon 
ready to fight another British frigate, had there been 
one to fight. Indeed, the surgeons of the Constitu- 
tion went on board of the Gnerrih-e to help dress the 
wounds of the British seamen. The Gtterrikre was 
a little smaller than the Constitution and had smaller 
guns. But the real reason for this great victory was 
that the American ship and the American guns were 
very much better handled than were the British ship Reasons for 
and the British guns. ^ ^'^ °^^' 

265. The Wasp and the Frolic, 181 2. — At almost 
the same time the American ship Wasp captured the 
British brig Frolic. The Wasp had three masts, and Wasp and 
the Frolic had only two masts. But the two vessels 
were really of about the same size, as the American 
ship was only five feet longer than her enemy, and 
had the lighter guns. In a few minutes after the 
beginning of the fight the Frolic was a shattered 
hulk, with only one sound man on her deck. Soon 
after the conflict a British battleship came up and 
captured both the Wasp and her prize. The effect of 



Second War of Independence [§§ 265-268 

o Naval Dinner. 

' "^ j''HR fwiiUuci), iru««.a »n<l anhscribtfri toHhe 
1 D1SX£U. i;i»in m h-inir .)r the galhnt 
t^nd'ici of Ctxnnvxlur* Daimdiiiooi, (he ilfi- 
•cer» amt cr«» of ibe U S. Irgnc COSSTITU- ilir tiigix<mnit niili hii B SI frijue 
JTAVA. Are refjucflfetl tu »neinble :kt ranueil 
B>ll, »«-i»»rrr>» «( 3 o'Kict, P -»/. from wlnitce 
♦l*e c«»mp«ny wilt K« enooricd by the Boston 
)^K*il (nrinirv and the Wintlox BluU, to Om 
1lx>-lung( 'CoA^e-Muin*. Punctuality it (leairtil> 
aa the Proc«>«iiii, under the direction of M «jor 
B P. Til<l«>i, Chirr Maralial, uill more preciacljr 
M } pKti 3 o'clock 

3ho iW the veailier he ttotmy, the fiieaw »n4 
^hiciiber* will aawt-mble m lUe lower dining 
hail '-f the EMh^ni;' Ctlketlmtr. 

I'd order of >iie Ci)ininint-r of Arrsfigemenu, 
KR A.XCI5 J OLIVElt, tv.'m. 

X. B The Ticketa will be cuilecud m the 
«*ll^_ M^hl 


"I'lie flenOcOwn Suusci'iIh.ti to liic DiX'XERt 
(Ct'CJii* honm' of the brTlfunt victoi-y m< hiev 
eu ;>y CuinmoJore HAi^aJtBat, th* OIBcera 
anil Crew of iLe D. S. ti if[4te CuuaUUttion, are r«- 
arvcctfully not'fi.J, that the TulfeUKill bt de- 
livered I'li'u 04), al llu itJre of M». C^ '7. Cram- 
/«/, Court atreet I 

Tilt' iiunberof aiibKribari la neeesaarily >^m> ' 
iird hy the accan>mud.itii»i> ut ttic liall, kiid the j 
tiibo-^ibrra aic requested lu lake ilirir Ticket* { 
uuliiiiii dcby. inii'ih 1 I 

Attention! j 

THB niX&LUIt- MLOKS ae hereby or. ] 
ilr^il to muatrr at tbcir Afnoiy, to-inor< 
>ov, 13 o'clock, in complete uniform 

Mir J HK.SJ DMtl.lNG, 0. S. 

these victories of the Coiistifiitioii and the IVosp was 
tremendous. Before the war British naval oflficers 
had called the Constitution "a bundle of sticks." 
Now it was thought to be no longer safe for British 
frigates to sail the seas alone. They must go in pairs 

to protect each other 
from "Old Ironsides." 
Before long the Consti- 
tution, now commanded 
by Captain Bainbridge, 
had captured the British 
f rigateyf^^w, and the frig- 
ate United States, Cap- 
tain Decatur, had taken 
the British ship Mace- 
donian. On the other 
hand, the Chesapeake 
was captured by the 
Shannoti. This victory 
gave great satisfaction 
to the British. But 
Captain Lawrence's 
last words, "Don't 
give up the ship," have always been a glorious 
inspiration to American sailors. 

266. Brown's Invasion of Canada, 1814. — In the 
first two years of the war the American armies in New 
York had done nothing. But abler men were now in 
command. Of these, General Jacob Brown, General 
Macomb, Colonel Winfield Scott, and Colonel Ripley 

i8i4] Lundys Lane and Plattsbiirg 213 

deserve to be remembered. The American plan of 
campaign was that Brown, with Scott and Ripley, 
should cross the Niagara River and invade Canada. 
General Macomb, with a naval force under McDon- 
ough, was to hold the line of Lake Champlain. The 
British plan was to invade New York by way of 
Lake Champlain. Brown crossed the Niagara River 
and fought two brilliant battles at Chippewa and 
Lundy's Lane. The latter battle was especially glo- Battle of 
rious, because the Americans captured British guns Lane^iSi 
and held them against repeated attacks by British vet- 
erans. In the end, however. Brown was obliged to 

267. McDonough's Victory at Plattsburg, 1814. — invasion of 
General Prevost, with a fine army of veterans, marched ^^^ ^ 
southward from Canada, while a fleet sailed up Lake 
Champlain. At Plattsburg, on the western side 

of the lake, was General Macomb with a force of 
American soldiers. Anchored before the town was 
McDonough's fleet. Prevost attacked Macomb's army 
and was driven back. The British fleet attacked Mc- Battle of 
Donough's vessels and was destroyed. That put an ^^^^ "'^^' 
end to Prevost's invasion. He retreated back to Can- 
ada as fast as he could go. 

268. The British in the Chesapeake, 1814. — Be- Burning of 
sides their operations on the Canadian frontier, the ^^ 'ngton. 
British tried to capture New Orleans and the cities 

on Chesapeake Bay. The British landed below 
Washington. They marched to the capital. They 
entered Washington. They burned the Capitol, the 


Second Wixr of Indcpouicncc [§§ 268-270 

" The Star- 



.•-■■::ir-^>&- - 



White House, and several other public buildings. 
They then hurried away, leaving their wounded be- 
hind them. Later on 
the British attacked 
Baltimore and were 
beaten off with great 
loss. It was at this 
time that Francis 
Scott Key wrote "The 
Star-Spangled Ban- 
ner." He was de- 
tained on board one 
of the British war- 
ships during the fight. Eagerly he watched through 
the smoke for a glimpse of the flag over Fort 
McHenry at the harbor's mouth. In the morning 
the flag was still there. 
This defeat closed the Brit- 
ish operations on the Chesa- 

269. The Creek War. — 
The Creek Indians lived in 
Alabama. They saw with 
dismay the spreading settle- 
ments of the whites. The 
Americans were now at 
war. It would be a good 
chance to destroy them. So the Creeks fell upon 
the whites and murdered about four hundred. Gen- 
eral Andrew Jackson of Tennessee commanded the 

Flag of Ft. McHenry. 

Fifteen stars and fifteen stripes — 
of each for each state. 


General Jackson 


American army in the Southwest. As soon as he 
knew that the Creeks were attacking the settlers, he 
gathered soldiers and followed the Indians to their 
stronghold. He stormed their fort and killed most 
of the garrison. 

270. Jackson's Defense of New Orleans, 18 14-15. — 
Jackson had scarcely finished this work when he 

Battle of 
New Orleans, 

Copyright, Harper & Brothers. 

Battle of New Orleans. 

From a sketch by one of Jackson's staff. 

learned of the coming of a great British expedition Hero Tales, 
to the mouth of the Mississippi River. He at once ^39-i47- 
hastened to the defense of New Orleans. Below the 
city the country greatly favored the defender. For 
there was very little solid ground except along the 
river's bank. Picking out an especially narrow place, 
Jackson built a breastwork of cotton bales and rub- 
bish. In front of the breastwork he dug a deep 


Second War of Independence [§§270-274 

ditch. The British rushed to the attack. Most of 
their generals were killed or wounded, and the slaugh- 
ter was terrible. Later, they made another attack 
and were again beaten off. 

271. The War on the Sea, 1814. — It was only in 
the first year or so of the war that there was much 
fighting between American and British warships. 
After that the American ships could not get to sea, 
for the British stationed whole fleets off the entrances 
to the principal harbors. But a few American vessels 
ran the blockade and did good service. For instance, 
Captain Charles Stewart in the Constitution captured 
two British ships at one time. But most of the 
warships that got to sea were captured sooner or 

272. The Privateers. — No British fleets could keep 
the privateers from leaving port. They swarmed 
upon the ocean and captured hundreds of British 
merchantmen, some of them within sight of the 
shores of Great Britain. In all, they captured more 
than twenty-five hundred British ships. They even 
fought the smaller warships of the enemy. 

273. Treaty of Ghent, 1814. —The war had hardly 
begun before commissioners to treat for peace were 
appointed by both the United States and Great Britain. 
But they did nothing until the failure of the 18 14 
campaign showed the British government that there 
was no hope of conquering any portion of the United 
States. Then the British were ready enough to make 
peace, and a treaty was signed at Ghent in December, 


Treaty of GJient 


1 8 14. This was two weeks before the British disaster 
at New Orleans occurred, and months before the 
news of it reached Europe. None of the things 
about which the war was fought were even men- 
tioned in the treaty. But this did not really make 
much difference. For the British had repealed their 
orders as to American ships before the news of the 

The Old State House. 

Where the Hartford Convention met. 

declaration of war reached London. As for impress- 
ment, the guns of the Constit^ition had put an end 
to that. 

274. The Hartford Convention, 1814. — While the New 
commissioners were talking over the treaty of peace, peleraiists 
other debaters were discussing the war, at Hartford, 


Second War of Indcpoidcncc [§§ 274-276 


THK Hartford Convention. 

Connecticut. These were leading New England 
Federalists. They thought that the government at 
Washington had done many things that the Constitu- 
tion of the United States did 
not permit it to do. They 
drew up a set of resolutions. 
Some of these read like those 
other resolutions drawn up 
by Jefferson and Madison in 
1798 (p. 175). The Hartford 
debaters also thought that the 
national government had not 
done enough to protect the 
coasts of New England from 
British attacks. They proposed, therefore, that the 
taxes collected by the national government in New 
England should be handed over to the New Eng- 
land states to use for their defense. Commissioners 
were actually at Washington to propose this division 
of the national revenue when news came of Jackson's 
victory at New Orleans and of the signing of the 
Treaty of Ghent. The commissioners hastened home 
and the Republican party regained its popularity with 
the voters. 

275. Gains of the War. — The United States gained 
no territory after all this fighting on sea and land. 
It did not even gain the abolition of impressment in 
so many words. But what was of far greater impor- 
tance, the American people began to think of itself 
as a nation. Americans no longer looked to France 


The Era of Good Feeling 


or to England as models to be followed. They 
became Americans. The getting of this feeling of TheAmeri- 
independence and of nationality was a very great *^^" nation, 
step forward. It is right, therefore, to speak of this 
war as the Second War of Independence. 


276. The Era as a Whole. —The years 1815-24 


have been called the Era of Good Feeling, because !!^^^.^,^ , 

°' President, 

1816, 1820. 

James Monroe. 

there was no hard political fighting in all that time — 
at least not until the last year or two. In 18 16 
Monroe was elected President without much opposi- 
tion. In 1820 he was reelected President without 
any opposition whatever. Instead of fighting over 


The Era of Good Feeling [§§ 276-278 

istics of the 
Era of Good 

Hard times, 

to the West, 
Mc Master, 
241, 266-273. 

politics, the people were busily employed in bringing 
vast regions of the West under cultivation and in 
founding great manufacturing industries in the East. 
They were also making roads and canals to connect 
the Western farms with the Eastern cities and facto- 
ries. The later part of the era was a time of un- 
bounded prosperity. Every now and then some hard 
question would come up for discussion. Its settle- 
ment would be put off, or the matter would be 
compromised. In these years the Federalist party 
disappeared, and the Republican party split into fac- 
tions. By 1824 the differences in the Republican 
party had become so great that there was a sudden 
ending to thfe Era of Good Feeling. 

277. Western Emigration. — During the first few 
years of this period the people of the older states on 
the seacoast felt very poor. The shipowners could 
no longer make great profits. For there was now 
peace in Europe, and European vessels competed 
with American vessels. Great quantities of British 
goods were sent to the United States and were sold 
at very low prices. The demand for American goods 
fell off. Mill owners closed their mills. Working 
men and women could find no work to do. The re- 
sult was a great rush of emigrants from the older 
states on the seaboard to the new settlements in -the 
West. In the West the emigrants could buy land 
from the government at a very low rate, and by work- 
ing hard could support themselves and their families. 
This westward movement was at its height in 18 17. 

1816-19] Western Emigration 221 

In the years 18 16-19, fo^^r states were admitted to 

the Union. These were Indiana (18 16), Mississippi Four states 

(181 7), Illinois (18 18), and Alabama (18 19). Some jgle-Ig!'' 

of the emigrants even crossed the Mississippi River 

and settled in Missouri and in Arkansas. In 18 19 

they asked to be admitted to the Union as the state 

of Missouri, or given a territorial government under 

the name of Arkansas. The people of Maine also Maine and 

asked Congress to admit them to the Union as the '^'^'^f""" 

state of Maine. admission. 

278. Opposition to the Admission of Missouri. — Objections 
Many people in the North opposed the admission of admission of 
Missouri because the settlers of the proposed state Missouri. 
were slaveholders. Missouri would be a slave state, 
and these Northerners did not want any more slave 
states. Originally slavery had existed in all the old 
thirteen states. But every state north of Maryland 
had before 18 19 either put an end to slavery or had 
adopted some plan by which slavery would gradually 
come to an end. Slavery had been excluded from 
the NorthAvest by the famous Ordinance of 1787 
(p. 135). In these ways slavery had ceased to be a 
vital institution north of Maryland and Kentucky. 
Why should slavery be allowed west of the Missis- 
sippi River.? Louisiana had been admitted as a slave 
state (1812). But the admission of Louisiana had 
been provided for in the treaty for the purchase of 
Louisiana from France. The Southerners felt as 
strongly on the other side. They said that their 
slaves were their property, and that they had a per- 


The Era of Good Ire ling [§§ 278-281 






254-256 ; 



\ county; ;f " — -— . 

OF 1830 

Both states 





feet right to take their property and settle on the 
land belon<;ing to the nation. Having founded a 
slave state, it was only right that the state should be 
admitted to the Union. 

279. The Missouri Compromise, 1820. — When the | 
question of the admission of Maine and Missouri 
came before Congress, the Senate was equally divided 
between the slave states and the free states. But the 
majority of the House of Representatives was from 

the free states. The 
free states were grow- 
ing faster than were 
the slave states and 
would probably keep 
on growing faster. 
The majority from 
the free states in the 
House, therefore, 
would probably keep 
on increasing. If the 
free states obtained a majority in the Senate also, the 
Southerners would lose all control of the government. 
For these reasons the Southerners would not consent 
to the admission of Maine as a free state unless at 
the same time Missouri was admitted as a slave state. 
After a long struggle Maine and Missouri were both 
admitted — the one as a free state, the other as a 
slave state. But it was also agreed that all of the 
Louisiana purchase north of the southern boundary 
of Missouri, with the single exception of the state of 

i82o] The Missouri Compromise 223 

Missouri, should be free soil forever. This arrange- 
ment was called the Missouri Compromise. It was ' 
the work of Henry Clay. It was an event of great 
importance, because it put off for twenty-five years 
the inevitable conflict over slavery. 

280. The Florida Treaty, 1819 While this con- Reasons for 

test was going on, the United States bought of Spain JJ'/p'j'or^J'^^"^ 
a large tract of land admirably suited to negro slavery. 

This was Florida. It belonged to Spain and was a ref- 
uge for all sorts of people: runaway negroes, fugitive 
Indians, smugglers, and criminals of all kinds. Once 
in Florida, fugitives generally were safe. But they 
were not always safe. For instance, in 18 18 General 
Jackson chased some fleeing Indians over the boun- 
dary. They sought refuge in a Spanish fort, and Jack- jackson 
son was obliged to take the fort as well as the Indians. 1^,^^!^^^ 

° Honda, 

This exploit made the Spaniards more willing to sell iSis. 
Florida. The price was five million dollars. But The Florida 
when it came to giving up the province, the Spaniards P^'''=h^se, 
found great difficulty in keeping their promises. The 
treaty was made in 1819, but it was not until 1821 that 
Jackson, as governor of Florida, took possession of 
the new territory. Even then the Spanish governor 
refused to hand over the record books, and Jackson 
had to shut him up in prison until he became more 

281. The ** Holy Alliance." — Most of the people Formation 
of the other Spanish colonies were rebelling against ^n^^nc^"'^ 
Spain, and there was a rebellion in Spain itself. 

There were rebellions in other European countries 


TJie lira of Good Feeling [§§ 281-282 

as well as in Spain. In fact, there seemed to be a 
rebellious spirit nearly everywhere. This alarmed | 
the European emperors and kings. With the excep- 
tion of the British king, they joined together to put 
down rebellions. They called their union the Holy 
Alliance. They soon put the Spanish king back on^ 
his throne. They then thought that they would send 

Oi,i> IIiiisi:s, Si 

warships and soldiers across the Atlantic Ocean to 
crush the rebellions in the Spanish colonies. Now 
the pcoj)le of the United States sympathized with the 
Spanish colonists in their desire for independence. 
They also disliked the idea of Europeans interfering 
in American affairs. "America for Americans," was 
the cry. It also happened that Englishmen desired 
the freedom of the Spanish colonists. As her subjects 

1823] TJie Monroe Doctrine 225 

Spain would not let them buy English goods. But if TheSpanish- 
they were free, they could buy goods wherever they coToni'sis" 
pleased. The British government therefore proposed '"^^'^' against 


that the United States and Great Britain should join 
in a declaration that the Spanish colonies were in- 
dependent states. John Ouincy Adams, son of John 
Adams, was Monroe's Secretary of State. He 
thought that this would not be a wise course to fol- 
low, because it might bring American affairs within 
European control. He was all the more anxious to 
prevent this entanglement, as the Czar of Russia was Russian 
preparing to found colonies on the western coast of coiTni'za-^ 
North America and Adams wanted a free hand to *'°"- 
deal with him. 

282. The Monroe Doctrine, 1823. — It was under TheMomoe 

these circumstances that President Monroe sent a ^°^'""^' 


message to Congress. In it he stated the policy of McMaster, 

262— 26 ^, 

the United States as follows: (i) America is closed 
to colonization by any European power; (2) the 
United States have not interfered and will not inter- 
fere in European affairs; (3) the United States regard 
the extension of the system of the Holy Alliance to 
America as dangerous to the United States ; and 
(4) the United States would regard the interference 
of the Holy Alliance in American affairs as an "un- 
friendly act." This part of the message was written 
by Adams. He had had a long experience in 
diplomacy. He used the words " unfriendly act " 
as diplomatists use them when they mean that such 
an " unfriendly act " would be a cause for war. The 



NeiK' Parlies tind Neiv Policies [§§ 282-286 

l^ritish government also informed the Holy Allies 
that their interference in American affairs would be 
resented. The Holy Alliance gave over all idea of 
crushing the Spanish colonists. And the Czar of 
Russia agreed to found no colonies south of fifty- 
four degrees and forty minutes north latitude. 

283. Meaning of the Monroe Doctrine. — The ideas ' 
contained in Monroe's celebrated message to Con- 
gress are always spoken of as the Monroe Doctrine. 
Most of these ideas were not invented by Monroe or 
by Adams. Many of them may be found in Wash- 
ington's Neutrality Proclamation, in Washington's 
Farewell Address, in Jefferson's Inaugural Address, 
and in other documents. What was new in Monroe's 
message was the statement that European inter- 
ference in American affairs would be looked upon by 
the United States as an "unfriendly act," leading to 
war. European kings might crush out liberty in 
Europe. They might divide Asia and Africa among 
themselves. They must not interfere in American 


284. End of the Era of Good Feeling. —The Era 
of Good P^eeling came to a sudden ending in 1824. 
Monroe's second term as President would end in 
1825. He refused to be a candidate for reelection. 
In thus following the example set by Washington, 

1824] Presidential Candidates 227 

Jefferson, and Madison, Monroe confirmed the cus- 
tom of limiting the presidential term to eight years. 
There was no lack of candidates to succeed him in 
his high office. 

285. John Quincy Adams. — First and foremost J.Q.Adams, 
was John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts. He was 
Monroe's Secretary of State, and this office had been 

a kind of stepping-stone to the presidency. Monroe 
had been Madison's Secretary of State ; Madison 
had been Jefferson's Secretary of State ; and Jeffer- 
son had been Washington's Secretary of State, al- 
though he was Vice-President when he was chosen 
to the first place. John Quincy Adams was a states- 
man of great experience and of ability. He was a 
man of the highest honor and intelligence. He was 
nominated by the legislatures of Massachusetts and 
of the other New England states. 

286. William H. Crawford. — Besides Adams, two w. h. 
other members of Monroe's cabinet wished to suc- 
ceed their chief. These were John C. Calhoun and 
William H. Crawford. Calhoun soon withdrew from 

the contest to accept the nomination of all the factions 
to the place of Vice-President. Crawford was from 
Georgia and was Secretary of the Treasury. As the 
head of that great department, he controlled more 
appointments than all the other members of the 
cabinet put together. The habit of using public 
offices to reward political friends had begun in Penn- 
sylvania. Washington, in his second term, Adams, 
and Jefferson had appointed to office only members 


New Parties and New Policies [§§ 286-288 

of their own party. Jefferson had also removed from 
office a few political opponents (p. 187). But there 
were great difficulties in the way of making removals. 

Crawford hit upon 
the plan of appoint- 
ing officers for four 
years only. Con- 
gress at once fell 
in with the idea and 
passed the Tenure 
of Office Act, limit- 
ing appointments to 
four years. Craw- 
ford promptly used 
this new power to 
build up a strong 
political machine in 
the Treasury De- 
partment, devoted 
to his personal ad- 
vancement. He was nominated for the presidency 
by a Congressional caucus and became the "regular" 

287. Clay and Jackson. — Two men outside of 
the cabinet were also put forward for Monroe's high 
office. These were Andrew Jackson of Tennessee 
and Henry Clay of Kentucky. Clay and Calhoun 
had entered politics at about the same time. They 
had then believed in the same policy. Calhoun had 
abandoned his early ideas. But Clay held fast to 

Vupyriylit, J. B. Lyon & Co. 

John C. Calhoun. 

1824] Clay and Jackson 229 

the policy of "nationalization." He still favored in- 
ternal improvements at the national expense. He 
still favored the protective system. He was the 
great " peacemaker " and tried by means of com- 
promises to unite all parts of the Union (p. 222). 
He loved his country and had unbounded faith in 
the American people. The legislatures of Kentucky 
and other states nominated him for the presidency. 
The strongest man of all the candidates was Andrew Andrew 
Jackson, the " Hero of New Orleans." He had ^°"' 
never been prominent in politics. But his warlike 
deeds had made his name and his strength familiar 
to the voters, especially to those of the West. He 
was a man of the people, as none of his rivals were. 
He stood for democracy and the Union. The legis- 
latures of Tennessee and other states nominated 
Jackson for the presidency. 

288. Adams chosen President, 1824. — The elec- The election 
tion was held. The presidential electors met in their ° ^ ^' 
several states and cast their votes for President and 
Vice-President . The ballots were brought to Wash- 
ington and were counted. No candidate for the it goes to 
presidency had received a majority of all the votes oflRepre-^ 
cast. Jackson had more votes than any other candi- sentatives. 
date, next came Adams, then Crawford, and last of 
all Clay. The House of Representatives, voting 
by states, must choose one of the first three President. 
Clay, therefore, was out of the race. Clay and his 
friends believed in the same things that Adams and 
his friends believed in, and had slight sympathy 


New Partus and Nc^v Policies [§§ 288-291 

with the views of Jackson or of Crawford. So they 
joined the Adams men and chose Adams President. 
The Jackson men were furious. They declared that 
the Representatives had defeated the " will of the 

289. Misfortunes of Adams's Administration. — 
Adams's first mistake was the appointment of Clay 

John Quincy Adams. 

as Secretary of State. It was a mistake, because it 
gave the Jackson men a chance to assert that there 
had been a " deal " between Adams and Clay. They 
called Clay the "Judas of the West." They said 
that the " will of the people " had been defeated by 
a "corrupt bargain." These charges were repeated 

1825-2] Misfortunes of Adams 231 

over and over again until many people really began 

to think that there must be some reason for them. 

The Jackson men also most unjustly accused Adams Weakness 

of steahng the nation's money. The British gov- ad^fni^'a'- 

ernment seized the opportunity of Adams's weak *'o"- 

administration to close the West India ports to 

American shipping. 

290. Early Tariffs. — Ever since 1789 manufactures Early tariff 
had been protected (p. 155). The first tariff rates '^'''• 
were very low. But the Embargo Act, the non- 
intercourse law, and the War of 1812 put an end 

to the importation of foreign goods. Capitalists 
invested large amounts of money in cotton mills, 
woolen mills, and iron mills. With the return of 
peace in 181 5, British merchants flooded the Ameri- 
can markets with cheap goods (p. 220). The manu- 
facturers appealed to Congress for more protection, The tariff 
and Congress promptly passed a new tariff act (18 16). °^^^^^- 
This increased the duties over the earlier laws. But 
it did not give the manufacturers all the protection 
that they desired. In 1824 another law was drawn Tariff of 
up. It raised the duties still higher. The Southern- ^ ^' 
ers opposed the passage of this last law. For they 
clearly saw that protection did them no good. But 
the Northerners and the Westerners were heartily in 
favor of the increased duties, and the law was passed. 

291. The Tariff of Abominations, 1828. — In 1828 Agitation for 
another presidential election was to be held. The ^on'^i'^2°8.'^'^' 
manufacturers thought that this would be a good 

time to ask for even higher protective duties, because 


Attt' Pariics a/ui Ncio Policies [§§ 291-292 

the politicians would not dare to oppose the passage 
of the law for fear of losing votes. The Jackson 
men hit upon a plan by which they would seem to 
favor higher duties while at the same time they were 
really opposing them. They therefore proposed high 
duties on manufactured goods. This would please 
the Northern manufacturers. They proposed high 
duties on raw materials. This would please the 
Western producers. But they thought that the manu- 
facturers would oppose the final passage of the bill 
because the high duties on raw materials would injure 
them very much. The bill would fail to pass, and 
this would please the Southern cotton growers. It was 
a very shrewd little plan. But it did not work. Th'^ 
manufacturers thought that it would be well at all 
events to have the high duties on manufactured goods 
— perhaps they might before long secure the repeal 
of the duties on raw materials. The Northern mem- 
bers of Congress voted for the bill,. and it passed. 

292. Jackson elected President, 1828. — In the 
midst of all this discouragement as to foreign affairs 
and this contest over the tariff, the presidential cam- 
paign of 1828 was held. Adams and Jackson were 
the only two candidates. Jackson was elected by a 
large majority of electoral votes. But Adams re- 
ceived only one vote less than he had received in 
1824. The contest was very close in the two large 
states of Pennsylvania and New York. Had a few 
thousand more voters in those states cast their votes 
for Adams, the electoral votes of those states would 

1828] Jackson elected President 233 

have been given to him, and he would have been 
elected. It was fortunate that Jackson was chosen. 
For a great contest between the states and the na- 
tional government was coming on. It was well that 
a man of Jackson's commanding strength and great 
popularity should be at the head of the government. 


Chapter 25 

§§ 260-262. — a. Explain by a map the American plan of campaign 
and show its advantages and disadvantages. 

b. Describe Perry's victory. How did this turn the scale of war? 

§§ 263-265. — a. Describe the escape of the Constitution from the 
British fleet. Describe the destruction of the Guerrih-e and of the 
Frolic. What was the reason for the American successes? 

b. Why was the effect of these victories so great? 

c. Why did the capture of the Chesapeake cause so much delight in 
England? Why are Lawrence's words so inspiring? 

§§ 266, 267. — a. Compare the second plan for the invasion of 
Canada with the earlier one. 

b. Discuss the events of Brown's campaign and its results. 

c. Compare Prevost's campaign with Burgoyne's. Why was it un- 

d. What do Perry's and McDonough's victories show? 

§ 268. — a. Why were the British attacks directed against these 
three portions of the country? 

/'. Describe the attack on Washington. Was the burning of the 
public buildings justifiable? 

c. Read the " Star-Spangled Banner " and explain the allusions. 

§§ 269, 270. — a. Describe Jackson's plans for the defense of New 
Orleans. Why were they so successful? 

234 ^^'^'' (^'^'^ Peace 

b. Why did not this success of the Americans have more effect on 
the peace negotiations? 

§§ 271, 272. — a. Why were most of the naval conflicts during the 
first year of the war? What is a blockade? What is a privateer? 
/'. What work did the privateers do? 

§ 273. — a. Why was so little advance made at first toward a treaty 
of peace ? 

b. Why was the news of the treaty so long in reaching Washington? 

c. What was settled by the war? 

§ 274. — a. Were the Federalists or the Republicans more truly the 
national party? 

/'. What propositions were made by the Hartford Convention? If 
such proposals were carried out, what would be the effect on the Union? 

c. Compare the princijiles underneath these resolutions with those of 
the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. 

§ 275. — a. Note carefully the effect of this war, 

b. Why is it called the Second War of Independence? 

Chaffer 26 

§§ 276, 277. — n. What is meant by the Era of Good Feeling? Is 
this period more important or less important than the period of war 
which preceded it? Why? 

b. What matters occupied the attention of the people? 

c. What shows the sudden increase in Western migration? 

§§ 278, 279. — a. State carefully the objections to the admission of 
Missouri on the part of the Northerners. Why did the Southerners 
object to the admission of Maine ? 

b. Trace on a map the line between the free states and the slave 
states. Why was slavery no longer of importance north of this line? 
Why was it important south of this line? 

c. Why were the free states gaining faster than the slave states? 

d. Explain the Missouri Compromise. How did the Compromise 
postpone the conflict over slavery? 

§ 280. — a. Why was Florida a danger to the United States? 
/'. What people in the United States would welcome the purchase 
of Florida? 

c. What does this section show you as to Jackson's character? 

Questions and Topics 235 

§ 281. — a. Why was the Holy Alliance formed? What did the 
allies propose as to America? 

b. How was this proposal regarded by Americans? Why? 

c. How was it regarded by Englishmen? Why? 

' §§ 282, 283. — a. Explain carefully the four points of Monroe's 

b. Were these ideas new? What is an "unfriendly act"? 

c. What action did Great Britain take? What was the result of the 
declarations of the United States and Great Britain. 

d. What was the new point in Monroe's message? 

e. Do we still keep to the Monroe Doctrine in all respects? 

Chapter 27 

§§ 284-288. — a. Who were the candidates for President in 1824? 
Describe the qualities and careers of each of them. For whom would 
you have voted had you had the right to vote in 1824? 

b. How were these candidates nominated? What is a caucus? 

c. Describe the Tenure of Office Act. Should a man be given an 
office simply because he has helped his party? 

d. In what respects was Jackson unlike the early Presidents? 

e. What was the result of the election? Who was finally chosen? 
Why? If you had been a Representative in 1824, for whom would you 
have voted? Why? 

f. What is a majority? A plurality? 

§ 289. — a. Why was the appointment of Clay a mistake? 

b. What charges were made against Adams ? 

c. Describe the misfortunes of Adams's administration. 

§§ 290, 291. — a. How are manufactures protected? 

b. Why were the protective tariffs of no benefit to the Southerners? 

c. Why was an attempt for a higher tariff made in 1828? 

d. Explain the plan of the Jackson men. Why did the plan fail? 

§ 292. — a. Describe the election of 1828. 

b. How was Jackson fitted to meet difficulties? 

General Questions 

a. Why was the navy better prepared for war than the army? 
h. Why did slaveholders feel the need of more slave territory in the 


War aiui l\ace 

c. Jackson has l)een called " a man of the people." Explain this 

Topics for Si-ecial Work 

a. Early life of Andrew Jackson (to 1828). 

b. A battle of the War of 181 2, e.g. Lake Erie, Lundy's Lane, 
Plattsburg, New Orleans, or a naval combat. 

c. The frigate Constitution. 

d. The career of Clay, of Calhoun, of J. Q. Adams, or of Monroe. 


The results of the War of 1S12 should be carefully studied and com- 
pared with the proposals of the Hartford Convention. These last can be 
taught by comparison with the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. 

To the Missouri Compromise much time and careful explanation 
should be given. Touch upon the economic side of slavery, and ex- 
plain how the continued supremacy of the slave power was threatened. 

The Monroe Doctrine is another difficult topic; but it can be ex- 
plained by recent history. 

The election of 1824 can be carefully employed to elucidate the 
mode of electing President, and the struggle over the tariffs can be 
illustrated by recent tariff contests. 

Flag adopted in 18 18. 

A for each state and a stripe for each of the original states. 




Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Scribner's Popular History, IV; Lodge's Web- 
ster; Coffin's Biiihiifig ilie Nation, 251-313. 

Home Readings. — Roosevelt's Winning of the West; Hale's 
Stories of Inventions ; Wright's Stories of American Progress. 


293. A New Race. — Between the election of Presi- Changes in 
dent Jefferson and the election of President Jackson '^°" "'°"^' 
great changes had taken place. The old Revolution- 
ary statesmen had gone. New men had taken their 
places. The old sleepy life had gone. Everywhere 
now was bustle and hurry. In 1800 the Federal- 
ists favored the British, and the Republicans favored 
the French. Now no one seemed to care for either 
the British or the French. At last the people had 
become Americans. The Federalist party had dis- 
appeared. Every one now was either a National 



The A mi' lien H People in 1830 [§§ 293-296 

of transport 
over the 
252, 280-282. 

The Cumber- 
land Road. 

Republican and voted for Adam.s, or a Democratic 
Reiniblican and voted for Jackson. 

294. Numbers and Area. — In 1800 there were 
only five and one-half million people in the whole 
United States. Now there were nearly thirteen mil- 
lion people. And they had a very much larger coun- 
try to live in. In 1800 the area of the United States 
was about eight hundred thousand square miles. 
But Louisiana and Florida had been bought since 
then. Now the area of the United States was more 
than two million square miles. The population of; 
the old states had greatly increased. Especially the 
cities had grown. In 1800 New York City held 
about sixty thousand people ; it now held two 
hundred thousand people. But it was in the West 
that the greatest growth had taken place. Since 
1800 Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Alabama, Mississippi, 
Louisiana, and Missouri had all been admitted to 
the Union. 

295. National Roads. — Steamboats were now run- 
ning on the Great Lakes and on all the important 
rivers of the West. The first result of this new mode 
of transport was the separation of the West from 
the East. Steamboats could carry passengers and 
goods up and down the Mississippi and its branches 
more cheaply and more comfortably than people 
and goods could be carried over the Alleghanies. 
Many persons therefore advised the building of a 
good wagon road to connect the Potomac with the 
Ohio. The eastern end of this great road was at 

i83q] Natio7ial Roads 239 

Cumberland on the Potomac in Maryland. It is 
generally called, therefore, the Cumberland Road. 
It was begun at the national expense in 181 1. By 
1820 it was built as far as Wheeling on the Monon- 
gahela River. From that point steamboats could 
steam to Pittsburg, Cincinnati, St. Louis, or New 
Orleans. Later on, the road was built farther west, 
as far as Illinois. Then the coming of the railroad 
made further building unnecessary. 

296. The Erie CanaL — The best way to connect 
one steamboat route with another was to dig a canal. 
The most famous of all these canals was the one The Erie 
connecting the Hudson River with Lake Erie, and ^f'lV ^, ^^' 

o ' McMaster, 

called the Erie Canal. It was begun in 18 17 and 282-284. 
was completed so that a boat could pass through it 
in 1825. It was De Witt Clinton who argued that DeWitt 
such a canal would benefit New York City by bring- 
ing to it the produce of the Northwest and of west- 
ern New York. At the same time it would benefit 
the farmers of those regions by bringing their prod- 
uce to tide water cheaper than it could be brought 
by road through Pennsylvania. It would still fur- 
ther benefit the farmers by enabling them to buy 
their goods much cheaper, as the rates of freight 
would be so much lower by canal than they were 
by road. People who did not see these things as 
clearly as De Witt Clinton saw them, spoke of the 
enterprise most sneeringly and called the canal 
"Clinton's big ditch." It very soon appeared that 
Clinton was right. In one year the cost of carry- 



The American People in 1830 [§§ 296-298 

Results of 
the building 
of the Erie 

ing a ton of grain from Lake Erie to the Hudson 
River fell from one hundred dollars to fifteen dol- 
lars. New York City soon outstripped all its rivals 
and became the center of trade and money in the 
United States. Other canals, as the Chesapeake and 
Ohio Canal, were marvels of skill. But they were not 
so favorably situated as the Erie Canal and could not 
compete with it successfully. 


The first 

297. Early Railroads. — The best stone and gravel 
roads were always rough in places. It occurred to 
some one that it would be better to lay down wooden 
rails, and then to place a rim or flange on the wagon 
wheels to keep them on the rails. The first road of 
this kind in America was built at Boston in 1807. 
It was a very rude affair and was only used to carry 
dirt from the top of a hill to the harbor. The wooden 
rails soon wore out, so the next step was to nail strips 


Early Railroads 



of iron on top of them. Long lines of railroads of 
this kind were soon built. Both passengers and 
goods could be carried on them. Some of them were 
built by private persons or by companies. Others 
were built by a town or a state. Any one having 
horses and wagons with flanged wheels could use the 
railway on the payment of a small sum of money. 
This was the condition of affairs when the steam 
locomotive was invented. 

298. The Steam Locomotive. — Steam was used 
to drive boats through the water. Why should 
not steam be 
used to haul 
wagons over 
a railroad } 
This was a 
very easy 
question to 
ask, and a 
very hard one 

to answer. Year after year inventors worked on the invention of 
problem. Suddenly, about 1830, it was solved in ,ive °i8q!^°' 
several places and by several men at nearly the same 
time. It was some years, however, before the loco- 
motive came into general use. The early railroad 
trains were rude affairs. The cars were hardly more Hardships 
than stagecoaches with flanged wheels. They were o*^ ^^' '>' ''aii- 
fastened together with chains, and when the engine 
started or stopped, there was a terrible bumping and 
jolting. The smoke pipe of the engine was very tall 

sTZ^^^^SJ^// W 

An Early Locomotive. 

road travel. 


The AnuriciDi J\\^p/e in i8jo [§§ 298-300 

and was hinged so that it could be let down when 
coming to a low bridge or a tunnel. Then the smoke 
and cinders poured straight into the passengers' faces. 
But these trains went faster than canal boats or steam- 
boats. Soon the railroad began to take the first place 
as a means of transport. 

299. Other Inventions. — The coming of the steam 
locomotive hastened the changes which one saw on 
every side in 1830. For some time men had known 
that there was plenty of hard coal or anthracite in 

A l.()C<JMi)ri\K OK TO-DAV. 

Pennsylvania. But it was so hard that it would not 
burn in the old-fashioned stoves and fireplaces. Now 
a stove was invented that would burn anthracite, and 
the whole matter of house warming was completely 
changed. Then means were found to make iron 
from ore with anthracite. The whole iron industry 
awoke to new life. Next the use of gas made from 
coal became common in cities. The great increase 
in manufacturing, and the great changes in modes 
of transport, led jjeople to crowd together in cities 
and towns. These inventions made it possible to 





feed and warm large numbers of persons gathered 
into small areas. The cities began to grow so fast 
that people could no longer live near their work or 
the shops. Lines of stagecoaches were established, 
and the coaches were soon followed by horse cars, 
which ran on iron tracks laid in the streets. 

300. Progress in Letters. — There was also great Growth of 

, . T,, 1 1 ^ the school 

progress m learnmg. i he school system was con- system, 
stantly improved. Especially this was the case in 

An Early Horse Caii. 

the West, where the government devoted one thirty- 
sixth part of the public lands to education. High 
schools were founded, and soon normal schools were 
added to them. Even the colleges awoke from their 
long sleep. More students weht to them, and the 
methods of teaching were improved. Some slight 
attention, too, was given to teaching the sciences. In Webster's 
1828 Noah Webster published the lirst edition of his ^ry.- 
great dictionary. Unfortunately he tried to change 
the spelling of many words, l^ut in other ways his 

' Diction- 


The A)iicrican People in 1830 [§§ 300-302 

dictionary was a great improvement. He defined 
words so that they could be understood, and he gave 
the American meaning of many words, as " congress." 
American writers now began to make great reputa- 
tions. Cooper, Irving, and Bryant were at the height 
of their fame. They were soon joined by a wonder- 
ful set of men, 
who speedily made 
America famous. 
These were Emer- 
son, Lowell, Long- 
fellow, Holmes, 
Hawthorne, Pres- 
cott, Motley, Ban- 
croft, and Sparks. 
In science, also, men 
of mark were be- 
ginningtheir labors, 
as Pierce, Gray, Sil- 
liman, and Dana. 
Louis Agassiz be- 
fore long began his 
wonderful lectures, 
which did much to make science popular. In short, 
Jackson's administration marks the time when Ameri- 
can life began to take on its modern form. 

Noah Webster. 

1829] Andrciv Jackson 245 


301. General Jackson. — Born in the backwoods Jackson's 
of Carolina, Jackson had early crossed the Alleghanies ^^^ ^ '^^'^^^''• 
and settled in Tennessee. Whenever trouble came 

to the Western people, whenever there was need of 
a stout heart and an iron will, Jackson was at the 
front. He always did his duty. He always did his , 
duty well. Honest and sincere, he believed in him- 
self and he believed in the American people. As 
President he led the people in one of the stormiest 
periods in our history. Able men gathered about 
him. But he relied chiefly on the advice of a few His "kitchen 
friends who smoked their pipes with him and formed 
his " kitchen cabinet." He seldom called a regular 
cabinet meeting. When he did call one, it was often 
merely to tell the members what he had decided 
to do. 

302. The Spoils System. — Among the able men Party 
who had fought the election for Jackson were Van 
Buren and Marcy of New York and Buchanan of 
Pennsylvania. They had built up strong party ma- 
chines in their states. For they " saw nothing wrong 

in the principle that to the victors belong the spoils The Spoils 
of victory." So they rewarded their party workers y^^""- 
with offices — when they won. The Spoils System 
was now begun in the national government. Those 
who had worked for Jackson rushed to Washington. 


The Rcigii of Andmv Jackson [§§ 302-305 

The hotels and boarding-houses could not hold them. 
Some of them camped out in the parks and public 
squares of the capital. Removals now went merrily 
on. Rotation in office was the cry. Before long 
Jackson removed nearly one thousand officeholders 
and appointed political partisans in their places. 

303. The North and the South. — The South was 
now a great cotton-producing region. This cotton 
was grown by negro slaves. The North was now a 
great manufacturing and commercial region. It was 
also a great agricultural region. But the labor in the 
mills, fields, and ships of the North was all free white 
labor. So the United States was really split into 
two sections : one devoted to slavery and to a few 
great staples, as cotton ; the other devoted to free 
white labor and to industries of many kinds. 

304. The Political Situation, 1829. — The South 
was growing richer all the time ; but the North was 
growing richer a great deal faster than was the 
South. Calhoun and other Southern men thought 
that this difference in the rate of progress was due to 
the protective system. In 1828 Congress had passed 
a tariff that was so bad that it was called the Tariff of 
Abominations (p. 231). The Southerners could not 
prevent its passage. But Calhoun wrote an " Exposi- 
tion" of the constitutional doctrines in the case. This 
paper was adopted by the legislature of South Caro- 
lina as giving its ideas. In this paper Calhoun de- 
clared that the Constitution of the United States was 
a compact. Each state was a sovereign state and 


Webster and Hayne 


speech, 1830. 

could annul any law passed by Congress. The pro- 
tective system was unjust and unequal in operation. 
It would bring " poverty and utter desolation to the 
South." The tariff act should be annulled by South 
Carolina and by other Southern states. 

305. Webster and Hayne, 1830. — Calhoun was Haynes 
Vice-President and presided over the debates of the 
Senate. So it fell 
to Senator Hayne 
of South Carolina 
to state Calhoun's 
ideas. This he 
did in a very able 
speech. To him 
Daniel Webster of 
Massachusetts re- 
plied in the most 
briUiant speeches 
ever delivered in 
Congress. The 
Constitution, Web- 
ster declared, was 
" the people's con- 
stitution, the peo- 
ple's government ; made by tlie people and answer- 
able to the people. The people have declared that 
this constitution . -. . shall be the supreme law." 
The Supreme Court of the United States alone could 
declare a national la,w to be unconstitutional ; no state 
could do that. He ended this great speech with the 

reply to 

Daniel Webster, 1833. 


The Reign of Andrew Jackson [§§ 305-309 

Tariff' of 


" Nullified' 
by South 


He prepares 
to enforce 
the law. 

The Force 
Bill, 1833. 

Tariff of 

memorable words, " Liberty and Union, now and for- 
ever, one and inseparable." 

306. Nullification, 1832-33. — In 1832 Congress 
passed a new tariff aet. The South Carolinians 
decided to try Calhoun's weapon of nullification. 
They held a convention, declared the act null and 
void, and forbade South Carolinians to obey the 
law. They probably thought that Jackson would 
not oppose them. But they should have had no 
doubts on that subject. For Jackson already had 
proposed his famous toast on Jefferson's birthday, 
" Our federal Union, it must be preserved." He now 
told the Carolinians that he would enforce the laws, 
and he set about doing it with all his old-time energy. 
He sent ships and soldiers to Charleston and ordered 
the collector of that port to collect the duties. He 
then asked Congress to give him greater power. 
And Congress passed the Force Bill, giving him the 
power he asked for. The South Carolinians, on 
their part, suspended the nullification ordinance and 
thus avoided an armed conflict with " Old Hickory," 
as his admirers called Jackson. 

307. The Compromise Tariff, 1833. — The nulHfiers 
really gained a part of the battle, for the tariff law of 
1832 was repealed. In its place Congress passed 
what was called the Compromise Tariff. This com- 
promise was the work of Henry Clay, the peace- 
maker. Under it the duties were to be gradually 
lowered until, in 1842, they would be as low as they 
were by the Tariff Act of 18 16 (p. 231). 

1832-33] Nullification 249 

308. The Second United States Bank. — Nowadays Second 

. , , i- 1 1 1 United States 

any one with enough money can open a national bank j^^^j^ ^g^^^ 
under the protection of the government at Washing- 
ton. At this time, however, there was one great 
United States Bank. Its headquarters were at Phil- 
adelphia and it had branches all over the country. 
Jackson, like Jefferson (p. 163), had very grave doubts 
as to the power of the national government to estab- 
lish such a bank. Its size and its prosperity alarmed Jackson's 
him. Moreover, the stockholders and managers, for the bank, 
the most part, were his political opponents. The 
United States Bank also interfered seriously with 
the operations of the state banks — some of which 
were managed by Jackson's friends. The latter urged 
him on to destroy the United States Bank, and he 
determined to destroy it. 

309. Struggle over the Bank Charter. — The char- Jackson, 
ter of the bank would not come to an end until 1836, the bank 
while the term for which Jackson had been elected in charter. 
1828 would come to an end in 1833. But in his first 
message to Congress Jackson gave notice that he 
would not give his consent to a new charter. Clay 

and his friends at once took up the challenge. They 
passed a bill rechartering the bank. Jackson vetoed 
the bill. The Clay men could not get enough votes constitution, 
to pass it over his veto. The bank question, there- p^^' ^^ '' ''' 
fore, became one of the issues of the election of 1832. 
Jackson was reelected by a large majority over Clay. Reelection 

1 . • 1 11 •'^ Jackson, 

The people were clearly on his side, and he at once ^332. 
set to work to destroy the bank. 


The Rcii^ii of Audrc7v Jackson [§§ S'o-S" 

Removal of 
the deposits, 


Mc Master, 


in Western 

310. Removal of the Deposits. — In those days 
there was no United States Treasury building at 
Washington, with great vaults for the storing of gold, 
silver, and paper money. There were no sub-treas- 
uries in the important commercial cities. The United 
States Bank and its branches received the govern- 
ment's money on deposit and paid it out on checks 
signed by the proper government official. In 1833 
the United States Bank had in its vaults about nine 
million dollars belonging to the government. Jack- 
son directed that this money should be drawn out 
as required, to pay the government's expenses, and 
that no more government money should be deposited 
in the bank. In the future it should be deposited in 
certain state banks. The banks selected were con- 
trolled by Jackson's political friends and were called 
the " pet banks." 

311. Jackson's Specie Circular, 1836. — The first 
result of the removal of the deposits was very differ- 
ent from what Jackson had expected. At this time 
there was active speculation in Western lands. Men 
who had a little spare money bought Western lands. 
Those who had no money in hand, borrowed money 
from the banks and with it bought Western lands. 
Now it happened that many of the " pet banks" were 
in the West. The government's money, deposited 
with them, tempted their managers to lend money 
more freely. This, in turn, increased the ease with 
which people could speculate. Jackson saw that un- 
less something were done to restrain this speculation, 


Andrew Jackson, 1815. 

"Our Federal union, it must be preserved." 

— Jackson's toast at the Jefferson dinner. 


The Reign of Andrciv Jackscni [§S 3"-3i4 

The specie 



disaster would surely come. So he issued a circular 
to the United States land officers. This circular was 
called the Specie Circular, because in it the President 
forbade the land officers to receive anything except 
gold and silver and certain certificates in payment for 
the public lands. 

A Settlick's Cauin. 

312. Payment of the Debt, 1837. — The national 
debt had now all been paid. The government was 
collecting more money than it could use for na- 
tional purposes. And it was compelled to keep on 
collecting more money than it could use, because the Tariff (p. 248) made it impossible to re- 
duce duties any faster than a certain amount each 
year. No one dared to disturb the Compromise 

1837] Distribution of the Surplus 253 

Tariff, because to do so would bring on a most bitter 
political fight. The government had more money in 
the "pet banks" than was really safe. It could not 
deposit more with them. 

313. Distribution of the Surplus, 1837. — A curious Distribution 
plan was now hit upon. It was to loan the surplus g J f^g 
revenues to the states in proportion to their electo- 1837. 
ral votes. Three payments were made to the states. 
Then the Panic of 1837 came, and the government 
had to borrow money to pay its own necessary ex- 
penses. Before this occurred, however, Jackson was 
no longer President. In his place was Martin Van van Buren 
Buren, his Secretary of State, who had been chosen p^^sfdent 
President in November, 1836. 1836- 


314. The Panic of 1837. — The Panic was due Causes of 
directly to Jackson's interference with the banks, to 
his Specie Circular, and to the distribution of the 
surplus. It happened in this way. When the 
Specie Circular was issued, people who held paper 
money at once went to the banks to get gold and sil- 
ver in exchange for it to pay for the lands bought of 
the government. The government on its part drew 
out money, from the banks to pay the states their 
share of the surplus. The banks were obliged to sell 
their property and to demand payment of money due 


Dcuiocrats atui Whigs 

[§§ 3i4-3'7 

Hard times, 

The national 

The Sub- 
treasury plan. 

Treasury Act, 

thoni. Pcojile who owed money to the banks were 
obliged to sell their property to pay the banks. So 
every one wanted to sell, and few wanted to buy. 
Prices of everything went down with a rush. People 
felt so poor that they would not even buy new clothes. 
The mills and mines were closed, and the banks 
suspended payments. Thousands of working men 
and women were thrown out of work. They could 
not even buy food for themselves or their families. 
Terrible bread riots took place. After a time people 
began to pluck up their courage. But it was a long 
tune before "good times" came again. 

315. The Independent Treasury System. — What 
should be done with the government's money } No 
one could think of depositing it with the state banks. 
Clay and his friends thought the best thing to do 
would be to establish a new United States Bank. 
But Van Buren was opposed to that. His plan, 
in short, was to build vaults for storing money in 
Washington and in the leading cities. The main 
storehouse or Treasury was to be in Washington, 
subordinate storehouses or sub-treasuries were to be 
established in the other cities. To these sub-treas- 
uries the collectors of customs would pay the money 
collected by them. In this way the government 
would become independent of the general business 
affairs of the country. In 1840 Congress passed an j 
act for putting this plan into effect. But before it 
was in working order. Van Buren was no longer 

1840] Democrats and WJiigs 255 

316. Democrats and Whigs. — In the Era of Good New parties. 
Feeling there was but one party — the Republican 

party. In the confused times of 1824 the several 
sections of the party took the names of their party 
leaders : the Adams men, the Jackson men, the Clay 
men, and so on. Soon the Adams men and the Clay 
men began to act together and to call themselves 
National Republicans. This they did because they 
wished to build up the nation's resources at the ex- 
pense of the nation. The Jackson men called them- The 
selves Democratic Republicans, because they upheld ^'"ocrats. 
the rights of the people. Before long they dropped 
the word "Republican" and called themselves simply 
Democrats. The National Republicans dropped the TheWiiigs, 
whole of their name and took that of the great Eng- 
lish liberal party — the Whigs. This they did because 
they favored reform. 

317. Election of 1840. — General William Henry -a cam- 
Harrison was the son of Beniamin Harrison of P^'snof 

■' humor. 

Virginia, one of the signers of the Declaration of Higginson, 

269 ; 

Independence. General Harrison had moved to the McMaster, 
West and had won distinction at Tippecanoe, and 3^5-3i6. 
also in the War of 1812 (pp. 202, 209). The Whigs 
nominated him in 1836, but he was beaten. They 
now renominated him for President, with John Tyler 
of Virginia as candidate for Vice-President. Van 
Buren had made a good President, but his term of 
office was associated with panic and hard times. He 
was a rich man and gave great parties. Plainly he 
was not a "man of the people," as was Harrison. 


Deuiooats and ll'/iigs 

[§§ 3'7-320 

and Tyler 
elected, 1840. 

Death of 

A Democratic orator sneered at Harrison, and said 
that all he wanted was a log cabin of his own and 
a jug of cider. The Whigs eagerly seized on this de- 
scription. They built 
log cabins at the street 
corners and dragged 
through the streets log 
cabins on great wagons. 
They held immense 
open-air meetings at 
which people sang songs 
of " Tippecanoe and 
Tyler Too." Harrison 
and Tyler received 
nearly all the electoral 
votes and were chosen 
President and Vice-Pres- 

318. Death of Harrison, 1841. — The people's 
President was inaugurated on March 4, 1841. For 
the first time since the establishment of the Spoils 
System a new party came into control of the gov- 
ernment. Thousands of office-seekers thronged to 
Washington. They even slept in out-of-the-way 
corners of the White House. Day after day, from 
morning till night, they pressed their claims on Har- 
rison. One morning early, before the office-seekers 
were astir, he went out for a walk. He caught 
cold and died suddenly, just one month after his 
inauguration. John Tyler at once became President. 


Tyler and the Whigs 


with the 

319. Tyler and the Whigs. — President Tyler was President 
not a Whig like Harrison or Clay, nor was he a ^^^' 
Democrat like Jackson. He was a Democrat who 

did not like Jackson ideas. As President, he proved His contest 
to be anything but a 
Whig. He was willing 
to sign a bill to repeal 
the Independent Treas- 
ury Act, for that was a 
Democratic measure he 
had not liked; but he re- 
fused to sign a bill to es- 
tabHsh a new Bank of the 
United States. Without 
either a bank or a treas- 
ury, it was well-nigh im- 
possible to carry on the 
business of the govern- 
ment. But it was carried 
on in one way or another. 
Tyler was willing to sign 
a new tariff act, and one 
was passed in 1842. This 
wj^^ possible, as the Com- 
promise Tariff (p. 248) 
came to an end in that year. 

320. Treaty with Great Britain, 1842. — Perhaps North- 
the most important event of Tyler's administration boundary 
was the signing of the Treaty of 1842 with Great dispute. 
Britain. Ever since the Treaty of Peace of 1783, 


Democyats and IV/iigs [§§ 320-321 

The Ash- 
Treaty, 1842. 

The Morse 

there had been a dispute over the northeastern boun- 
dary of Maine. If the boundary had been run accord- 
ing to the plain meaning of the Treaty of Peace, the 
people of Upper Canada would have found it almost 
impossible to reach New Brunswick or Nova Scotia in 
winter. 'At that time of the year the St. Lawrence 

is frozen over, and 
the true northern 
boundary of Maine 
ran so near to the 
St. Lawrence that 
it was difficult to 
build a road which 
would be wholly in 
British territory. 
So the British had 
tried in every way 
to avoid settling 
the matter. It was 
now arranged that 
the United States 
should have a little 
piece of Canada north of Vermont and New York 
and should give up the extreme northeastern corner 
of Maine. It was also agreed that criminals escaping 
from one country to the other should be returned. A 
still further agreement was made for checking the 
slave trade from the coast of western Africa. 

321. The Electric Telegraph. — Benjamin FrankUn 
and Joseph Henry made great discoveries in electric- 

01 IN Tyler. 


The Electric Telegraph 


ity. But Samuel F. B. Morse was the first to use 
electricity in a practical way. Morse found out that 
if a man at one end of a line of wire pressed down a 
key, electricity could be made at the same moment to 
press down another key 
at the other end of the 
line of wire. Moreover, 
the key at the farther 
end of the line could 
be so arranged as to 
make an impression on 
a piece of paper that was 
slowly drawn under it by 
clockwork. Now if the 
man at one end of the 
line held his key down 
for only an instant, this 
impression would look 
like a dot. If he held 
it down longer, it would 
look like a short dash. Morse combined these dots 
and dashes into an alphabet. For instance, one 
dash meant the letter "t," and so on. For a time 
people only laughed at Morse. But at length Con- 
gress gave him enough money to build a line from 
Baltimore to Washington. It was opened in 1844 graph line, 
and proved to be a success from the beginning. ^^44- 
Other lines were soon built, and the Morse system, o/fhe"^^^ 
greatly improved, is still in use. The telegraph made telegraph. 

•1 1 n 1 McMaster, 

It possible to operate long lines of railroad, as all the 372. 

The First Morse Instrument. 


Democrats luui Whites 

[§§ 321-322 

of wheat 

The McCor- 
mick reaper, 


trains could be managed from one office so that they 
would not run into one another. It also made it pos- 
sible to communicate with people afar off and get an 
answer in an hour or so. For both these reasons the 
telegraph was very important and with the railroads 
did much to unite the people of the different portions 
of the country. 

322. The McCormick Reaper. — Every great staple 
depends for its production oa some particular tool. 

For instance, cot- 
ton was of slight 
importance until 
the invention of the 
cotton gin (p. 185) 
made it possible 
cheaply to sepa- 
rate the seed from 
the fiber. Thesuc- 
cessof wheat grow- 
ing depended upon 
the ability quickly to harvest the crop. Wheat must be 
allowed to stand until it is fully ripened. Then it must 
be quickly reaped and stored away out of the reach 
of the rain and wet. For a few weeks in ^ each 
year there was a great demand for labor on the 
wheat farms. And there was no labor to be had. 
Cyrus Hall McCormick solved this problem for the 
wheat growfers by inventing a horse reaper. The 
invention was made in 1831, but it was not until 1845 
that the reaper came into general use. By 1855 the 

The First McCokmick kKAriiR. 


The Horse Reaper 


use of the horse reaper was adding every year fifty- 
five milHon dollars to the wealth of the country. 
Each year its use moved the fringe of civilization 
fifty miles farther west. Without harvesting machin- 
ery the rapid 
settlement of 
the West would 
have been im- 
possible. And 
had not the 
West been rap- 
idly settled by 
free whites, the 
whole history of 
the country be- 
tween 1845 3-i^d 1865 would have been very different 
from what it has been. The influence of the horse 
reaper on our political history, therefore, is as impor- 
tant as the influence of the steam locomotive or of the 
cotton gin. 

Results of 
this inven- 

Modern Harvester. 


Chapter 28 

§§ 293, 294. — Compare the condition of the United States in 1830 
and 1800 as to (i) extent, (2) population, (3) intei-ests and occupation 
r f the people. Illustrate these changes by maps, diagrams, or tables. 

§§ 295, 296. — a. How had the use of steamboats increased ? 

b. Why had this led to the separation of the West and the East ? 
How was it proposed to overcome this difficulty ? 

c. Do you think that roads should be built at national expense ? 
Give your reasons. 

262 The National Democracy 

d. Mark on a map the Erie Canal, and shuw why it was so important. 
Describe the effects of its use. 

§§ 297, 298. — a. Do you think that railroads should be carried on 
by the state or by individuals ? Why ? 

b. What influence has the railroad had upon the Union ? Upon peo- 
ple's minds ? Upon the growth of cities ? (Take your own city or town 
and think of it without railroads anywhere.) 

§§ 299,300. — a. Explain how one discovery or invention affected 
other industries (as shown, for instance, in the use of anthracite coal). 

b. How did these mventions make large cities possible ? 

c. Why is the education of our people so important ? 

d. What were the advantages of Webster's " Dictionary "? 

Chaitkr 29 

§§ 3°'' 3°2. — a. ^Yhy is this chajiter called the " Reign of Andrew 
Jackson" ? Do you think that a President should "reign" ? 

b. In what respects was Jackson fitted for President ? 

c. What is meant by his " kitchen cabinet " ? 

d. What is a " party machine " ? How was it connected with the 
" spoils system " ? 

e. Did the " spoils system " originate with Jackson ? 

§§ 303> 304. — a- Compare carefully the North and the South. Why 
was the North growing rich faster than the South ? 

/'. Where have you already found the ideas expressed in Calhoun's 
Exposition ? Why was this doctrine so dangerous ? Are the states 
" sovereign states " ? 

§ 305. — a. What view did Webster take ? How does his speech 
show the increase of the love of the Union ? 

b. What is the " supreme law of the land " ? Whose business is it 
to decide on the constitutionality of a law ? Is this wise ? 

§§ 306, 307, — a. How did South Carolina oppose the Act of 1832 ? 

b. How did Jackson oppose the South Carolinians? 

c. Would a state be likely to nullify an act of Congress now ? Give 
your reasons. 

§§ 308, 309. — rt. Was the United States Bank like the national 
banks of the present day ? 

Questions and Topics 263 

b. Why did Jackson dislike and distrust the United States Bank ? 

c. If a bill is vetoed by the President, how can it still be made a law ? 

§ 310. — a. Where did the United States government keep its 
money ? 

b. How did Jackson try to ruin the United States Bank ? 

§§311^313. — a. Why did people wish to buy Western lands? 
How did the favoring the " pet banks " increase speculation ? 

b. What was done with- the surplus ? What was the effect of this 
measure ? 

c. How did Jackson try to stop speculation ? 

Chapter 30 

§§ 3I4> 315- — ^- Why did " prices go down with a rush " ? 
b. Describe the Independent Treasury plan. Where is the nation's 
money kept to-day ? 

§§ 3'6, 317. — a. State briefly the reasons for the split in the Repub- 
lican party. Had you lived in 1840, for whom would you have voted ? 

b. Give an account of the early life of Harrison. 

c. Describe the campaign of 1840, and compare it with the last presi- 
dential campaign. 

§§ 318) 319- — c-- What party came into power in 1841 ? Under 
the spoils system what would naturally follow ? 

b. To what party did Tyler belong ? 

c. Why was it difficult for the government to carry on its business 
without a bank or a treasury ? 

§ 320. — a. What dispute had long existed with Great Britain ? 
b. Why did the British object to the boundary line laid down in the 
Treaty of 1783 ? Show on a map how the matter was finally settled. 

§§ 32i> 322. — a. Explain carefully the application of electricity 
made by Morse. Of what advantage has the telegraph been to the 
United States ? 

b. How did the McCormick reaper solve the difficulty in wheat 
growing ? What were the results of this invention ? 

c. Compare its influence upon our history with that of the cotton 

264 The National Dcinocracy 

General Questions 

a. Why is the period covered by this division so important ? 

b. Give the principal events since the Revolution which made West- 
ern expansion possible. 

c. Explain, using a chart, the changes in parties since 1789. 

d. What were the good points in Jackson's administration ? The 
mistakes ? 

Topics for Special Work 

a. Select some one invention between 1790 and 1835, describe it, 
explain the need for it, and the results which have followed from it. 

b. The Erie Canal. 

c. The career of Webster, Clay, or Calhoun. 

d. Life and works of any one of the literary men of this period. 

e. The Ashburton Treaty, with a map. 

Sucgestions to the Teacher 

The personality of Andrew Jackson, representing as he does a new 
element in social and political life, deserves a careful study. The finan- 
cial policy of his administration is too difficult for children. With brief 
comparisons with present-day conditions the study of this subject can 
be confined to what is given in the text. Jackson's action at the time 
of the nullification episode may well be compared with Buchanan's 
inaction in 1860-61. The constitutional portions of Wei)ster's great 
speeches are too hard for children, but his burning words of patriotism 
may well be learned by the whole class. The spoils system may be 
lightly treated here. It can best be studied in detail later in connection 
with civil service reform. 



Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Scribner's Popular History, IV ; McMaster's 
With the Fathers ; Coffin's Building the Nation, 314-324. 

Home Readings. — Wright's Stories of American Progress ; _ 
Bolton's Fa7nous Americans ; Brooks's Boy Settlers ; Stowe's 
Uncle Topi's Cabin ; Lodge's Webster. 



323. Growth of Slaverj in the South. — South of 
Pennsylvania and of the Ohio River slavery had 
increased greatly since 1787 (p. 136). Washington, 
Jefferson, Henry, and other great Virginians were Antisiavery 
opposed to the slave system. But they could find ^^"1™^"^^ 
no way to end it, even in Virginia. The South Caro- Virginians. 
linians and Georgians fought every proposition to Slavery in 

the far South. 

limit slavery. They even refused to come into the ^^ 

-' -' *Source- 

Union unless they were given representation in Con- Book, 244- 

r 1 • 1 A 1 248, 251-260. 

gress for a portion at least of their slaves. And 
in the first Congress under the Constitution they 
opposed bitterly every proposal to limit slavery. 


Proposal to 
end slavery 
with com- 

266 Pi ginning of Antislavery Agitation [§§ 323-327 

Then came Whitney's invention of the cotton gin. 
That at once made slave labor vastly more profitable 
in the cotton states and put an end to all hopes of 
peaceful emancipation in the South. 

324. Rise of the Abolitionists. — About 1830 a new 
movement in favor of the negroes began. Some per- 
sons in the North, as, for example, William Ellery 
Channing, proposed that slaves should be set free, 
and their owners paid for their loss. They suggested 
that the money received from the sale of the public 


MTiX^XAUl 'itit^X^ 

. lit )urrr«.i 



tionist senti- 
ment in the 

lands might be used in this way. But nothing came 
of these suggestions. Soon, however, William Lloyd 
Garrison began at Boston the publication of a paper 
called the Liberator. He wished for complete aboli- 
tion without payment. For a time he labored almost 
alone. Then slowly others came to his aid, and the 
Antislavery Society was founded. 

325. Opposition to the Abolitionists. — It must not 
be thought that the abolitionists were not opposed. 
They were most vigorously opposed. Very few 
Northern men wished to have slavery reestablished 
in the North. But very many Northern men objected 

1833] TJie Abolitionists 267 

to the antislavery agitation because they thought it 
would injure business. Some persons even argued 
that the antislavery movement would bring about the 
destruction of the Union. In this idea there was a 
good deal of truth. For Garrison grew more and 
more outspoken. He condemned the Union with Disunion 
slaveholders and wished to break down the Consti- ^^"''™*:"' 

of abolition- 

tution, because it permitted slavery. There were ists. 
anti-abolitionist riots in New York, New Jersey, and The Garrison 
New Hampshire. In Boston the rioters seized Garri- "°*' ^^^5- 


son and dragged him about the streets (1835). 248-251. 

326. Slave Rebellion in Virginia, 1831. — At about Nat Turner's 
the time that Garrison established the Liberator at ^g^^^^"'°"' 
Boston, a slave rebellion broke out in Virginia. The 

rebels were led by a slave named Nat Turner, and 
the rebellion is often called " Nat Turner's Rebel- 
lion." It was a small affair and was easily put down. 
But the Southerners were alarmed, because they felt 
that the Northern antislavery agitation would surely incendiary 
lead to more rebellions. They called upon the sfov- p'^'^'icstions 

■' -*• ° \\\ the mails. 

ernment to forbid the sending of the Liberator and McMaster, 
similar " incendiary publications " through the mails. ^^^ ^^'^' 

327. The Right of Petition. — One of the most sa- Right of 
cred rights of freemen is the right to petition for re- P^*"'°"- 
dress of grievances. In the old colonial days the 
British Parliament had refused even to listen to peti- 
tions presented by the colonists. But the First 
Amendment to the Constitution forbade Congress to 
make any law to prevent citizens of the United 
States from petitioning. John Quincy Adams, once 


The Mexican War 

[§§ 327-330 

President, was now a member of the House of 
Representatives. In 1836 he presented petition 
after petition, praying Congress to forbid slavery 
in the District of Columbia. Southerners, like 
Calhoun, thought these petitions were insulting to 
Southern slaveholders. Congress could not prevent 
the antislavery people petitioning. They could pre- 
vent the petitions being read when presented. This 
they did by passing " gag-resolutions." Adams pro- 
tested against these resolutions as an infringement on 
the rights of his constituents. But the resolutions were 
passed. Petitions now came pouring into Congress. 
Adams even presented one from some negro slaves. 
328. Change in Northern Sentiment. — All these 
happenings brought about a great change of senti- 
ment in the North. Many people, who cared little 
about negro slaves, cared a great deal about the free- 
dom of the press and the right of petition. Many of 
these did not sympathize with the abolitionists, but 
they wished that some limit might be set to the ex- 
tension of slavery. At the same time the Southerners 
were uniting to resist all attempts to interfere with 
slavery. They were even determined to add new 
slave territory to the United States. 


329. The Republic of Texas. — The Mexicans won 

The Mexican 

1821. their independence from Spain in 1821 and founded 

1844] TJie Texas Qnestiojt 269 

the Mexican Republic. Soon immigrants from the 
United States settled in the northeastern part of the 
new republic. This region was called Texas. The 
Mexican government gave these settlers large tracts 
of land, and for a time everything went on happily. 
Then war broke out between the Mexicans and the 
Texans. Led by Samuel Houston, a settler from Texas 
Tennessee, the Texans won the battle of San Jacinto ^^^^ Mexico 
and captured General Santa Anna, the president of ^^sS- 


the Mexican Republic. The Texans then established 320-322; 

the Republic of Texas (1836) and asked to be ad- ^ ^^^^ 

Hero Tales, 

I aa- 
mitted to the Union as one of the United States. 

330. The Southerners and Texas. — The applica- Question of 
tion of Texas for admission to the Union came as a sionofTexas 
pleasant surprise to many Southerners. As a part of '° ^"^^ umon. 
the Mexican Republic Texas had been free soil. 
But Texas was well suited to the needs of the cotton 
plant. If it were admitted to the Union, it would 
surely be a slave state or, perhaps, several slave 
states. The question of admitting Texas first came 
before Jackson. He saw that the admission of Texas 
would be strongly opposed in the North. So he 
put the whole matter to one side and would have 
nothing to do with it. Tyler acted very differently. 
Under his direction a treaty was made with Texas. 
This treaty provided for the admission of Texas 
to the Union. But the Senate refused to ratify 
the treaty. The matter, therefore, became the most 
important question in the presidential election of 


The Mexican War 

[§§ 331-334 

331. Election of 1844. — President Tyler would 
have been glad of a second term. But neither of the 
great parties wanted him as a leader. The Democrats 
would have gladly nominated Van Buren had he not 
opposed the acquisition of Texas. Instead they 
nominated James K. Polk of Tennessee, an out- 
spoken favorer of the 
admission of Texas. 
The Whigs nomi- 
nated Henry Clay, 
who had no decided 
views on the Texas 
question. He said 
one thing one day, 
another thing another 
day. The result was 
that the opponents of 
slavery and of Texas 
formed a new party. 
They called it the 
Liberty party and 

nominated a candidate for President. The Liberty 
men did not gain many votes. But they gained 
enough votes to make Clay's election impossible and 
Polk was chosen President. 

332. Acquisition of Texas, 1845. — Tyler now 
pressed the admission of Texas upon Congress. The 
two houses passed a joint resolution. This resolu- 
tion provided for the admission of Texas, and for the 
formation from the territory included in Texas of 


1 845] Acquisition of Texas 271 

four states, in addition to the state of Texas, and with 
the consent of that state. Before Texas was actually 
admitted Tyler had ceased to be President. But Polk 
carried out his policy, and on July 4, 1845, Texas 
became one of the United States. 

333. Beginning of the Mexican War, 1846. — The Southern 
Mexicans had never acknowledged the independence ofTexaZ 
of Texas. They now protested against its admission 

to the United States. Disputes also arose as to the 

southern boundary of Texas. As no agreement could 

be reached on this point, President Polk ordered 

General Zachary Taylor to march to the Rio Grande Taylor on 

and occupy the disputed territory. Taylor did as he Grande. 

was ordered, and the Mexicans attacked him. Polk 

reported these facts to Congress, and Congress 

1 r 1 • War de- 

authorized the President to push on the fightmg on dared, 1846. 

the ground that " war exists, and exists by the act of ^°^^^" "J 

o ' J Source-Book, 

Mexico herself." 271-276. 

334. Taylor's Campaigns. — The Mexican War Tiiotnree 
easily divides itself into three parts: (i) Taylor's Mexican ^^ 
forward movement across the Rio Grande ; (2) Scott's War. 
campaign, which ended in the capture of the City of 
Mexico; and (3) the seizure of California. Taylor's Taylor's 
object was to maintain the line of the Rio Grande, ^l^J^^f^l- 
then to advance into Mexico and injure the Mexicans 326-327- 
as much as possible. The battles of Palo Alto and 
Resaca de la Palma (May 8, 9, 1846) were fought 
before the actual declaration of war. These victories 

made Taylor master of the Rio Grande. In Septem- 
ber he crossed the Rio Grande. So far all had gone 


The Mexican War 

[§§334-336 . 



well. But in the winter many of Taylor's soldiers 
were withdrawn to take part in Scott's campaign. 
This seemed to be the Mexicans' time. They 
attacked Taylor with four times as many men as he 
had in his army. This battle was fought at Buena 
Vista, February, 1847. Taylor beat back the Mexi- 
cans with terrible slaughter. 
This was the last battle of 
Taylor's campaign. 

335. Scott's Invasion of 
Mexico. — The plan of 
Scott's campaign was that 
he should land at Vera 
Cruz, march to the city of 
Mexico, — two hundred 
miles away, — capture that 
city, and force the Mexi- 
cans to make peace. Every- 
thing fell out precisely as 
it was planned. With the help of the navy Scott 
captured Vera Cruz. He had only about one-quarter 
as many men as the Mexicans. But he overthrew 
them at Cerro Gordo, where the road to the City of 
Mexico crosses the coast mountains (April i, 1847). 
With the greatest care and skill he pressed on and 
at length came within sight of the City of Mexico. 
The capital of the Mexican Republic stood in the 
midst of marshes, and could be reached only over 
narrow causeways which joined it to the solid land. 
August 20, 1847, Scott beat the Mexicans in three 


Scott's Campaign 



The Bear Flag. 

pitched battles, and on September 14 he entered the 
city with his army, now numbering only six thousand 
men fit for active service. 

336. Seizure of California. 
— California was the name 
given to the Mexican posses- 
sions on the Pacific coast 
north of Mexico itself. 
There were now many 
American settlers there, especially at Monterey. 
Hearing of the outbreak of the Mexican War, they 

set up a republic The " Bear 
r ,1 • T^i • Republic," 

01 their own. 1 heir ^gg 
flag had a figure 
of a grizzly bear 
painted on it, and 
hence their repub- 
lic is often spoken 
of as the Bear Re- 
public. Commo- 
dore Stockton with 

a small fleet was on California 

the Pacific coast. 

; He and John C. 

Fremont assisted 

the Bear Republi- 

■ ^ - cans until soldiers 

John C. Fremont. 

under Colonel 
Kearney reached them from the United States 
by way of Santa Fe. 

seized by 

274 The Alex icati War [S§ 337-339 

Mexican '^^^ ■ Treaty of Peace, 1848. — The direct cause of 

cessions. ^\^q Mcxicaii W'ar was Mexico's unwillingness to give 

1848. . , 

up Texas without a struggle. But the Mexicans had 

treated many Americans very unjustly and owed 
them large sums of money. A treaty of peace was 
made in 1848. Mexico agreed to abandon her claims 
to Texas, California, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and 
Colorado. The United States agreed to withdraw its 
armies from Mexico, to pay Mexico fifteen million 
dollars, and to pay the claims of American citizens 
on Mexico. These claims proved to amount to 
three and one-half million dollars. In the end, 
therefore, the United States paid eighteen and one- 
half million dollars for this enormous and exceed- 
ingly valuable addition to its territory. When the 
time came to run the boundary line, the American 
and Mexican commissioners could not agree. So the 
United States paid ten million dollars more and re- 
ceived an additional strip of land between the Rio 
Grande and the Gila rivers. This gave the United 
Tiie Gadsden States its present southern boundary. This agree- 
i8« '^^'^ ment was made in 1853 by James Gadsden for the 

McMaster, United Statcs, and the land bought is usually called 

the Gadsden Purchase. 

338. The Oregon Question. — It was not only in 

the Southwest that boundaries were disputed ; in the 

Northwest also there was a long controversy which 

Oregon. was Settled while Polk was President. Oregon was 

the name given to the whole region between Spanish 

and Mexican California and the Russian Alaska. 


TJie Oregon Treaty 


Joint occupa- 
tion by 
United States 
and Great 

The United States and Great Britain each claimed to 
have the best right to Oregon. As they could not 
agree as to their claims, they decided to occupy the 
region jointly. As time went on American mis- 
sionaries and settlers began to go over the mountains 
to Oregon. In 1837 seven 
thousand Americans were liv- 
ing in the Northwest. 

339. The Oregon Treaty, 
1846. — The matter was now 
taken up in earnest. "All 
Oregon or none," "Fifty-four 
forty or fight," became popu- 
lar cries. The United States 
gave notice of the ending of 
the joint occupation. The 
British government suggested 
that Oregon should be divided 

between the two nations. In 1818 the boundary be- 
tween the United States and British North America 
had been fixed as the forty-ninth parallel from the 
Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. It was 
now proposed to continue this line to the Pacific. 
The British government, however, insisted that the 
western end of the line should follow the channel 
between Vancouver's Island and the mainland so as 
to make that island entirely British. The Mexican 
War was now coming on. It would hardly do to 
have two wars at one time. So the United States Division 
gave way and a treaty was signed in 1846. Instead 1846.'^^^°"' 

"All Oregon 
or none." 


The Compromise of i8jO [§§ 339-341 

of "all Oregon," the United States received about 
one-half. But it was a splendid region and included 
not merely the present state of Oregon, but all the 
territory west of the Rocky Mountains between the 
forty-second and the forty-ninth parallels of latitude. 

Oregon and 
cessions be 
slave or 
free soil ? 

The Wilinot 
Mc Master, 


340. The Wilmot Proviso, 1846. — What should 
be done with Oregon and with the immense terri- 
tory received from Mexico .-* Should it be free 
soil or should it be slave soil .■' To understand the 
history of the dispute which arose out of this ques- 
tion we must go back a bit and study the Wilmot 
Proviso. Even before the Mexican War was fairly 
begun, this question came before Congress. Every 
one admitted that Texas must be a slave state. 
Most people were agreed that Oregon would be 
free soil. For it was too far north for negroes to 
thrive. But what should be done with California 
and with New Mexico } David Wilmot of Penn- 
sylvania thought that they should be free soil. He 
was a member of the House of Representatives, 
In 1846 he moved to add to a bill giving the 
President money to purchase land from Mexico a 
proviso that none of the territory to be acquired at 
the national expense should be open to slavery. 
This proviso was finally defeated. But the matter: 
was one on which people held very strong opinions, 

Taylor elected President 



and the question became the most important issue 
in the election of 1848. 

341. Taylor elected President, 1848. — Three can- candidates 
didates contested the election of 1848. First there dency%84^8 
was Lewis Cass of Michigan, the Democratic can- 
didate. He was in favor of "squatter sovereignty," "Squatter 
that is, allowing the people of each territory to have 
slavery or not as 
they chose. The 
Whig candidate 
was General Tay- 
lor, the victor of 
Buena Vista. The 
Whigs put forth 
no statement of 
principles. The 
third candidate was 
Martin Van Buren, 
already once Presi- 
dent. Although a 
Democrat, he did 
not favor the ex- 
tension of slavery. 
He was nominated by Democrats who did not believe 
in " squatter sovereignty," and by a new party which 
called itself the Free Soil party. The abolitionists Free Soil 
or Liberty party also nominated a candidate, but he ^McMaster, 
withdrew in favor of Van Buren. The Whigs had 334-335- 
nominated Millard Fillmore of New York for Vice- 
President. He attracted to the Whig ticket a good 

Zachary Taylor. 


The Compromise of j8jo [§§ 341-344 

Taylor and 



of gold in 

many votes in New York. Van Buren also drew a 
good many votes from the Democrats. In this way 
New York was carried for Taylor and Fillmore. This 
decided the election, and the Whig candidates were 

342. California. — Before the treaty of peace with 
Mexico was ratified, even before it was signed, 




The Site of San Francisco in 1847. 

From an original drawing. 

The " rush " 

to California, 


Mc Master , 

337-338 ; 

Book, 276- 

gold was discovered in California. Reports of the 
discovery soon reached the towns on the western sea- 
coast. At once men left whatever they were doing 
and hastened to the hills to dig for gold. Months 
later rumors of this discovery began to reach the 
eastern part of the United States. At first people 
paid little attention to them. But when President 
Polk said that gold had been found, people began 
to think that it must be true. Soon hundreds of 

1848-49] California 279 

gold-seekers started for California. Then thousands 
became eager to go. These first comers were called 
the Forty-Niners, because most of them came in the 
year 1849. By the end of that year there were eighty 
thousand immigrants in California. 

343. California seeks Admission to the Union. — 
There were eighty thousand white people in Cali- 
fornia, and they had almost no government of any 

kind. So in November, 1849, they held a conven- California 

tion, drew up a constitution, and demanded admission constitu- 
tional con- 
to the Union as a state. The peculiar thing about vention, 

this constitution was that it forbade slavery in Call- ^ ^'^' 
fornia. Many of the Forty-Niners were Southerners, slavery 
But even they did not want slavery. The reason was forbidden. 
that they wished to dig in the earth and win gold. 
They knew that if negro slaves were introduced 
into California, they could not do this, for free 
white laborers had never been able to work along- 
side of negro slaves. So they did not want slavery 
in California. 

344. A Divided Country. — This action of the Divisions 
people of California at once brought the question of ""Jg^fo^ ^^ 
slavery before the people. Many Southerners were the extension 

of slavery. 

eager to found a slave confederacy apart from the mc Master, 
Union. Many abolitionists were eager to found a 335-336. 
free republic in the North. Many Northerners, who 
loved the Union, thought that slavery should be con- 
fined to the states where it existed. They thought 
that slavery should not be permitted in the territories, 
which belonged to the people of the United States as 


TJic Compromise of 1850 [§§ 344-347 

a whole. They argued that if the territories could 
be kept free, the people of those territories, when 
they came to form state constitutions, would forbid 
slavery as the people of California had just done. 
They were probably right, and for this very reason 
the Southerners wished to have slavery in the terri- 
tories. So strong was the feeling over these points 
that it seemed as if the Union would split into pieces. 

345. President Taylor's Policy. — General Taylor 
was now President. He was alarmed by the growing 
excitement. He determined to settle the matter at 
once before people could get any more excited. So 
he sent agents to California and to New Mexico to 
urge the people to demand admission to the Union 
at once. When Congress met in 1850, he stated that 
California demanded admission as a free state. The 
Southerners were angry. For they had thought that 
California would surely be a slave state. 

346. Clay's Compromise Plan. — Henry Clay now 
stepped forward to bring about a "union of hearts." 
His plan was to end all disputes between Northerners 
and Southerners by having the people of each section 
give way to the people of the other section. For 
example, the Southerners were to permit the admis- 
sion of California as a free state, and to consent to 
the abolition of the slave trade in the District of 
Columbia. In return, the Northerners were to give 
way to the Southerners on all other points. They 
were to allow slavery in the District of Columbia. 
They were to consent to the organization of New 


Clay's Compromise Plan 


Mexico and Utah as territories without any provision 
for or against slavery. Texas claimed that a part of 
the proposed Territory of New Mexico belonged to 
her. So' Clay suggested that the United States should 
pay Texas for this land. Finally Clay proposed that 
Congress should 
pass a severe Fugi- 
tive Slave Act. It 
is easily seen that 
Clay's plan as a 
whole was dis- 
tinctly favorable to 
the South. Few 
persons favored 
the passage of the 
whole scheme. But 
when votes were 
taken on each part 
separately, they all 
passed. In the 
midst of the excite- 
ment over this com- 
promise President Taylor died, and Millard Fillmore, 
the Vice-President, became President. 

347. The Fugitive Slave Act. — The Constitution Art. iv, § 2. 
provides that persons held to service in one state 
escaping into another state shall be delivered up 
upon claim of the person to whom such service may 
be due. Congress, in 1793, had passed an act to Fugitive 

Slave Act 

carry out this provision of the Constitution. But this of 1793, 

Millard Fillmore. 


The Compromise of 1850 [§§ 347-35° 

Slave Act 
of 1850. 

Results of 
passage of 
this act. 

liook, 282- 

The " Under- 
ground Rail- 
Book, 260- 

" Uncle 



Effects of 
this book. 

law had seldom been enforced, because its enforce- 
ment had been left to the states, and public opinion 
in the North was opposed to the return of fugitive 
slaves. The law of 1850 gave the enforcement of 
the act to United States officials. The agents of 
slave owners claimed many persons as fugitives. But 
few were returned to the South. The important 
result of these attempts to enforce the law was to 
strengthen Northern public opinion against slavery. 
It led to redoubled efforts to help runaway slaves 
through the Northern states to Canada. A regular 
system was established. This was called the "Under- 
ground Railway." In short, instead of bringing about 
"a union of hearts," the Compromise of 1850 in- 
creased the ill feeling between the people of the two 
sections of the country. 

348. "Uncle Tom's Cabin." — It was at this time 
that Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote " Uncle 
Tom's Cabin." In this story she set forth the 
pleasant side of slavery — the light-heartedness and 
kind-heartedness of the negroes. In it she also set 
forth the unpleasant side of slavery — the whipping 
of human beings, the selling of human beings, the 
hunting of human beings. Of course, there never 
was such a slave as Uncle Tom. The story is simply 
a wonderful picture of slavery as it appeared to a bril- 
liant woman of the North. Hundreds of thousands 
of copies of this book were sold in the South as well 
as in the North. Plays founded on the book were 
acted on the stage. Southern people when reading 

1852] "■Uncle Tonis Cabin'' 283 

" Uncle Tom" thought little of the unpleasant things 
in it : they liked the pleasant things in it. Northern 
people laughed at the pretty pictures of plantation 
life : they were moved to tears by the tales of 
cruelty. " Uncle Tom's Cabin " and the Fugitive 
Slave Law convinced the people of the North that 
bounds must be set to the extension of slavery. 


349. Pierce elected President, 1852. — It was now Campaign 
time for a new election. The Whigs had been suc- 
cessful with two old soldiers, so they thought they 
would try again with another soldier and nomi- 
nated General Winfield Scott, the conqueror of 
Mexico. The Democrats also nominated a soldier, 
Franklin Pierce of New Hampshire, who had been 

in northern Mexico with Taylor. The Democrats 
and Whigs both said that they would stand by the 
Compromise of 1850. But many voters thought that 
there would be less danger of excitement with a 
Democrat in the White House and voted for Pierce Pierce 
for that reason. They soon found that they were president 
terribly mistaken in their belief. 

350. Douglas's Nebraska Bill. — President Pierce The 
began his term of ofifice quietly enough. But in 1854 ^^j^, ^g^-f' 
Senator Douglas of Illinois brought in a bill to *source- 

^ . ^ Book, 284- 

organize the Territory of Nebraska. It will be re- 287. 
membered that in 1820 Missouri had been admitted 


The Stnigglt for Kansas [§§ 350-352 

The Kansas- 
Act, 1854. 

to the Union as a slave state. In 1848 Iowa had 
been admitted as a free state. North of Iowa was 
the free Territory of Minnesota. Westward from 
Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota was an immense 
region without any government of any kind. It 
all lay north of the compromise Hne of 1820 

(p. 222), and had 
been forever devoted 
to freedom by that 
compromise. But 
Douglas said that 
the Compromise of 
1820 had been re- 
pealed by the Com- 
promise of 1850. So 
he proposed that the 
settlers of Nebraska 
should say whether 
that territory should 
be free soil or slave 
soil, precisely as if 
the Compromise of 
1820 had never been 
passed. Instantly there was a tremendous uproar. 

351. The Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854. — Douglas 
now changed his bill so as to provide for the for- 
mation of two territories. One of these he named 
Kansas. It had nearly the same boundaries as the 
present state of Kansas, except that it extended 
westward to the Rocky Mountains. The other ter- 



Kansas-Nebraska Act 


ritory was named Nebraska. It included all the 
land north of Kansas and between the Missouri 
River and the Rocky Mountains. The antislavery 
leaders in the North attacked the bill with great 
fury. Chase of Ohio said that it was a violation of 
faith. Sumner of Massachusetts rejoiced in the fight, 
for he said men must now take sides for freedom 
or for slavery. 
Some independent 
Democrats pub- 
lished "An Ap- 
peal." They asked 
their fellow-citizens 
to take their maps 
and see what an im- 
mense region Doug- 
las had proposed to 
open to slavery. 
They denied that 
the Missouri Com- 
promise had been repealed. Nevertheless, the bill 
passed Congress and was signed by President Pierce. 
352. Abraham Lincoln. — ^Born in Kentucky, Abra- 
ham Lincoln went with his parents to Indiana and 
then to Illinois. As a boy he was very poor and had 
to work hard. But he lost no opportunity to read 
and to study. At the plow or in the long even- 
ings at home by the firelight he was ever thinking 
and studying. Growing to manhood he became a 
lawyer and served one term in Congress. The pas- 

attack the 

The Inde- 

Hero Tales, 


llic Strus^s^lc for Kansas [§§ 352-356 

sage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act aroused his indig- 
nation as nothing had ever aroused it before. He 
denied that any man had the right to govern another 
man, be he white or be he black, without that man's 
consent. He thought that blood would surely be 
shed before the slavery question would be settled in, and the first shedding of blood would be the 
beginning of the end of the Union. 

353. Settlement of Kansas. — In the debate on the 
Kansas-Nebraska bill Senator Seward of New York 
said to the Southerners : " Come on, then. . . . We 
will engage in competition for the soil of Kansas, 
and God give the victory to the side that is strong 
in numbers as it is in right." Seward spoke truly. 
The victory came to those opposed to the extension 
of slavery. But it was a long time in coming. As 
soon as the act was passed, armed " Sons of the 
South" crossed the frontier of Missouri and founded 
the town of Atchison. Then came large bands of 
armed settlers from the North and the East. They 
founded the towns of Lawrence and Topeka. An 
election was held. Hundreds of men poured over 
the boundary of Missouri, outvoted the free-soil 
settlers in Kansas, and then went home. The terri- 
torial legislature, chosen in this way, adopted the laws 
of Missouri, slave code and all, as the laws of Kansas. 
It seemed as if Kansas were lost to freedom. 

354. The Topeka Convention. — The free-state 
voters now held a convention at Topeka. They 
drew up a constitution and applied to Congress for 

1856] The Republicaii Party 287 

admission to the Union as the free state of Kansas. 
The free-state men and the slave-state men each 
elected a Delegate to Congress. The House of Rep- 
resentatives now took the matter up and appointed a 
committee of investigation. The committee reported 
in favor of the free-state men, and the House voted 
to admit Kansas as a free state. But the Senate would The Senate 

refuses to 

not consent to anythmg of the kmd. The contest in admit 
Kansas went on and became more bitter every month. ^'^^"^^^• 

355. The Republican Party. — The most important 

result of the Kansas-Nebraska fight was the forma- Origin of 

tion of the Republican party. It was made up of ^^^ p^^ty ^' 

men from all the other parties who agreed in oppos- McMaster, 

ing Douglas's Kansas-Nebraska policy. Slowly they 

began to think of themselves as a party and to adopt Anti- 

the name of the old party of Jefferson, Madison, and ^en"^^^^^ 

Monroe — Republican. 

356. Buchanan elected President, 1856. — The 

Whigs and the Know-Nothings nominated Millard Presidential 
Fillmore for President and said nothing about slavery. 1856. 
The Democrats nominated James Buchanan of Penn- 
sylvania for President and John C. Breckenridge of Buchanan. 
Kentucky for Vice-President. They declared their 
approval of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and favored 
a strict construction of the Constitution. The Re- 
publicans nominated John C. Fremont. They pro- 
tested against the extension of slavery and declared Fremont, 
for a policy of internal improvements at the expense 
of the nation. The Democrats won ; but the Repub- 
licans carried all the Northern states save four. 


The Struggle for Kansas [§§ 357-359 

357. The Dred Scott Decision, 1857. — The Supreme 
Court of the United States now gave a decision in the 
Dred Scott case that put an end to all hope of com- 
promise on the slavery question. Dred Scott had 
been born a slave. The majority of the judges de- 
clared that a person once a slave could never become 
a citizen of the United States and bring suit in the 
United States courts. They also declared that the 
Missouri Compromise was unlawful. Slave owners 
had a clear right to carry their property, including 
slaves, into the territories, and Congress could not 
stop them. 

358. The Lincoln and Douglas Debates, 1858. — 
The question of the reelection of Douglas to the 
Senate now came before the people of Illinois. 
Abraham Lincoln stepped forward to contest the 
election with him. " A house divided against itself 
cannot stand," said Lincoln. "This government can- 
not endure half slave and half free. ... It will be- 
come all one thing or all the other." He challenged 
Douglas to debate the issues with him before the 
people, and Douglas accepted the challenge. Seven 
joint debates were held in the presence of immense 
crowds. Lincoln forced Douglas to defend the doc- 
trine of "popular sovereignty." This Douglas did 
by declaring that the legislatures of the territories 
could make laws hostile to slavery. This idea, of 
course, was opposed to the Dred Scott decision. 
Douglas won the election and was returned to the 
Senate. But Lincoln had made a national reputation. 


Lincoln and Doiizlas 


359. "Bleeding Kansas." — Meantime civil war civiiwar 
had broken out in Kansas. Slavery men attacked McMaster 
Lawrence, killed a few free-state settlers, and burned 3S7- 
several buildings. Led by John Brown, an immi- John Brown. 
grant from New York, free-state men attacked a party 
of slave-state men and killed five of them. By 1857 
the free-state voters had become so numerous that it 
was no longer possible to outvote them by bringing 

Harper's Ferry. 

men from Missouri, and they chose a free-state legis- 
lature. But the fraudulent slave-state legislature had 
already provided for holding a constitutional conven- 
tion at Lecompton. This convention was controlled The slave 
by the slave-state men and adopted a constitution 



TJie Struggle for Kansas 


providing for slavery. President Buchanan sent this 
constitution to Congress and asked to have Kan- 
sas admitted as a slave state. But Douglas could 
not bear to see the wishes of the settlers of Kansas 
outraged. He opposed the proposition vigorously 
and it was defeated. It was not until 1861 that Kan- 
sas was admitted to the Union as a free state. 

360. John Brown's Raid, 1859. —While in Kan- 
sas John Brown had conceived a bold plan. It was 
to seize a strong place in the mountains of the South, 
and there protect any slaves who should run away 
from their masters. In this way he expected to 
break slavery in pieces within two years. With only 
nineteen men he seized Harper's Ferry, in Virginia, 
and secured the United States arsenal at that place. 
But he and most of his men were immediately cap- 
tured. He was executed by the Virginian authorities 
as a traitor and murderer. The Republican leaders 
denounced his act as " the gravest of crimes." But 
the Southern leaders were convinced that now the 
time had come to secede from the Union and to 
establish a Southern Confederacy. 

Question and Topics 291 

Chapter 31 

§ 323. — a. "Why were the people of South Carolina so opposed to 
any limitation of slavery ? How did they show their opposition? 

b. Had slavery disappeared in the North because people thought 
that it was wrong ? 

§§ 324, 325. — a. What suggestions were made by some in the North 
for the ending of slavery ? What do you think of these suggestions ? 

b. For what did Garrison contend, and how did he make his views 
known ? Why were these views opposed in the North ? 

§ 326. — a. Why were the Southerners so alarmed by Nat Turner's 
Rebellion ? 

b. What power had Congress over the mails ? How would you have 
voted on this question ? 

§§ 327* 328. — a. Why is the right of petition so important ? How 
is this right secured to citizens of the United States ? 

b. Why should these petitions be considered as insulting to slave- 
holders ? 

c. Why were the Southerners so afraid of any discussion of slavery ? 

Chapter 32 

§§ 3^9) 330- — (I- Show by the map the extent of the Mexican Re- 

b. Why did Texas wish to join the United States ? What attitude 
had Mexico taken on slavery ? 

§§331,332. — a. Explain carefully how the Texas question influ- 
enced the election of 1844. 

b. What was the Liberty party ? How did its formation make the 
election of Polk possible? 

c. What is a " joint resolution " ? 

§ 333- — How did the Mexicans regard the admission of Texas? 
What dispute with Mexico arose ? Did Mexico begin the war ? 

§§ 334) 335- — '^- What was the plan of Taylor's campaign ? Of 
Scott's campaign ? 

b. Mention the leading battles of Taylor's campaign. Of Scott's 

292 Slavery in tJie Teiritories 

§§ 336» 337- — '^- What action did the American settlers in Califor- 
nia take ? With what result ? 

b. Explain by a map the Mexican cessions of 1848 and 1853 

§§ 2>3i^< 339- — ^- What was the extent of Oregon in 1845 ' 
/'. How was the dispute linally settled ? Explain by a map. 

c. What was the extent of Oregon in 1847 ? ^^ it the same to-day ? 

d. Of what value was this region to the United States ? 

Chaiter t,^ 

§§ 340. 34''' — c- Why was there little question whether Oregon 
would be slave or free ? 

l>. Explain carefully Wilmot's suggestion. What would be the argu- 
ments in Congress for and against this " proviso " ? 

c. What is meant by "squatter sovereignty " ? What do you think 
of the wisdom and justice of such a plan ? 

§§ 342,343. — a. Describe the discovery of gold in California and 
the rush thither. What difference did one year make in the population 
of California ? 

b. What attitude did California take on the slavery question ? 
Why ? 

§§ 344' 345- — ^- How had the question of slavery already divided 
the country ? 

b. What extreme parties were there in the North and the South ? 

c. Why was the question about the territories so important ? 

d. What action did President Taylor take ? Why ? What do you 
think of the wisdom of this policy ? 

§§ 346, 347. — a. State the provisions of Clay's compromise i)lan. 
Which of these favored the North ? The South ? 

b. What law had been made as to fugitive slaves ? Why had it not 
been enforced ? Why was the change made in 1850 so important ? 

c. Mow would you have acted had you been a United States officer 
called to carry out the Fugitive Slave Eaw ? 

§ 348. — a. Who was Mrs. Stowe ? What view did she take of 
slavery ? 

b. Were there any good points in the slave system ? 

c. Why is this book so important ? 

Questions and Topics 293 

Chapter 34 

§§ 349-351- — '^^ Who were the candidates in 1852? Who was 
chosen ? Why ? 

/;. What doctrine did Douglas apply to Kansas and Nebraska ? 

c. Why did Chase call this bill " a violation of faith " ? 

d. Was Douglas a patriot ? Chase ? Sumner ? Pierce ? 

§ 352. — a. Give an account of the early life and training of Abra- 
ham Lincoln. 

/;. What did he think of the Kansas-Nebraska Act ? 

§§ 353' 354- — ^- What effect did the Kansas-Nebraska Act have 
on the settlement of Kansas ? 

b. Describe the election. Do you think that laws made by a legis- 
lature so elected were binding ? 

d. Explain the difference in the attitude of the Senate and House 
on the Kansas question. 

§§ 355> 356- — «• How was the Republican party formed ? 
l>. Were its principles like or unlike those of the Republican party 
of Jefferson's time ? Give your reasons. 

§337. — a. What rights did the Supreme Court declare a slave 
could not possess ? Was a slave a person or a thing ? 

b. What power does the Constitution give Congress over a territory ? 
(Art. IV, Sec. 3.) 

§ 358. — a. Explain carefully the quotations from Lincoln's speeches. 

b. Was the doctrine of popular sovereignty necessarily favorable to 
slavery ? Give illustrations to support your reasons. 

c. Was Douglas's declaration in harmony with the decision of the 
Supreme Court ? 

§§ 359. 360. — «. Compare the attitude of Douglas and Buchanan 
upon the admission of Kansas. 

b. Describe John Brown's raid. Was he a traitor ? 

General Questions 

a. Give, with dates, the important laws as to slavery since 1783. 

b. What were the arguments in favor of the extension of slavery ? 
Against it ? 

294 Slavery in the Territories 

c. Find and learn a poem against slavery by Whittier, Lowell, or 

d. Make a table of elections since 1 788, with the leading parties, can- 
didates, and principal issues. Underline the name of the candidate 

Topics for Special Work 

a. John Brown in Kansas or at Harper's Ferry. 

b. The career, to this time, of any man mentioned in Chapters 33 
and 34. 

c. Any one fugitive slave case : Jerry McHenry in Syracuse (A. J. 
May's Antislavery Conflicts), Shadrach, Anthony Burns. 


Preparation is especially important in teaching this period. The 
teacher will find references to larger books in Channing's Students' 

Show how the question of slavery was really at the basis of the Mexi- 
can War. Geographical conditions and the settlement of the Western 
country should be carefully noted. A limited use of the writings and 
speeches of prominent men and writers is especially valuable at this 

Have a large map of the United States in the class room, cut out 
and fasten upon this map pieces of white and black paper to illustrate 
the effects of legislation under discussion, and also to illustrate the vari- 
ous elections. 

The horrors of slavery should be but lightly touched. Emphasize 
especially the fact that slavery prevented rather than aided the develop- 
ment of the South, and was an evil economically as well as socially. 

SECESSION, 1860-1861 

Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Scribner's Popular History^ IV, 432-445 ; 
McMaster's School History, chap, xxvi (industrial progress, 

Home Readings. — Page's The Old South. 


361. Growth of the Country. — The United States Area of the 
was now three times as large as it was at Jeffer- ytateT^i86o 
son's election. It contained over three million square 
miles of land. About one-third of this great area was 
settled. In the sixty years of the century the popu- 
lation had increased even faster than the area had in- population, 
creased. In 1800 there were five and a half million ^^^°* 
people living in the United States. In i860 there 
were over thirty-one million people within its bor- 
ders. Of these nearly five millions were white im- 
migrants. More than half of these immigrants had 
come in the last ten years, and they had practically 
all of them settled in the free states of the North. 
Of the whole population of thirty-one millions only 


296 The United States in i860 [§§ 361-364 

twelve millions lived in the slave states, and of these 
more than four millions were negro slaves. 

362. Change of Political Power. — The control of 
Congress had now passed into the hands of the free 
states of the North. The majority of the Represen- 
tatives had long been from the free states. Now 
more Senators came from the North than from 
the South. This was due to the admission of new 
states. Texas (1845) was the last slave state to be 
admitted to the Union. Two years later the admis- 
sion of Wisconsin gave the free states as many votes 
in the Senate as the slave states had. In 1850 the 
admission of California gave the free states a majority 
of two votes in the Senate. This majority was in- 
creased to four by the admission of Minnesota in 
1858, and to six by the admission of Oregon in 
T859. The control of Congress had slipped forever 
from the grasp of the slave states. 

363. The Cities. — The tremendous increase in 
manufacturing, in farming, and in trading brought 
about a great increase in foreign commerce. This 
in turn led to the building up of great cities in the 
North. The largest were New York and Chicago ; 
and they were the largest because they formed the 
two ends of the line of communication between the 
East and the West by the Mohawk Valley (p. 239). 
New York now contained over eight hundred thou- 
sand inhabitants. It had more people within its lim- 
its than lived in the whole state of South Carolina. 
The most rapid growth was seen in the case of Chi- 

i86o] Growth of Population 297 

cago. In 1840 there were only five thousand people Chicago, 
in that city ; it now contained one hundred and nine 
thousand inhabitants. Cincinnati and St. Louis, each 
with one hundred and sixty thousand, were still the 
largest cities of the West, and St. Louis was the larg- 
est city in any slave state. New Orleans, with nearly 
as many people as St. Louis, was the only large city 
in the South. 

364. The States. — As it was with the cities so it The North 
was with the states — the North had grown beyond gout^^ 
the South. In 1790 Virginia had as many inhab- 
itants as the states of New York and Pennsylvania 
put together. In i860 Virginia had only about one- 
quarter as many inhabitants as these two states. 
Indeed, in i860 New York had nearly four million 
inhabitants, or nearly as many inhabitants as the 
whole United States in 1791 (p. 156). But the growth 
of the states of the Northwest had been even more Growth of 
remarkable. Ohio now had a million more people ^^^^ 
than Virginia and stood third in population among 
the states of the Union. Illinois was the fourth state 
and Indiana the sixth. Even more interesting are 
the facts brought out by a study of the map show- 
ing the density of population or the number of 
people to the square mile in the several states. It 
appears that in i860 Ohio, Pennsylvania, Mary- 
land, Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Connecti- 
cut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts each had over Density of 
forty-five inhabitants to the square mile, while not ^^^ ^ '°"' 
a single Southern state had as many as forty-five 


The United States in i860 [§§ 364-366 

inhabitants to the square mile. This shows us at 
once that although the Southern states were larger 
in extent than the Northern states, they were much 
less powerful. 

Density of Population in i860. 

ments in 


365. City Life. — In the old days the large towns 
were just like the small towns except that they were 
larger. Life in them was just about the same as in 
the smaller places. Now, however, there was a great 
difference. In the lirst place the city could afford to 
have a great many things the smaller town could not 
pay for. In the second place it must have certain 
things or its people would die of disease or be killed 
as they walked the streets. For these reasons the 
streets of the Northern cities were paved and lighted 


Life in the Cities 


and were guarded by policemen. Then, too, great 
sewers carried away the refuse of the city, and enor- 
mous iron pipes brought fresh water to every one 
within its limits. 
Horse-cars and omni- 
buses carried its in- 
habitants from one 
part of the city to 
another, and the rail- 
roads brought them 
food from the sur- 
rounding country. 

366 Transporta- 
tion. — Between 1 849 
and 1858 twenty-one 
thousand miles of 
railroad were built in the United States. In 1 860 Growth of 

, 11-1 ^ ^^ c •^ ^^^ railroad 

there were more than thirty thousand miles ot rail- systems. 
road in actual operation. In 1850 one could not go 
from New York to Albany without leaving the rail- 
road and going on board a steamboat. In i860 one 
continuous line of rails ran from New York City to 
the Mississippi River. Traveling was still uncomfort- 
able according to our ideas. The cars were rudely 
made and jolted horribly. One train ran only a com- 
paratively short distance. Then the traveler had to 
alight, get something to eat, and see his baggage 
placed on another train. Still, with all its discomforts, 
traveling in the worst of cars was better than travel- 
ing in the old stagecoaches. Many more steam- 

An Omnibus. 


The United States in j86o [§§ 366-368 

boats were used, especially on the Great Lakes and 
the Western rivers.. 

367. Education. — The last thirty years had also 
been years of progress in learning. Many colleges 
were founded, especially in the Northwest. There 
was still no institution which deserved the name of 

university. But 
more attention was 
being paid to the 
sciences and to the 
education of men 
for the professions 
of law and medicine. 
The newspapers 
also took on their 
modern form. The 
Yezv York Herald, 
founded in 1835, was 
the first real news- 
paper. But the A^ew 
York Tribune, edited 
by Horace Greeley, 
had more influence 
than any other paper in the country. Greeley was odd 
in many ways, but he was one of the ablest men of the 
time. He called for a liberal policy in the distribution 
of the public lands and was forever saying, " Go West, 
young man, go West." The magazines were now 
very much better than in former years, and America's 
foremost writers were doing some of their best work. 

Horace Greeley. 


Education and Invention 


368. Progress of Invention. — The electric teleg- The 
raphy was now in common use. It enabled the 
newspapers to tell the people what was going on as 
they never had done be- 
fore. Perhaps the inven- 
tion that did more than 
any other one thing to 
make life easier was the 
sewing machine. Elias 
Howe was the first man 
to make a really practica- 
ble sewing machine. 
Other inventors improved 
upon it, and also made 
machines to sew other 
things than cloth, as 
leather. Agricultural machinery was now in com- The Howe 
mon use. The horse reaper had been much improved, ^^difne. 
and countless machines had been invented to make Agricultural 
agricultural labor more easy and economical. Hun- '"^'^ '"^'^^' 
dreds of homely articles, as friction matches and 
rubber shoes, came into use in these years. In short, 
the thirty years from Jackson's inauguration to the 
secession of the Southern states were years of great 
progress. But this progress was confined almost 
wholly to the North. In the South, living in i860 stagnation 

. in the South. 

was about the same as it had been m 1830, or even 
in 1800. As a Southern orator said of the South, 
"The rush and whirl of modern civilization passed 
her by." 

The First Sewing Machine. 



[§§ 369-371 


SECESSION, 1 860-1 861 

369. The Republican Nomination, i860. — Four 

names were especially mentioned in connection with 

the Republican nomi- 
nation for President. 
These were Seward, 
Chase, Cameron, and 
Lincoln. Seward was 
the best known of 
them all. In the de- 
bates on the Compro- 
mise of 1850 he had 
declared that there 
was "a higher law " 
than the Constitution, 
namely, " the law of 
nature in men's 
hearts." In another 
speech he had termed 
the slavery contest "the irrepressible conflict." These 
phrases endeared him to the antislavery men. But 
they made it impossible for many moderate Republi- 
cans to follow him. Senator Chase of Ohio had also 
been very outspoken in his condemnation of slavery. 
Senator Cameron of Pennsylvania was an able politi- 
cal leader. But all of these men were " too conspic- 
uous to make a good candidate." They had made 

Copyrighl. I). Va:i N.siraml ;> ('>. 


i86o] Presidential Candidates 3^3 

many enemies. Lincoln had spoken freely. But he 

had never been prominent in national politics. He 

was more likely to attract the votes of moderate men 

than either of the other candidates. After a fierce Lincoln 

contest he was nominated. The Republican platform \^^ 

stated that there was no intention to interfere with platform. 

slavery in the states where it existed ; but it declared 

the party's opposition to the extension of slavery. 

The platform favored internal improvements at the 

national expense. It also approved the protective 


370. The Democratic Nominations. — The Demo- The Charies- 

cratic convention met at Charleston, South Carolina, ^j^,, ^^^^ 

It was soon evident that the Northern Democrats McMaster, 

and the Southern Democrats could not agree. The 

Northerners were willing to accept the Dred Scott 

decision and to carry it out. But the Southerners 

demanded that the platform should pledge the party 

actively to protect slavery in the territories. To this 

the Northerners would not agree. So the convention 

broke up to meet again at Baltimore. But there the 

delegates could come to no agreement. In the end 

two candidates were named. The Northerners nomi- The Douglas 

nated Douglas on a platform advocating "popular 

sovereignty." The Southerners nominated John C. TheBreck- 

Breckenridge of Kentucky. In their platform they Democrats 

advocated states' rights, and the protection of slavery 

in the territories by the federal government. 

371. The Constitutional Union Party. — Besides 
these three candidates, cautious and timid men of all 



[§§ 37»-373 

The Consti- 
Union party. 

The cam- 
paign of 

of the 

parties united to form the Constitutional Union party. 
They nominated Governor John Bell of Tennessee 
for President. In their platform they declared for 
the maintenance of the Constitution and the Union, 
regardless of slavery. 

372. Lincoln elected President, i860. — With four 
candidates in the field and the Democratic party 

hopelessly divided, 
there could be Httle 
doubt of Lincoln's 
election. He car- 
ried every North- 
ern state except 
Missouri and New 
Jersey. He re- 
ceived one hundred 
and eighty electo- 
ral votes. Brecken- 
ridge carried every Southern state except the " bor- 
der states" of Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee, and 
received seventy-two electoral votes. Bell carried the 
three "border" Southern states and Douglas carried 
Missouri and New Jersey. There was no doubt as 
to Lincoln's election. He had received a great ma- 
jority of the electoral votes. But his opponents had 
received more popular votes than he had received. 
He was therefore elected by a minority of the voters. 

373. The North and the South. — Lincoln had 
been elected by a minority of the people. He had 
been elected by the people of one section. Other 

Lincoln's Surveying Instkuments and Saddlebag. 



Lincoln elected President 


Presidents had been chosen by minorities. But Lin- 
coln was the first man to be chosen President by the 
people of one section. The Republicans, moreover, 
had not elected a majority of the members of the 
House of Representatives, and the Senate was still 
in the hands of the Democrats. For two years at 
least the Republicans 
could not carry out 
their ideas. They 
could not repeal the 
Kansas-Nebraska Act. 
They could not admit 
Kansas to the Union 
as a free state. They 
could not carry out one 
bit of their poUcy. In 
their platform they 
had declared that they 
had no intention to in- 
terfere with slavery in 
the states. Lincoln 
had said over and over 
again that Congress 
had no right to meddle with slavery in the states. 
The Southern leaders knew all these things. But Southern 
they made up their minds that now the time had ^^^^' 
come to secede from the Union and to establish a 
Southern Confederacy. For the first time all the 
southernmost states were united. No matter what 
Lincoln and the Republicans might say, the Southern 

Lincoln's Bookcase. 

From the Keyes- Lincoln Memorial Collection, 



[§§ 373-377 

slaveholders believed that slavery was in danger. In 
advising secession, many of them thought that by this 
means they could force the Northerners to accept 
their terms as the price of a restored Union. Never 
were political leaders more mistaken. 

374. Threats of Secession, November, i860. — The 
Constitution permits each state to choose presidential 
electors as it sees fit. At the outset these electors 
had generally been chosen by the state legislatures. 
But, in the course of time, all the states save one had 
come to choose them by popular vote. The one state 
that held to the old way was South Carolina. Its 
legislature still chose the state's presidential electors. 
In i860 the South Carolina legislature did this duty 
and then remained in session to see which way the 
election would go. When Lincoln's election was cer- 
tain, it called a state convention to consider the ques- 
tion of seceding from the United States. In other 
Southern states there was some opposition to seces- 
sion. In Georgia, especially, Alexander H. Stephens 
led the opposition. He said that secession " was the 
height of madness." Nevertheless he moved a reso- 
lution for a convention. Indeed, all the southernmost 
states followed the example of South Carolina and 
summoned conventions. 

375. The Crittenden Compromise Plan. — Many men 
hoped that even now secession might be stopped by 
some compromise. President Buchanan suggested 
an amendment to the Constitution, securing slavery 
in the states and territories. It was unlikely that 

i86o] Compromise Plans 307 

the Republicans would agree to this suggestion. 
The most hopeful plan was brought forward in Con- 
gress by Senator Crittenden of Kentucky. He pro- 
posed that amendments to the Constitution should be Crittenden's 
adopted: (i) to carry out the principle of the Mis- compromise, 
souri Compromise (p. 222) ; (2) to provide that McMaster, 
states should be free or slave as their people should 
determine ; and (3) to pay the slave owners the value 
of runaway slaves. This plan was carefully con- it fails 
sidered by Congress, and was finally rejected only congress. 
two days before Lincoln's inauguration. 

376. Secession of Seven States, 1860-61. — The South caro- 
South Carolina convention met in Secession Hall, ^g^^ 

Charleston, on December 17, i860. Three days later Eggieston, 

it adopted a declaration "that the union now subsist- 
ing between South Carolina and other states, under 
the name of the United States of America, is hereby 
dissolved." Six other states soon joined South Caro- Six other 
lina. These were Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, 
Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas. 

377. The "Confederate States of America." — The Confederate 
next step was for these states to join together to form 
a confederation. This work was done by a convention 
of delegates chosen by the conventions of the seven 
seceding states. These delegates met at Mont- 
gomery, Alabama. Their new constitution closely 
resembled the Constitution of the United States. 
But great care was taken to make it perfectly clear 
that each member of the Confederacy was a sovereign 
state. Exceeding care was also taken that slavery 




[§§ 377-379 

Views of 

Views of 
H. Stephens. 
Book, 296- 



OHIII^ 1>I V. 

should be protected in ever}' way. Jefferson Davis 
of Mississippi was chosen provisional president, and 
Ale.xander H. Stephens provisional vice-president. 

378. Views of Davis and Stephens. — Davis de- 

clared that Lincoln 
had " made a dis- 
tinct declaration 
of war upon our 
(Southern) institu- 
tions." His elec- 
I tion was " upon the 
I basis of sectional 
j hostility." If "war 
I must come, it must 
be on Northern and 
not on Southern 
soil. . . . We will 
carry war . . . 
where food for the 
sword and torch 
awaits our armies 
in the densely pop- 
ulated cities " of 
the North. For 
his part, Stephens 
said the new gov- 
ernment's " foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests, 
upon the great truth that the negro is not equal to the 
white man." 

379. Hesitation in the North. — At first it seemed 


i86o-6i] Hesitation in the North 309 

as if Davis was right when he said the Northerners " Let the 

would not fight. General Scott, commanding the sister's "go 

army, suggested that the "erring sisters" should be i" peace. 

allowed to "depart in peace," and Seward seemed to 

think the same way. The Abolitionists welcomed 

the secession of the slave states. Horace Greeley, Greeley's 

for instance, wrote that if those states chose to form °P'"'°"^- 

an independent nation, " they had a clear moral right 

so to do." For his part, President Buchanan thought Buchanan's 

that no state could constitutionally secede. But if a °p^"'°"^- 

state should secede, he saw no way to compel it to 

come back to the Union. So he sat patiently by and 

did nothing. 


Chapter 35 

§§ 361? 362. — a. Compare the area and population of the United 
States in 1800 and in i860. 

b. Compare the white population of the North and the South. Were 
all the Southern whites slave owners ? 

c. Why had the control of the House passed to the free states ? Did 
a white man in the North and in the South have proportionally the same 
representation in the House ? Why ? 

d. What change in the control of the Senate had taken place ? Why? 
Why was this change so important ? 

§§ 363) 364. — a. What had caused the growth of the Northern 
cities ? Why were there so few large cities in the slave states ? 

b. How had the population of the states changed since 1790 ? What 
had caused the growth of the Northwest ? 

c. Where was there the greatest density of population ? Why ? 

§§ 365) 366. — a. Describe the change of life in the cities. What 
arrangements were made for the comfort and health of the people ? 

b. How had railroads increased, and what improvements had been 
made ? 

310 Secession 

§§ 3^7' 3^8. — a. Of what use are newspapers ? How do they in- 
fluence the opinions of the people ? What policy did Horace Greeley 
uphold ? Why ? 

b. Who were some of the important writers ? Mention two works 
of each. 

c. What influence did the telegraph have ? Was this important ? 

d. Describe some of the other inventions. 

e. Why had this progress been confmed mainly to the North ? 

Chapter 36 

§ 3^9- — ^- Who were the leading Republican candidates ? 
/;. Why was Lincoln nominated ? What is the meaning of the phrase 
" too conspicuous " ? 

c. What did Seward mean by saying that there was a " higher law " 
than the Constitution ? Why was the slavery contest " irrepressible " ? 

d. What declaration was made by the Republican party as to slavery ? 
Compare this policy with the Wilmot Proviso. 

§§370,371. — a. What divisions took place in the Democratic 
party ? Why ? 

b. What candidates were named ? What policy did each uphold ? 

c. How had the demands of the Southerners concerning slavery in- 
creased ? 

d. What third party was formed ? By whom ? W^hat does the name 
show ? 

§§ 372. 373- — '?• What was the result of the election ? 
/'. What was there peculiar in Lincoln's election ? 

c. Were the Southern states in any particular danger ? 

d. Why should the Southerners have felt so strongly about this elec- 
tion ? What was their hope in threatening secession ? 

§§374,375. — a. Give arguments for and against secession. In 
what other ciuestion similar to this had South Carolina led ? 

b. Were the people of the South generally in favor of secession ? 

c. W'hat compromise did Buchanan suggest ? W'hat do you think 
of the wisdom of the plan ? 

d. Explain carefully the points in Crittenden's plan. Discuss its 

§§ 37^' 377- — "• Could one state dissolve the Union ? 
b. What other states followed South Carolina ? 

Questio7is and Topics 311 

c. What government was formed by them ? What two points were 
especially emphasized in their constitution ? Why these ? 

§§ yi'^^ 379- — ^' What statement did Davis make as to Lincoln ? 
Was it true or false ? Give your reasons. 

b. Why did Davis advocate war on Northern soil ? 

c. Why was there such hesitation in the North ? State the opin- 
ions of Scott, Greeley, and Buchanan. 

d. What would Jackson probably have done had he been President ? 

General Questions 

a. Was the South justified in thinking that the North would yield ? 
Give illustrations to support your view, 

b. Were the years 1857-61 more or less "critical" than the years 
1783-87 ? Why ? 

c. How was the South dependent upon the North ? 

Topics for Special Work 

a. Comparison between the North and the South. 

b. K\cj invention mentioned in this part. 

c. Some writer of this period. 

d. The condition of your own state (or town or city) in i860. 

Suggestions to the Teacher 

The first chapter of this part should be taught very slowly, and at 
each point the contrast between the North and the South should be 
pointed out. 

In Chapter 36 the changed attitude of the Southern politicians should 
be noted and their demands clearly set forth. The fact that the slave 
owners while a minority in the South dominated public opinion should 
be pointed out. 

In considering the question of secession it will be well to review the 
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, the Hartford Convention, and the 
Nullification episode. The weakness of Pierce and Buchanan may be 
contrasted with the strength of Jackson, and will serve as an introduc- 
tion to the study of Lincoln's character. 



Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Dodge's Bircfs-Eye View; Scribner's Popular 
History, IV and V ; McMaster's School History, chap, xxix (the 
cost of the war) ; Lincoln's Inaugurals and Gettysburg Address. 

Home Readings. — Battles and Leaders of the Civil War 
(composed largely of articles that had previously appeared in 
the Century Magazine; Whittier's Barbara Frietchie ; Coffin's 
Winning his Way and other stories ; Soley's Sailor Boys of ''6/ ; 
Trowbridge's Drummer Boy and other stories ; Read's Sheri- 
dan'' s Ride; Champlin's Young Folks'' History of the War for 
the Union. 



380. Lincoln's Inauguration. — On March 4, 1861, 
President Lincoln made his first inaugural address. 
In it he declared: "The Union is much older than 
the Constitution. . . . No state upon its own motion 
can lawfully get out of the Union. ... In view of 
the Constitution and the laws the Union is unbroken. 
... I shall take care that the laws of the Union be 
faithfully executed in all the states." As to slavery, 
he had " no purpose ... to interfere with the insti- 



Fall of Fort Sumter 


tution of slavery in the states where it exists." He 
even saw no objection to adopt an amendment of the 
Constitution to prohibit the Federal government from 
interfering with slavery in the states. But he was 
resolved to preserve, protect, and defend the Con- 
stitution of the United States. 

381. Fall of Fort Sumter, April, 1 861. — The Fort 
strength of Lincoln's resolve was soon tested. When *^7«r^^- 

South Carolina seceded, Major Anderson, command- Book,2.q^ 

ing the United States forces at Charleston, with- 
drew from the land forts to 
Fort Sumter, built on a shoal 
in the harbor. He had with 
him only eighty fighting men 
and was sorely in need of 
food and ammunition. Bu- 
chanan sent a steamer, the 
Star of the West, to Charles- 
ton with supplies and soldiers. 

But the Confederates fired on her, and she steamed 
away without landing the soldiers or the supplies. 
Lincoln waited a month, hoping that the secessionists 
would come back to the Union of their own accord. 
Then he decided to send supplies to Major Ander- 
son and told the governor of South Carolina of his 
decision. Immediately (April 12) the Confederates 
opened fire on Fort Sumter. On April 14 Anderson 
surrendered. The next day President Lincoln issued -phe can to 
a proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand vol- j^^gi^^"^ 

' Old Glory " as used in 
THE Civil War. 


The Rising of the Peoples [§§ 382-85 

The North- 
ern volun- 

Book, 303- 

and Pierce. 

Progress of 


and Mary- 
land saved 
to the Union. 

382. Rising of the North. — There was no longer a 
question of letting the " erring sisters " depart in 
peace. The Southerners had fired on "Old Glory." 
There was no longer a dispute over the extension of 
slavery. The question was now whether the Union 
should perish or should live. Douglas at once came 
out for the Union and so did the former Presidents, 
Buchanan and Franklin Pierce. In the Mississippi 
Valley hundreds of thousands of men either sympa- 
thized with the slaveholders or cared nothing about 
the slavery dispute. But the moment the Confeder- 
ates attacked the Union, they rose in defense of their 
country and their flag. 

383. More Seceders. — The Southerners flocked to 
the standards of the Confederacy, and four more 
states joined the ranks of secession. These were 
Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina, and Virginia. 
In Virginia the people were sharply divided on the 
question of secession. Finally Virginia seceded, but 
the western Virginians, in their turn, seceded from 
Virginia and two years later were admitted to the 
Union as the state of West Virginia. Four "border 
states" had seceded; but four other "border states" 
were still within the Union. These were Delaware, 
Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri. 

384. The Border States. — The people of Mary- 
land and of Kentucky were evenly divided on the 
question of secession. They even tried to set up as 
neutral states. But their neutrality would have been 
so greatly to the advantage of the seceders that this 

i86i] The Border States 315 

could not be allowed. Lincoln's firm moderation 
and the patriotism of man}^ wise leaders in Kentucky 
saved that state to the Union. But Maryland was so 
important to the defense of Washington that more Missouri 

1 1 T T\ T • • 1 saved to the 

energetic means had to be used. In Missouri, a large union. 
and active party wished to join the Confederacy. But ^^sieston, 
two Union men, Frank P. Blair and Nathaniel Lyon, 
held the most important portions of the state for the 
Union. It was not until a year later, however, that 
Missouri was safe on the Northern side. 

385. To the Defense of Washington. — The na- Southern 

sentiment in 

tional capital was really a Southern town, for most Washington. 

of the permanent residents were Southerners, and 

the offices were filled with Southern men. In the 

army and navy, too, were very many Southerners. 

Most of them, as Robert E. Lee, felt that their duty 

to their state was greater than their duty to their flag. 

But many Southern officers felt differently. Among 

these were two men whose names should be held in 

grateful remembrance. Captain David G. Farragut Southern 

and Colonel George H. Thomas. The first soldiers 

to arrive in Washington were from Pennsylvania ; but 

they came unarmed. Soon they were followed by the 

Sixth Massachusetts. In passing through Baltimore 

this regiment was attacked. Several men were killed, 

others were wounded. This was on April 19, 1861, — First biood- 

the anniversary of the battles of Lexington and Con- shed Apni 

cord. It was the first bloodshed of the war. 


Bull Run to Murfrccsbord [§§ 386-387 

The field 
of war. 


386. Nature of the Conflict. — The overthrow of the 
Confederate states proved to be very difficult. The 

Railroads and Rivers ok the South. 

Alleghany Mountains cut the South into two great 
fields of war. Deep and rapid rivers flowed from the 
mountains into the Atlantic or into the Mississippi. 
Each of these rivers was a natural line of defense. 
The first line was the Potomac and the Ohio. But 

i86i] The Bull Rim Campaign 317 

when the Confederates were driven from this line, 
they soon found another equally good a little far- 
ther south. Then again the South was only partly 
settled. Good roads were rare, but there were many 
poor roads. The maps gave only the good roads. 
By these the Northern soldiers had to march while 
the Southern armies were often guided through paths 
unknown to the Northerners, and thus were able to 
march shorter distances between two battlefields or 
between two important points. 

387. The Bull Run Campaign, July, 1861. — North- pian of 
ern soldiers crossed the Potomac into Virginia and '^'^^P^'sn- 
found the Confederates posted at Bull Run near 
Manassas Junction. Other Northern soldiers pressed 
down the Shenandoah Valley from Harper's Ferry. 
They, too, found a Confederate army in front of 
them. The plan of the Union campaign is now 
clear: General McDowell was to attack the Con- 
federates at Bull Run, while General Patterson 
attacked the Confederates in the Valley, and kept 
them so busy that they could not go to the help of 
their comrades at Bull Run. It fell out otherwise, 
for Patterson retreated and left the Confederate gen- 
eral, Johnston, free to go to the aid of the sorely Disaster at 
pressed Confederates at Bull Run. For McDowell j^, ^g^'^ 
had attacked vigorously and had broken the Con fed- *Source- 

Book, 305- 

erate line. Then came Johnston with his men. They 308. 
pushed back the Union troops. These became fright- 
ened and fled, in all haste, back to Washington. The 
first campaign ended in disaster. 


Bull Run to Murfrccsbord [§§ 388-391 

The Army of 
the Potomac, 

Book, 308- 


388. The Army of the Potomac. — While the Bull 
Run campaign was going on in eastern Virginia, 
Union soldiers had been winning victories in western 
Virginia. These were led by General George B. Mc- 

Clellan. He now 
came to Washing- 
ton and took com- 
mand of the 
troops operating 
in front of the 
capital. During 
the autumn, win- 
ter, and spring he 
drilled his men 
with great skill 
and care. In 
March, 1862, the 
Army of the 
Potomac left its 
camps a splendidly drilled body of soldiers. 

389. The Army of Northern Virginia. — Meantime 
the government of the Confederacy had gathered great 
masses of soldiers. There were not nearly as many 
white men of fighting age in the South as there were 
in the North. But what men there were could be 
placed in the fighting line, because the negro slaves 
could produce the food needed by the armies and do 
the hard labor of making forts. The capital of the 
Confederacy was now established at Richmond, on the 
James River, in Virginia. The army defending this 


i862] Plan of the Peninsula}' Campaign 319 

capital was called the Army of Northern Virginia. Army of 

T. 1 1 1 T 1 T-- T 1 1 • Northern 

It was commanded by Joseph E. Johnston ; but its viiginia. 
ablest officers were Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. 
Jackson (Stonewall Jackson). 

390. Plan of the Peninsular Campaign. — The coun- McCieiian's 
try between the Potomac and the James was cut up ^ampai^n, 
by rivers, as the Rappahannock, the Mattapony, and ^^62. 

the Pamunkey, and part of it was a wilderness. Mc- 
Clellan planned to carry his troops by water to the 
peninsula between the James and the York and Pa- 
munkey rivers. He would then have a clear road to 
Richmond, with no great rivers to dispute with the 
enemy. Johnston would be obliged to leave his 
camp at Bull Run and march southward to the 
defense of Richmond. The great objection to the Objections 
plan was that Johnston might attack Washington 
instead of going to face McClellan. General Jack- 
son also was in the Shenandoah Valley. He might 
march down the Valley, cross the Potomac, and seize 
Washington. So the government kept seventy-five 
thousand of McClellan's men for the defense of the 
Federal capital. 

391. The Monitor and the Merrimac. — On March 8 The Afonitor 

a queer-looking craft steamed out from Norfolk, Vir- ]\ie,-rimac. 

ginia, and attacked the Union fleet at anchor near ^^''^ ^''^"• 
° ' . 185-195. 

Fortress Monroe. She destroyed two wooden frig- 
ates, the Cumberland and the Congress, and began 
the destruction of the Minnesota. She then steamed 
back to Norfolk. This formidable vessel was the 
old frigate Merrimac. Upon her decks the Confed- 


Bull Riifi to Murfrccsboro [§§ 391-394 


Anchor Pilot 
Well House 

Battle of 
Fair Oaks, 
May, 1862. 

erates had built an iron house. From these iron 
sides the balls of the Union frigates rolled harmlessly 
away. But that night an even stranger-looking ship 
appeared at Fortress Monroe. This was the Moni- 
tor, a floating fort, 
built of iron. She 
was designed by 
John Ericsson, a 
Swedish immi- 
grant. When the 
Mcrrimac came 
back to finish 
the destruction of 
the Mintiesota, the 
Mo?iitor steamed 
directly to her. 
These two iron- 
clads fought and fought. At last the Mcrrimac 
steamed away and never renewed the fight. 

392. The Peninsular Campaign, 1862. — By the 
end of May McClellan had gained a position within 
ten miles of Richmond. Meantime, Jackson fought 
so vigorously in the Shenandoah Valley that the 
Washington government refused to send more men 
to McClellan, although Johnston had gone with his 
army to the defense of Richmond. On May 31 the 
Army of the Potomac and the Army of Northern 
Virginia fought a hard battle at Fair Oaks. John- 
ston was wounded, and Lee took the chief command. 
He summoned Jackson from the Valley and attacked 

Turret Smoke- Blower Propeller 
stacks Pipes Well 

The " Monitor." 

iS62] The Peninsular Campaign 32 1 

McClellan day after day, June 26 to July 2, 1862. 

These terrible battles of the Seven Days forced The Seven 

McClellan to change his base to the James, where ^^^' 

he would be near the fleet. At Malvern Hill Lee Maivem Hin. 

and Jackson once more attacked him and were beaten 

off with fearful loss. 

393. Second Bull Run Campaign. — The Army of 
the Potomac was still uncomfortably near Richmond. 

It occurred to Lee that if he should strike a hard Lee's plan 
blow at the army in front of Washington, Lincoln °^ '^^'^p^'^"- 
would recall McClellan. Suddenly, without any 
warning, Jackson appeared at Manassas Junction 
(p. 317). McClellan was at once ordered to trans- Second 
port his army by water to the Potomac, and place Run^Aueust 
it under the orders of General John Pope, command- ^862. 
ing the forces in front of Washington. McClellan 
did as he was ordered. But Lee moved faster than 
he could move. Before the Army of the Potomac 
was thoroughly in Pope's grasp, Lee attacked the 
Union forces near Bull Run. He defeated them, 
drove them off the field and back into the forts de- 
fending Washington (August, 1862). 

394. The Antietam Campaign, 1862. — Lee now Lee invades 
crossed the Potomac into Maryland. But he found 

more resistance than he had looked for. Mc- 
Clellan was again given chief command. Gathering 
his forces firmly together, he kept between Lee and 
Washington, and threatened Lee's communications 
with Virginia. The Confederates drew back. Mc- 
Clellan found them strongly posted near the Antie- 



Bull Run to Mnrfnrsboro' [§§ 394-398 

Antietam, tam and attacked them. The Union soldiers fought 
^862^'"''"' splendidly. But military writers say that McClellan's 

jh-ro Tah-s, attacks were not well planned. At all events, the 

Army of the Potomac lost more than twelve thou- 
sand men to less than ten thousand on the Confeder- 
ate side, and Lee made good his retreat to Virginia. 
McClcllan was now removed from command, and 

Ambrose E. Burnside 
became chief of the 
Army of the Poto- 

395. Fredericks- 
burg, December, 1862. 
— Burnside found 
Lee strongly posted 
on Marye's Heights, 
which rise sharply 
behind the little town 
of Fredericksburg on the southern bank of the Rap- 
pahannock River. Burnside attacked in front. His 
soldiers had to cross the river and assault the hill in 
face of a murderous fire — and in vain. He lost 
thirteen thousand men to only four thousand of the 
Confederates. " Fighting Joe " Hooker now suc- 
ceeded Burnside as commander of the Army of the 
Potomac. We must now turn to the West, and see 
what had been doing there in 1861-62. 

396. Grant and Thomas. — In Illinois there ap- 
peared a trained soldier of fierce energy and invin- 
cible will, Ulysses Simpson Grant. He had been 

Antietam (a War-timk Sketch). 

Battle of 




Grant and Thomas 


educated at West Point and had served in the Mexi- 
can War. In September, 1861, he seized Cairo at the He seizes 
junction of the Ohio and the Mississippi. In January, 
1862, General George H. Thomas defeated a Con- Battle of 
federate force at Mill Springs, in the upper valley january""^^' 
of the Cumberland River. In this way Grant and ^s^^- 
Thomas secured the line of the Ohio and eastern 
Kentucky for the 

397. Forts Henry 
and Donelson, Febru- 
ary, 1862. — In Feb- 
ruary, 1862, General 
Grant and Commodore 
Foote attacked two 
forts which the Con- 
federates had built to 
keep the Federal gun- 
boats from penetrating 
the western part of the 

Confederacy. Fort Henry yielded almost at once. Capture of 
but the Union forces besieged Fort Donelson for a February,^' 
long time. At last the Confederate defense became ^^^^• 
hopeless, and General Buckner asked for the terms son. 
of surrender. "Unconditional surrender," replied 
Grant, and Buckner surrendered. The lower Ten- 
nessee and the lower Cumberland were now open 
to the Union forces. 

398. Importance of New Orleans. — New Orleans The lower 
and the lower Mississippi were of great importance 'ssissippi. 

The Bridge at Antietam. 

Burnside's soldiers charged over the bridge from the middle 


Bull Run to Murfrccsboro' [§§ 398-400 

to both sides, for the possession of this region gaveJ 
the Southerners access to Texas, and through Texas 
to Mexico. Union fleets were blockading every 
important Southern port. But as long as commerce 
overland with Mexico could be maintained, the South | 


Capture of 
New Orleans, 
April, 1862. 
303-304 ; 
Book, 313- 

could struggle on. The Mississippi, too, has so many 
mouths that it was difficult to keep vessels from 

running in and 
C-\'^uMv out. For these 

iiW^y reasons the 

Federal gov- 
ernment deter- 
mined to seize 
New Orleans 
and the lower 
The command 
of the expedi- 
tion was given 
to Farragut, 
who had passed his boyhood in Louisiana. He was 
given as good a fleet as could be provided, and a force 
of soldiers was sent to help him. 

399. New Orleans captured, April, 1862. — Farra- 
gut carried his fleet into- the Mississippi, but found 
his way upstream barred by two forts on the river's 
bank. A great chain stretched across the river below 
the forts, and a fleet of river gunboats with an iron- 
clad or two was in waiting above the forts. Chain, 
forts, and gunboats all gave way before Farragut's 

A River Gunroat. 


Capture of Neiv Orleans 


forceful will. At night he passed the forts amid 
a terrific cannonade. Once above them New Orleans 
was at his mercy. It surrendered, and with the forts 
was soon occupied by the Union army. The lower 
Mississippi was lost to the Confederacy. 

A War-time Envelope. 

400. Shiloh and Corinth, April, May, 1862. — Gen- 
eral Halleck now directed the operations of the 
Union armies in the West. He ordered Grant to 
take his men up the Tennessee to Pittsburg Landing 
and there await the arrival of Buell with a strong 
force overland from Nashville. Grant encamped 
with his troops on the western bank of the Tennessee 
between Shiloh Church and Pittsburg Landing. 
Albert Sidney Johnston, the Confederate commander 
in the West, attacked him suddenly and with great 
fury. Soon the Union army was pushed back to the 

April, 1862. 


The Rinancipation Proclamation [§§ 400-404 

ri\-er. In his place many a leader would have with- 
drawn. But Grant, with amazing courage, held on. 
In the afternoon Buell's leading regiments reached the 
other side of the river. In the night they were ferried 
across, and Grant's outlying commands were brought 
to the front. The next morning Grant attacked in 
his turn and slowly but surely pushed the Confeder- 
ates off the field. Halleck then united Grant's, 
Buell's, and Pope's armies and captured Corinth. 

401. Bragg in Tennessee and Kentucky. — General 
Braxton Bragg now took a large part of the Confed- 
erate army, which had fought at Shiloh and Corinth, 
to Chattanooga. He then marched rapidly across 
Tennessee and Kentucky to the neighborhood of 
Louisville on the Ohio River. Buell was sent after 
him, and the two armies fought an indecisive battle | 
at Perryville. Then Bragg retreated to Chattanooga. 
In a few months he was again on the march. Rose- 
crans had now succeeded Buell. He attacked Bragg 
at Murfreesboro'. For a long time the contest was 
equal. In the end, however, the Confederates were 
beaten and retired to Chattanooga. 


402. The Blockade. — On the fall of Fort Sumter 
President Lincoln ordered a blockade of the Con- 
federate seaports. There were few manufacturing 
industries in the South. Cotton and tobacco were 

1861-64] The Blockade 327 

the great staples of export. If she were blockaded 
the South could neither bring in arms and military 
supplies from Europe, and could not send cotton and 
tobacco to Europe to be sold for money. So her 
power of resisting the Union armies would be greatly 
lessened. The Union government bought all kinds 
of vessels, even harbor ferryboats, armed them, and 
stationed them off the blockaded harbors. In a sur- 
prisingly short time the blockade was established. 
The Union forces also began to occupy the Southern 
seacoast, and thus the region that had to be blockaded 
steadily grew less. 

403. Effects of the Blockade. — As months and Effect of the 


years went by, and the blockade became stricter and 
stricter, the sufferings of the Southern people became 
ever greater. As they could not send their products 
to Europe to exchange for goods, they had to pay 
gold and silver for whatever the blockade runners 
brought in. Soon there was no more gold and sil- 
ver in the Confederacy, and paper money took its 
place. Then the supplies of manufactured goods, as 
clothing and paper, of things not produced in the 
South, as coffee and salt, gave out. Toward the end 
of the war there were absolutely no medicines for 
the Southern soldiers, and guns were so scarce that 
it was proposed to arm one regiment with pikes. 
Nothing did more to break down Southern resist- 
ance than the blockade. 

404. The Confederacy, Great Britain, and France. — 
From the beginnino; of the contest the Confederate 

328 The E7)iaiicipation Proclaviation [§§ 404-407 

leaders believed that the British and the French 
would interfere to aid them. " Cotton is king," they 
said. Unless there were a regular supply of cotton, 
the mills of England and of France must stop. Thou- 
sands of mill hands — men, women, and children — 
would soon be starving. The French and the Brit- 
ish governments would raise the blockade. Perhaps 
they would even force the United States to acknowl- 
edge the independence of the Confederate states. 
There was a good deal of truth in this belief. For 
the British and French governments dreaded the 
growing power of the American republic and would 
gladly have seen it broken to pieces. But events fell 
out far otherwise than the Southern leaders had cal- 
culated. Before the supply of American cotton in 
England was used up, new supplies began to come in 
from India and from Egypt. The Union armies oc- 
cupied portions of the cotton belt early in 1862, and 
American cotton was again exported. But more than 
all else, the English mill operatives, in all their hard- 
ships, would not ask their government to interfere. 
They saw clearly enough that the North was fight- 
ing for the rights of free labor. At times it seemed, 
however, as if Great Britain or France would interfere. 
405. The Trent Affair, 1861. — As soon as the block- 
ade was established, the British and French govern- 
ments gave the Confederates the same rights in their 
ports as the United States had. The Southerners 
then sent two agents. Mason and Slidell, to Europe 
to ask the foreign governments to recognize the inde- 

i86i] The Trent Affair 329 

pendence of the Confederate states. Captain Wilkes 

of the United States ship Sa7i Jacinto took these Removed 

agents from the British steamer Trent. But Lin- ^°^^^ 

coin at once said that Wilkes had done to the British 

the very thing which we had fought the War of 18 12 

to prevent the British doing to us. " We must stick Lincoln's 

to American principles," said the President, "and re- °p™°"" 

store the prisoners." They were given up. But the Action of 

British government, without waiting to see what Lin- Britain. 

coin would do, had gone actively to work to prepare 

for war. This seemed so little friendly that the 

people of the United States were greatly irritated. 

406. Lincoln and Slavery. — It will be remem- 
bered that the Republican party had denied again and 
again that it had any intention to interfere with slav- 
ery in the states. As long as peace lasted the Federal 
government could not interfere with slavery in the 
states. But when war broke out, the President, as The war 
commander-in-chief, could do anything to distress P°^^''^°f 
and weaken the enemy. If freeing the slaves in dent. 
the seceded states would injure the secessionists, 

he had a perfect right to do it. But Lincoln Lincoln 
knew that public opinion in the North would not ^^"^^grj^ 
approve this action. He would follow Northern sen- sentiment. 
timent in this matter, and not force it. 

407. Contrabands of War. — The war had scarcely The contra- 
begun before slaves escaped into the Union lines. ^^"*^^- 
One day a Confederate of^cer came to Fortress 
Monroe and demanded his runaway slaves under 

the Fugitive Slave Act (p. 281). General Butler 


The Etficincifalion Proclaiiiatioii [§§ 407-410 

with com- 

refused to give them up on the ground that they 
were "contrabands of war." By that phrase he 
meant that their restoration would be illegal as their 
services would be useful to the enemy. President 
Lincoln approved this decision of General Butler, 
and escaping slaves soon came to be called " Con- 

408. First Steps toward Emancipation, 1862. — 

Lincoln and the Republi- 
can party thought that 
Congress could not inter- 
fere with slavery in the 
states. It might, however, 
buy slaves and set them 
free or help the states to do 
this. So Congress passed 
a law offering aid to any 
state which should abolish 
slavery within its borders. 
Congress itself abolished slavery in the District of 
Columbia with compensation to the owners. It abol- 
ished slavery in the territories without compensa- 
tion. Lincoln had gladly helped to make these laws. 
Moreover, by August, 1862, he had made up his mind 
that to free the slaves in the seceded states would 
help "to save the Union" and would therefore be 
right as a " war measure." For every negro taken 
away from forced labor would weaken the producing 
power of the South and so make the conquest of the 
South easier. 

r right is right, since Grod is God, 
And right the day must win. 
To doubt, would be disloyalty. 
To falter, would be sia. 

A War-time Envei.oi'e. 

1S62-63] Emancipation 331 

409. The Emancipation Proclamation, 1863. — On Lincoln's 
September 23, 1862, Lincoln issued a proclamation sept'enfber 
stating that on the first day of the new year he ^^^^■ 
would declare free all slaves in any portion of the 
United States then in rebellion. On January i, Emandpa- 
1863, he issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Ji°" P'"°'=- 

■^' ^ lamation, 

This proclamation could be enforced only in those January i, 
portions of the seceded states which were held by Higgimon, 
the Union armies. It did not free slaves in loyal 2°?~3°^' 

-' *i>ource- 

states and did not abolish the institution of slavery Book, 315- 
anywhere. Slavery was abolished by the states of 
West Virginia, Missouri, and Maryland between 1862 
and 1864. Finally, in 1865, it was abolished through- 
out the United States by the adoption of the Thir- 
teenth Amendment (p. 361). 

410. Northern Opposition to the War. — Many per- Northern 
sons in the North thought that the Southerners had 
a perfect right to secede if they wished. Some of 
these persons sympathized so strongly with the 
Southerners that they gave them important informa- 
tion and did all they could to hinder Lincoln in con- 
quering the South. It was hard to prove anything 
against these Southern sympathizers, but it was dan- 
gerous to leave them at liberty. So Lincoln or- 
dered many of them to be arrested and locked up. 
Now the Constitution provides that every citizen 
shall have a speedy trial. This is brought about by 
the issuing a writ of habeas corpus, compelling the 
jailer to bring his prisoner into court and show cause 
why he should not be set at liberty. Lincoln now 



The Year 1863 

[§§ 410-414 

of habeas 

The draft. 

Riots in 
the North. 

suspended the operation of the writ of habeas corpus. 
This action angered many persons who were quite 
willing that the Southerners should be comjielled 

to obey the law, but did 
not like to have their 
neighbors arrested and 
locked up without trial. 
411. The Draft Riots. 
— At the outset both 
armies were made up of 
volunteers ; soon there 
\W, were not enough volun- 
teers. Both govern- 
ments then drafted men 
for their armies ; that is, they picked out by lot cer- 
tain men and compelled them to become soldiers. 
The draft was bitterly resisted in some parts of the 
North, especially in New York City. 

Position of 
the armies. 

THE YEAR 1863 

412. Position of the Armies, January, 1863. — The 

Army of the Potomac, now under Hooker, and the 
Army of Northern Virginia were face to face at 
Fredericksburg on the Rappahannock. In the West 
Rosecrans was at Murfreesboro', and Bragg on the 
way back to Chattanooga. In the Mississippi Valley 
Grant and Sherman had already begun the Vicks- 
burg campaign. But as yet they had had no success.] 


The Vicksbui-g Campaign 


413. Beginnings of the Vicksburg Campaign, — Grants 

Vicksburg stood on the top of a high bluff directly clmpai'gn 
on the river. Batteries erected at the northern end ^^^3- 

Hero Tales, 

of the town commanded the river, which at that point 239-248. 
ran directly toward the bluff. The best way to attack 
this formidable place was to proceed overland from 
Corinth. This Grant 

tried to do. But the 
Confederates forced 
him back. 

414. Fall of Vicks- 
burg, July 4, 1863.— 
Grant now carried his 
whole army down the 
Mississippi. For 
months he tried plan 
after plan, and every 
time he failed. Finally 
he marched his army 
down on the western 
side of the river, crossed 
the river below Vicks- 
burg, and approached 

the fortress from the south and east. In this move- 
ment he was greatly aided by the Union fleet under 
Porter, which protected the army while crossing the 
river. Pemberton, the Confederate commander, at 
once came out from Vicksburg. But Grant drove vkktburo- 
him back and began the siege of the town from the *Sot(rcc- 

Dook, 320- 

land side. The Confederates made a gallant defense. 323. 


The Year 1863 

[§§ 4'4-4'7 

Opening of 
the Missis- 


Wore Glorions News. 

Gen. Pemberton Begs for 

De Wanrs lo March Out Db Men, 

"Unrondilional Surrender" Grant 
Don'l Sec It. 

Oe Will iVot illonr a Single Slan (0 
March Out. 


I They Dont Want to Stay In "Grant's 
Pig-Pcc" Any Longer. 

They Urge Pi-ralierton to Sarrender, Basr. 
Baggage, Cannon, and Calllp. 

And this on Our Bvcr Olorlon* 
roartb of Jfnly. 


U R Mi.iiutm S«BAB«(r«. I 
•^ rL.a-.Nir Ili^rK d.«s. Jh1>< li«*-l 

> 'Bist I bn» ibe buj^r to Infom ;o<l this VIcki 
W| kM RirftnilereJ to (be UaiMd SUIM hrctt og 
[ tbU 4tli ur Jolf. 

But slowly and surely they 
were starved into submis- 
sion. On July 4, 1863, 
Femberton surrendered 
the fortress and thirty- 
seven thousand men. 

415. Opening of the 
Mississippi. — Port Hud- 
son, between Vicksburg 
and New Orleans, was 
now the only important 
Confederate position on 
the Mississippi. On 
July 8 it surrendered. 
A few days later the 
freight steamer Imperial 
from St. Louis reached 
New Orleans. The Mis- 
sissippi at last "flowed 
unvexed to the sea." 
The Confederacy was cut 
in twain. 

416. Lee's Second In- 
vasion, 1863. — " Fight- 
ing Joe Hooker " was now 
ill command of the Army 
of the Potomac. Outwit- 
ting Lee, he gained the 
rear of the Confederate 
lines on Marye's Heights. 

1863] Opc7iing of the Mississippi 335 

But Lee fiercely attacked him at Chancellorsville and chanceiiors- 

drove him back across the Rappahannock. Then jg^g ^■^' 

Lee again crossed the Potomac and invaded the ^"'° ■^'^^"' 

° 213-223. 

North. This time he penetrated to the heart of Penn- Lee invades 

sylvania. Hooker moved on parallel lines, always vaniT^' 

Gettysburg, looking South from Round Top. 

keeping between Lee and the city of Washington. At 
length, in the midst of the campaign, Hooker asked 
to be relieved, and George G. Meade became the fifth Meade in 
and last chief of the Army of the Potomac. comman . 

417. Gettysburg, July 1, 1863. — Meade now moved Lee retires. 
the Union army toward Lee's line of communication 


The Yiar 1863 



July 1-3. 

The second 

The third 

Book, 323- 

with Virginia. Lee at once drew back. Both armies 
moved toward Gettysburg, where the roads leading 
southward came together. In this way the two armies 
came into contact on July i, 1863. The Southerners 
were in stronger force at the moment and drove the 
Union soldiers back through the town to the high 
land called Cemetery Ridge. This was a remarkably 

strong position, with Gulp's 
Hill at one end of the line 
and the Round Tops at the 
other end. Meade determined 
to fight the battle at that spot 
and hurried up all his forces. 
418. Gettysburg, July 2, 
1863. — At first matters 
seemed to go badly with the 
Union army. Its left flank 
extended forward from Little 
Round Top into the fields at 
the foot of the ridge. The 
Confederates drove back this part of the Union line. 
But they could not seize Little Round Top. On this 
day also the Confederates gained a foothold on Gulp's 

419. Gettysburg, July 3, 1863. — Early on this 
morning the Union soldiers drove the Confederates 
away from Gulp's Hill and held the whole ridge. 
Now again, as at Malvern Hill (p. 321), Lee had 
fought the Army of the Potomac to a standstill. But 
he would not admit failure. Led by Pickett of Vir- 

1863] Gettysburg 337 

ginia, thirteen thousand men charged across the valley picketfs 
between the two armies directly at the Union center, ^^^l^^'j-aies 
Some of them even penetrated the Union lines. But 227-236. 
there the line stopped. Slowly it began to waver. 
Then back the Confederates went — all who escaped, it fails. 
The battle of Gettysburg was won. Lee faced the 
Army of the Potomac for another day and then re- Lee retreats, 
treated. In this tremendous conflict the Confeder- J^^^, i 3- 
ates lost twenty-two thousand five hundred men 
killed and wounded and five thousand taken pris- 
oners by the Northerners — a total loss of twenty- 
eight thousand out of eighty thousand in the battle. 
The Union army numbered ninety-three thousand men 
and lost twenty-three thousand, killed and wounded. 
Vicksburg and Gettysburg cost the South sixty-five 
thousand fighting men — a loss that could not be 
made good. We rnust now turn to eastern Tennessee. 

420. Chickamauga, September, 1863. — For six Rosecrans 
months after Murfreesboro' (p. 326) Rosecrans and ^gg^. ^^^^' 
Bragg remained in their camps. In the summer of 
1863 Rosecrans, by a series of skillful marchings, 
forced Bragg to abandon Chattanooga. But Bragg 
was now greatly strengthened by soldiers from the 
Mississippi and by Longstreet's division from Lee's 
army. He turned on Rosecrans, and attacked him Chicka- 
at Chickamauga (September 19, 1863). Rosecrans's September 
right wing was driven off the field. But the left, ^^^^s. 
under Thomas, "the Rock of Chickamauga," with- 
stood all attacks. The next day Bragg attacked 
Thomas again and again, and failed every time, 


The Year 1863 

[§§ 420-423 

Grant in 
in the W'est 

although he had double Thomas's numbers. Rose- 
crans, believing the battle to be lost, had ridden off 
Thomas and to Chattanooga, but Sheridan brought a few troops 
to Thomas's aid. The third day Thomas and Bragg 
kept their positions, and then Thomas retired unpur- 
sued to Chattanooga. The command of the whole 

army at Chatta- 
nooga was now 
given to Thomas, 
and Grant was 
placed in control of 
all the Western ar- 

421. Chattanooga, 
November, 1863. — 
The Union soldiers 
at Chattanooga were 
in great danger. 
For the Confeder- 
ates were all about 
them and they could 
get no food. But 
help was at hand. 
Hooker, with fifteen thousand men from the Army 
of the Potomac, arrived and opened a road by which 
food could reach Chattanooga. Then Grant came 
with Sherman's corps from Vicksburg. He at once 
sent Sherman to assail Bragg's right flank and or- 
dered Hooker to attack his left flank. Sherman 
drove back the Confederates until he was stopped 

Hit I J I 

Generai, Thomas. 

1863] Chattanooga 339 

by a deep ravine. At the other end of the line Hooker's 
Hooker fought right up the side of Lool<:out Moun- 
tain, until the battle raged above the clouds. In 
the center were Thomas's men. Eager to avenge Thomas's 
the slaughter of Chickamauga, they carried the first ^"^'^ ' 
Confederate line of defenses. Then, without orders, 
they rushed up the hillside over the inner lines. They 
drove the Southerners from their guns and seized 
their works. Beaten on all sides, Bragg retreated as Rout of the 
well as he could. Longstreet, on his part, escaped ^^°" Novem- 
through the mountains to Lee's army in Virginia. l>er, 1863. 

THE END OF THE WAR, 1864-1865 

422. Grant in Command of all the Armies. — The Grant m 
Vicksburg and Chattanooga campaigns marked out mand!°"^' 
Grant for the chief command. Hitherto the Union 

forces had acted on no well-thought-out plan. Now 

Grant was appointed Lieutenant General and placed 

in command of all the armies of the United States 

(March, 1864). He decided to carry on the war in 

Virginia in person. Western operations he intrusted 

to Sherman, with Thomas in command of the Army sherman 

of the Cumberland. Sheridan came with Grant to 'r°'T'TK?\ 

in the West. 

Virginia and led the cavalry of the Army of the Po- 
tomac. We will first follow Sherman and Thomas 
and the Western armies. 

423. The Atlanta Campaign, 1864. — Sherman Sherman's 
had one hundred thousand veterans, led by Thomas, ^"^"^^^ 


The Etui of tJie War 

[§§ 423-425 

Mcl'hcrson, and Schofield. Joseph E. Johnston, 
who succeeded Bragg, had fewer men, but he occu- 
pied strongly fortified positions. Yet week by week 
Sherman forced him back till, after two months of 

Genkkai. Sherman. 

steady fighting, Johnston found himself in the vicin- 
ity of Atlanta. This was the most important man- 
ufacturing center in the South. The Confederates 
must keep Atlanta if they possibly could. Johnston 
l^lainly could not stop Sherman. So Hood was ap- 

1864] TJie Atlanta Campaign 341 

pointed in his place, in the expectation that he would 

fight. Hood fought his best. Again and again he Hood attacks 

attacked Sherman only to be beaten off with heavy " ^si^™3,n. 

loss. He then abandoned Atlanta to save his army. 

From May to September Sherman lost twenty-two 

thousand men, but the Confederates lost thirty-five 

thousand men and Atlanta too. 

424. Plans of Campaign. — Hood now led his army Problems 
northward to Tennessee. But Sherman, instead of ° ^''^^' 
following him, sent only Thomas and Schofield. 
Sherman knew that the Confederacy was a mere 

shell. Its heart had been destroyed. What would 

be the result of a grand march through Georgia Plan of the 

to the seacoast, and then northward through the the^SeV° 

Carolinas to Virginia .? Would not this unopposed 

march show the people of the North, of the South, 

and of Europe that further resistance was useless t 

Sherman thought that it would, and that once in 

Virginia he could help Grant crush Lee. Grant 

agreed with Sherman and told him to carry out 

his plans. But first we must see what happened 

to Thomas and Hood. 

425. Thomas and Hood, 1864. — Never dreaming Hood in 
that Sherman was not in pursuit. Hood marched rap- '^""'^ssee. 
idly northward until he had crossed the Tennessee. 

He then spent three weeks in resting his tired sol- 
diers and in gathering supplies. This delay gave 
Thomas time to draw in recruits. At last Hood at- ^ , , 

Battle of 

tacked Schofield at Franklin on November 30, 1864. Franklin, 
Schofield retreated to Nashville, where Thomas was 1864. 


The End of the War 

[§§ 425-428 

with the bulk of his army, and Hood followed. 
Thomas took all the time he needed to complete 
his preparations. Grant felt anxious at his delay 
and ordered him to fight. But Thomas would not 
fight until he was ready. At length, on Decem- 
ber 15, he struck the blow, and in two days of 
fighting destroyed Hood's whole army. This was 
the last great battle in the West. 

426. Marching through Georgia. — Destroying the 
mills and factories of Atlanta, Sherman set out for 
the seashore. He had sixty thousand men with him. 
They were all veterans and marched along as if on 
a holiday excursion. Spreading out over a line of 
sixty miles, they gathered everything eatable within 
reach. Every now and then they would stop and 
destroy a railroad. This they did by taking up the 
rails, heating them in the middle on fires of burning- 
sleepers, and then twisting them around the nearest 
trees. In this way they cut a gap sixty miles long 
in the railroad communication between the half- 
starved army of northern Virginia and the store- 
houses of southern Georgia. On December 10, 
1864, Sherman reached the sea. Ten days later 
he captured Savannah and presented it to the na- 
tion as a Christmas gift. Sherman and Thomas 
between them had struck a fearful blow at the Con- 
federacy. How had it fared with Grant .-• 

427. Grant in Virginia, 1864. — Grant had with 
him in Virginia the Army of the Potomac under 
Meade, the Ninth Corps under Burnside, and a great 

1864] Grant and Lee 343 

cavalry force under Sheridan. In addition General 
Butler was on the James River with some thirty- 
thousand men. Lee had under his orders about one- 
half as many soldiers as had Grant. In every other 
respect the advantage was on his side. Grant's plan 
of campaign was to move by his left from the Rap- 
pahannock southeastwardly. He expected to push 
Lee southward and hoped to destroy his army. But- 
ler, on his part, was to move up the James. By this 
plan Grant could always be near navigable water 
and could in this way easily supply his army with 
food and military stores. The great objection to this objections 
scheme of invasion was that it gave Lee shorter lines 
of march to all important points. This fact and 
their superior knowledge of the country gave the 
Confederates an advantage which largely made up 
for their lack in numbers. 

428. The "Wilderness, May, 1864. — On May 4 and Battle of the 
5 the Union army crossed the Rapidan and marched May ^1864^' 
southward through the Wilderness. It soon found 
itself very near the scene of the disastrous battle of 
Chancellorsville (p. 335). The woods were thick 
and full of underbrush. Clearings were few, and the 
roads were fewer still. On ground like this Lee at- 
tacked the Union army. Everything was in favor of 
the attacker, for it was impossible to foresee his 
blows, or to get men quickly to any threatened spot. 
Nevertheless Grant fought four days. Then he skill- 
fully removed the army and marched by his left to 
Spotsylvania Court House. 


General Grant. 

From a photograph taken in the field, March, 1865. 
" Strong, simple, silent, . . . such was he 

Who helped us in our need.' 

— Lowell. 

1864] Grant and Lee 345 

429. Spotsylvania, May, 1864. — Lee reached Spotsyiva- 
Spotsylvania first and fortified his position. For jgg' 
days fearful combats went on. One point in the 
Confederate line, called the Salient, was taken and 
retaken over and over again. The loss of life was 
awful, and Grant could not push Lee back. So on 

May 20 he again set out on his march by the left 
and directed his army to the North Anna. But Lee 
was again before him and held such a strong posi- 
tion that it was useless to attack him. 

430. To the James, June, 1864. — Grant again with- 
drew his army and resumed his southward march. 
But when he reached Cold Harbor, Lee was again coid 
strongly fortified. Both armies were now on the ^' °^' 
ground of the Peninsular Campaign. For two weeks 
Grant attacked again and again. Then on June 1 1 he 

took up his march for the last time. On June 15 the 

Union soldiers reached the banks of the James River 

below the junction of the Appomattox. But, owing 

to some misunderstanding, Petersburg had not been 

seized. So Lee established himself there, and the Blockade of 

campaign took on the form of a siege. In these ^'^''^'^ "'^' 

campaigns from the Rapidan to the James, Grant 

lost in killed, wounded, and missing sixty thousand 

men. Lee's loss was much less — how much less is 

not known. 

431. Petersburg, June-December, 1864. — Peters- importance 
burg guarded the roads leading from Richmond to 5^^^*^"^^' 
the South. It was in reality a part of the defenses 

of Richmond. For if these roads passed out of Con- 


The End of the War 

[§§ 431-432 

attack on 

federate control, the Confederate capital would have 
to be abandoned. It was necessary for Lee to keep 
Petersburg. Grant, on the other hand, wished to 
gain the roads south of Petersburg. He lengthened 
his line ; but each extension was met by a similar 
extension of the Confederate line. This process 
could not go on forever. The Confederacy was get- 
ting worn out. No 
more men could be 
sent to Lee. Sooner 
or later his line would 
become so weak that 
Grant could break 
through. Then Peters- 
burg and Richmond 
must be abandoned. 
Two years before, 
when Richmond was 
threatened by McClel- 
lan, Lee had secured 
the removal of the 
Army of the Potomac by a sudden movement toward 
Washington (p. 321). He now detached Jubal Early 
with a formidable force and sent him through the 
Shenandoah Valley to Washington. 

432. Sheridan's Valley Campaigns, 1864. — The 
conditions now were very unlike the conditions of 
1862. Now, Grant was in command instead of Mc- 
Clellan or Pope. He controlled the movements of 
all the armies without interference from Washington,! 





iS'^•;^i^ J 


A Bomb Proof at Petersburg as it Ai'in'-.AUS To 


1 864] 

Sheridan's Valley Campaign 


and he had many more men than Lee. Without 
letting go his hold on Petersburg, Grant sent two 
army corps by water to Washington. Early was an 
able and active soldier, but he delayed his attack on 

General Sheridan. 

Washington until soldiers came from the James. He 

then withdrew to the Shenandoah Valley. Grant now 

gave Sheridan forty thousand infantry and fifteen sheiidan in 

thousand cavalry, and sent him to the Valley with ^"^^^Jf^j^ 

orders to drive Early out and to destroy all supplies 263-290. 


The End of tJic War 

[§§ 432-433 

Mobile Bay, 


Hero Talcs, 





in the Valley which could be used by another South- 
ern army. Splendidly Sheridan did his work. At 
one time, when he was away, the Confederates sur- 
prised the Union army. But, hearing the roar of the 
battle, Sheridan rode rapidly to the front. As he 
rode along, the fugitives turned back. The Confed- 
erates, surprised in their turn, were swept from the 
field and sent whirling up the Valley in wild con- 
fusion (October 19, 1864). Then Sheridan destroyed 
everything that could be of service to another invad- 
ing army and rejoined Grant at Petersburg. In the 
November following this great feat of arms, Lincoln 
was reelected President. 

433. The Blockade and the Cruisers, 1863-64. — The 
blockade had now become stricter than ever. For by 
August, 1864, Farragut had carried his fleet into 
Mobile Bay and had closed it to commerce. Sher- 
man had taken Savannah. Early in 1865 Charleston 
was abandoned, for Sherman had it at his mercy, and 
Terry captured Wilmington. The South was now 
absolutely dependent on its own resources, and the 
end could not be far off. On the open sea, with Eng- 
land's aid a few vessels flew the Confederate flag. 
The best known of these vessels was the Alabama. 
She was built in England, armed with English guns, 
and largely manned by Englishmen. On June 19, 
1864, the United States ship Kearsarge sank her off 
Cherbourg, France. Englishmen were also building 
two ironclad battleships for the Confederates. But 
the American minister at London, Mr. Charles 

Admiral Farragut. 

350 The End of the War [§§433-436 

Francis Adams, said that if they were allowed to 
sail, it would be "war." The English government 
thereupon bought the vessels. 
Sherman's 434. Sherman's March through the Carolinas, 1865. 

northern t^ i • r.^ r^i i 

march, 1865. — Karly in 1865 bherman set out on the worst part 
of his great march. He now directed his steps 
northward from Savannah toward Virginia. The 
Confederates prepared to meet him. But Sherman 
set out before they expected him, and thus gained a 
clear path for the first part of his journey. Joseph E. 
Johnston now took command of the forces opposed 
to Sherman and did everything he could to stop him. 
At one moment it seemed as if he might succeed. 
He almost crushed the forward end of Sherman's 
army before the rest of the soldiers could be brought 
to its rescue. But Sherman's veterans were too old 
soldiers to be easily defeated. They first beat back 
the enemy in front, and when another force appeared 
in the rear they jumped to the other side of their 
field breastworks and defeated that force also. Night 
then put an end to the combat, and by morning the 
Union force was too strong to be attacked. Pressing 
on, Sherman reached Goldsboro' in North Carolina. 
There he was joined by Terry from Wilmington and 
by Schofield from Tennessee. Sherman now was 
strong enough to beat any Confederate army. He 
moved to Raleigh and com])letely cut Lee's communi- 
cations with South Carolina and Georgia, April, 1865. 
435. Appomattox, April, 1865. — The end of the 
Confederacy was now plainly in sight. Lee's men 

1865] Appomattox 351 

were starving. They were constantly deserting either 
to go to the aid of their perishing famihes or to obtain 
food from the Union army. As soon as the roads 
were fit for marching, Grant set his one hundred and 
twenty thousand men once more in motion. His ob- 
ject was to gain the rear of Lee's army and to force 
him to abandon Petersburg. A last despairing attack 
on the Union center only increased Grant's vigor. 
On April i Sheridan with his cavalry and an infan- Higginsov, 
try corps seized Five Forks in the rear of Peters- ^^'^' 
burg and could not be driven away. Petersburg and 
Richmond were abandoned. Lee tried to escape to 
the mountains. But now the Union soldiers marched 
faster than the starving Southerners. Sheridan, out- 
stripping them, placed his men across their path at 
Appomattox Court House. There was nothing left 
save surrender. The soldiers of the Army of North- Surrender of 
ern Virginia, now only thirty-seven thousand strong, ^^^ Southern 

o ' J J t)» armies, 

laid down their arms, April 9, 1865. Soon Johnston April, 1865. 


surrendered, and the remaining small isolated bands Book, 329- 
of Confederates were run down and captured. ^^^' 

436. Lincoln murdered, April 14, 1865. — The Murder of 
Northerners had conquered the Southerners. Presi- \-"'":'^'"' 

1 April 14, 

dent Lincoln, never grander or wiser than in the 1865. 

r • 11 1 r- Higginson, 

moment of victory, alone stood between the South- 322-323; 
ern people and the Northern extremists clamoring *^'>'*^'^^- 

^ i- o Book, 333- 

for vengeance. On the night of April 14 he was 335- 
murdered by a sympathizer with slavery and seces- 
sion. No one old enough to remember the morn- 
ing of April 15, 1865, will ever forget the horror 

352 The End of the War [§ 436 

aroused in the North by this unholy murder. In 
the beginning Lincohi had been a party leader. In 
the end the simple grandeur of his nature had won 
for him a place in the hearts of the American peo- 
ple that no other man has ever gained. He was 
indeed the greatest because the most typical of 

Iff ATOR'S OFFfCE, APRIL Iftih, 1865. 
WHEREAS, We nrc infornMil of the «leath of 



by till' liniidorHii nm<nMii>,an«l in ooiiMideriilion of the 
great and irrcparuble iMilniiiil} ttiiil hn^ bffullon our 
country, i hereby i-equeKt all I he iifoplp ol' Crardinvr 
not prevented by dixabitity, t» aswcmblt' at rlie sever- 
al place** of public >vor<>liip and bow themselves be> 
fore Almighty God. implorin;; Wis Divine a.N.sistance 
at this time of onr connlry'.*> peril, on Sunday, lOth 
inst. I hope all the cili:/;eu*» will forea;o every little 
laconvenience and thus. shew (heir Kympalhy for the 
great Noerow that Idih coiue upon un, and 1 also re- 
quest the prayerM of the Clergy and people be offered 
■p that the life of Secretary i!ieward may be spared. 

!V. O. WITC II ELI^, Mayor. 

Americans. Vice-President Andrew Johnson, a war 
Democrat from Tennessee, became President. The 
vanquished secessionists were soon to taste the bitter 
dregs of the cup of defeat. 

Questions and Topics 353 


[Use maps consLantly while studying this period. The maps pro- 
vided in Dodge's Bird's-Eye Vieiv are admirably adapted to this pur- 

Chapter 37 

§ 380. — a. What did Lincoln say about the Union ? What did he 
say about slavery ? What oath did Lincoln take ? 
b. Was his inaugural conciliatory to the South ? 

§§ 381,382. — a. What was the result of Buchanan's attempt to 
send supplies to Fort Sumter ? 

b. Why did Lincoln inform the governor of South Carolina of his 
determination to succor Fort Sumter ? 

c. What was the effect on Northern opinion of the attack on Fort 
Sumter ? 

d. Could the Southerners have done otherwise than fire on the flag ? 

§§ 3^3~385- — ^- Why were the Virginians so divided ? What re- 
sulted from this division ? 

/'. What were the " border states " ? Could these states have been 
neutral ? 

c. Describe the especial importance of Maryland. 

d. What oath had the officers of the United States army and navy 
taken ? Did Lee and other officers who resigned necessarily believe in 
the right of secession ? Give your reasons. 

Chapter 38 

§§ 386, 387. — a. State the advantages of the Southerners from the 
geographical point of view. 

b. Explain how rivers were lines of defense. 

c. Describe carefully the plan of the Bull Run campaign. 
(/. Why was the Shenandoah Valley so important ? 

§§ 388-390. • — a. Why was McClellan placed in command of the 
Army of the Potomac ? 

/'. Of what advantage to the South were the negroes ? 

c. Describe the plan of the Peninsular Campaign. What was the 
great objection to it ? 

354 T^f'^' ^V(^y f^^y tJic Union 

§ 391. — a. Describe \\\z Merrimac, the Monitor. Compare them 
with the Congress. 

b. What effect did the Monitor-Merrimac fight have on McClel- 
lan's campaign ? 

§§ 392, 393. — a. Describe the Peninsular Campaign. Why were not 
more soldiers sent to McClellan ? 

l>. What is meant by the phrase " change of base " ? 

c. How did Lee secure the removal of McClellan's army from the 
James ? 

§§ 394' 395- — ^- Why did Lee invade Maryland ? 
l>. Describe the battle of Antietam, of Fredericksburg. What was 
the result of each of these battles ? 

§§ 39^>397- — ^- t^'ive an account of the early life and training of 
Grant and of Thomas. 

I). Why were the seizures of Cairo and Paducah antl the battle of 
Mill Springs important ? 

c. What is meant by the phrase " unconditional surrender " ? 

§§ 39^) 399- — "■ Explain carefully the importance to the South of 
New Orleans and the lower Mississippi. 

I). Give an account of Farragut's early life. IIow did it lit him for 
this work ? 

c. Describe the operations against New Orleans. 

§ 400. — a. Explain carefully the plan of the campaign to Corinth. 
Why was Corinth important ? 

I). What quality in Grant was conspicuous at Shiloh ? 

§ 401. — a. What was Bragg's object in invading Kentucky ? How 
far did he succeed ? Why was Chattanooga important ? 

Chai'TER 39 

§§ 402,403. — a. What is a blockade ? What was the effect of the 
blockade on the South ? 

l>. Had sea power l)een in Southern hands, could the Union have 
been saved ? 

c. Why was Charleston so difficult to capture ? (Compare with the 
Revolutionary War.) 

Questions and Topics 355 

§§ 405, 406. — a. What help did the Southerners hope to obtain from 
Great Britain and France ? Why ? How were their hopes disap- 
pointed ? 

b. What do you think of the action of the English mill operatives ? 

c. Describe the Trent Affair. What do you think of Lincoln's action ? 
Did the British government act wisely ? 

§§406,407. — a. What had the Republican party declared about 
slavery in the states ? What had Lincoln said in his inaugural ? 

b. How had the war altered Lincoln's power as President ? 

c. Why was it necessary for Lincoln to follow Northern sentiment ? 

d. What is contraband of war ? How were the slaves contraband ? 

§§ 408, 409. — a. What steps had already been taken by Congress 
toward freeing the slaves ? 

b. How was the Emancipation Proclamation justified ? Upon what 
would its enforcement depend ? 

c. What slave states were not affected by this proclamation ? 

d. How was slavery as an institution abolished throughout the 
United States ? 

§§ 410, 41 1. — a. Why was not the North united upon this war ? 

b. What is the force of the writ of habeas corpus ? Why is it so 
important ? 

c. What was the " draft," and why was it necessary ? 

Chapter 40 

§§ 412-415. — a. Explain the position of the armies at the begin- 
ning of 1863. 

b. Why was the conquest of Vicksburg so difficult ? How was it 
finally captured ? 

c. What effect did the control of the Mississippi have upon the Con- 
federacy ? 

§ 416. — a. What was Lee's object in invading Pennsylvania ? 
b. What position did the Union army keep as regards the Confed- 
erates ? 

I §§417-419. — a. Describe the battle-field of Gettysburg. Why was 
the battle so important ? 

b. Describe in detail the principal events of each day of the battle. 

356 The War for the Union 

c. Learn Lincoln's " Gettysburg Address." How was this ground 
hallowed ? What was the great task before the people ? 

§§420,421. — a. Describe the battle of Chickamauga. Review 
Thomas's services up to this time. 

b. Describe the three parts of the battle of Chattanooga. 

Chapter 41 

§§ 422,423. — a. How had Grant shown his fitness for high com- 
mand ? Was it wise to have one man in command of all the armies ? 
Why ? 

b. Review .Sherman's career up to this time. W'hy did Grant im- 
pose trust in him ? 

c. What was the result of Hood's attacks ? 

§§ 424-426. — a. What was the real object of Sherman's march to 
the sea ? 

b. Descril)c the destruction of Hood's army. W^hat does it show as 
to Thomas's ainlity ? 

c. What did Sherman's army accomplish on its way to the sea ? 

§§ 427-430. — a. Com])are the conditions of the two armies in Vir- 
ginia. Explain the advantages of the Confederates. 

b. Describe the battle of the Wilderness, noting the conditions favor- 
able to the Confederates. 

c. Describe the movement to the James. What advantages had 
Grant not possessed by McClellan ? 

§§ 431,432. — a. Why was Petersburg important ? 

/'. How did Lee try to compel the withdrawal of Grant ? Why did 
he not succeed ? 

c. Describe .Sheridan's work in the Shenandoah Valley. Read a 
short account of Sheridan's career to 1865, and state his services to the 
Union cause. 

§§ 433- — "• How had Sherman's victories affected the blockade ? 
b. What aid had Great Britain given to the Confederates ? Why 
did she not give more assistance? 

§§ 434, 435. — a. How did Sherman's occupation of Raleigh affect 

b. Describe the condition of Lee's army. How was its capture 
accomplished ? 

Questions and Topics 357 

§ 436. — a. Why was Lincoln's death a terrible loss to the South ? 
b. Why is he the greatest of all Americans ? 

General Questions 

a. Review the steps which led to the war for the Union. 

b. What were Lincoln's personal views as to slavery ? Why could 
he not carry them out ? 

c. What were Lincoln's leading characteristics ? Give illustrations 
to support your view. 

d. Study Grant's military career and try to find out why he suc- 
ceeded where others failed. 

e. Arrange a table of the leading campaigns, giving dates, leaders, 
end to be attained, important battles, and result. 

f. Give the two most important battles of the war. Why do you 
select these ? 

Topics for Special Work 

a. Life in Southern prisons. 

b. The Shenandoah Valley in the war. 

c. Any important battle or naval action, or leading general, or naval 

d. The part played by your own state or town in the war, or the 
history of one of your state regiments. 

Suggestions to Teachers 

A few days spent upon a study of the field of war will save a great 
deal of time. Channing's Studenfs History will enable the teacher to 
indicate the most important strategic points. Maps have been sparingly 
provided in this book, as the simple plans in Dodge's Bird''s-eye View 
can easily be reproduced on the blackboard. In general, campaigns 
should be studied rather than battles. 

Pictures relating to this period are easily obtainable and may be freely 
used. It is an excellent plan to ask some veteran to describe his expe- 
riences, and the local post of the Grand Army of the Republic will often 
lend material aid in making the war real to the pupils. Grant's career 
should be especially studied, and the reasons for his successes carefully 


The War for the Union 

Indeed, the study of this jieriod may well center around Lincoln and 
Grant. Lincoln's inaugurals are too difficult to be studied thoroughly. 
I?ut the teacher can easily select portions, as the last paragraph of the 
second inaugural. Lincoln's Gettysburg Address should be learned by 
every pupil, and his letter to Greeley {Student's History, p. 539) will 
throw a flood of light on Lincoln's character. In studying this period, 
as well as other periods, it is better to dwell on the patriotism and hero- 
ism of our soldiers, sailors, and statesmen than to point out their mistakes 
and personal faults. 

Literature is so rich in reference to this time that nothing more than 
the mention of the works of Lowell, Whittier, Holmes, and Longfellow 
is needed. 

The Present Flag, 1900, 




Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Scribner's Popular Hisioiy, V ; McMaster's 
School Histo)-}', chs. xxx-xxxiii; Andrews's Last Quarter-Century . 

Home Readings. — Hale's Mr. Merriani's Scholars. 



437. Lincoln's Reconstruction Policy. — The great Position of 
question now before the country was what should be sJtes'^^ 
done with the Southern states and people. And 
what should be done with the freedmen } On these 
questions people were not agreed. Some people 
thought that the states were "indestructible"; that 
they could not secede or get out of the Union. 
Others thought that the Southern states had been Lincoln's 
conquered and should be treated as a part of the P^'^^y °*^ 

>■ ^ leconstruc- 

national domain. Lincoln thought that it was use- t'on. 

• 1 • T^i o 1 Mc Master, 

less to go into these questions. The Southern states 427-428. 
were out of the " proper practical relations with the 


360 President JoJinson ami Reconstruction [§§ 437-440 


His ideas 
on recon- 

Union." That was clear enough. The thing to do, 
therefore, was to restore " proper practical relations " 
as quickly and as quietly as possible. In December, 
1863, Lincoln had offered a pardon to all persons, 
with some exceptions, who should take the oath of 
allegiance to the United States, and should promise 
to support the Constitution and the Emancipation 
Proclamation. Whenever one-tenth of the voters in 
any of the Confederate states should do these things, 
and should set up a republican form of government, 
Lincoln promised to recognize that government as 
the state government. But the admission to Con- 
gress of Senators and Representatives from such a 
reconstructed state would rest with Congress. Several 
states were reconstructed on this plan. But public 
opinion was opposed to this quiet reorganization of 
the seceded states. The people trusted Lincoln, 
however, and had he lived he might have induced 
them to accept his plan. 

438. President Johnson's Reconstruction Plan. — 
Johnson was an able man and a patriot. But he had 
none of Lincoln's wise patience. He had none of 
Lincoln's tact and humor in dealing with men. On 
the contrary, he always lost his temper when opposed. 
Although he was a Southerner, he hated slavery 
and slave owners. On the other hand, he had a 
Southerner's contempt for the negroes. He prac- 
tically adopted Lincoln's reconstruction policy and 
tried to bring about the reorganization of the seceded 
states by presidential action. 


TJie Thirteenth Amciidvient 


439. The Thirteenth Amendment, 1865. — Presi- 
dent Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation (p. 331) 
had freed the slaves in those states and parts of states 
which were in rebellion against the national govern- 
ment. It had not freed the slaves in the loyal states. 
It had not destroyed slavery as an institution. Any 
state could reestablish slavery whenever it chose. 
Slavery could be prohibited only by an amendment 
of the Constitution. So the Thirteenth Amendment 
was adopted, Decem- 
ber, 1865. This amend- 
ment declares that 
"neither slavery nor 
involuntary servitude, 
except as a punishment 
for crime, . . . shall 
exist within the United 
States, or any place 
subject to their jurisdic- 
tion." In this way 
slavery came to an end throughout the United States. 

440. Congress and the President, 1865-66. — Un- 
happily many of the old slave states had passed laws 
to compel the negroes to work. They had introduced 
a system of forced labor which was about the same 
thing as slavery. In December, 1865, the new Con- 
gress met. The Republicans were in the majority. 
They refused to admit the Senators and Representa- 
tives from the reorganized Southern states and at 
once set to work to pass laws for the protection of the 

Force of 
tion Proc- 

Abolition of 
slavery, 1865 

Horse Car. 

Forced labor 
in the South. 

362 Prcsidctit JoJinson and Reconstruction {_%% 440-442 

negroes. In March, 1865, while the war was still going 
on, and while Lincoln was alive, Congress had estab- 
lished the Freedmen's Bureau to look after the inter- 
ests of the negroes. Congress now (February, 1866) 
passed a bill to continue the Bureau and to give it 
much more power. Johnson promptly vetoed the bill. 
In the following July Congress passed another bill to 
continue the Freedmen's Bureau. In this bill the 
officers of the Bureau were given greatly enlarged 
powers, the education of the blacks was provided for, 
and the army might be used to compel obedience to 
the law. Johnson vetoed this bill also. 

441. The Fourteenth Amendment. — While this 
contest over the Freedmen's Bureau was going on, 
Congress passed the Civil Rights Bill to protect the 
freedmen. This bill provided that cases concerning 
the civil rights of the freedmen should be heard in the 
United States courts instead of in the state courts. 
Johnson thought that Congress had no power to do 
this. He vetoed the bill, and Congress passed it over 
his veto. Congress then drew up the Fourteenth 
Amendment. This forbade the states to abridge 
the rights of the citizens, white or black. It further 
provided that the representation of any state in Con- 
gress should be diminished whenever it denied the 
franchise to any one except for taking part in rebel- 
lion. Finally it guaranteed the debt of the United 
States, and declared all debts incurred in support of 
rebellion null and void. Every Southern state except 
Tennessee refused to accept this amendment. 

1 866] 

The Fourteenth Amendment 


442. The Reconstruction Acts, 1867. — The Con- 
gressional elections of November, 1866, were greatly 
in favor of the Republicans. The Republican mem- 
bers of Congress felt that this showed that the 
North was w.ith them in their policy as to recon- 
struction. Congress met in December, 1866, and at 
once set to work to 

carry out this pol- 
icy. First of all it 
passed the Tenure 
of Office Act to 
prevent Johnson 
dismissing Repub- 
licans from office. 
Then it passed the 
Act. Johnson ve- 
toed both of these 
measures, and Con- 
gress passed them 
both over his veto. 
The Reconstruc- 
tion Act was later amended and strengthened. It will 
be well to describe here the process of reconstruction in 
its final form. First of all the seceded states, with the 
exception of Tennessee, were formed into military 
districts. Each district was ruled by a military officer 
who had soldiers to carry out his directions. Ten- 
nessee was not included in this arrangement, because 
it bad accepted the Fourteenth Amendment. But 

of 1866. 

1 enure of 
Office Act, 

Andrew Johnson. 

Process of 
Book, 344- 

364 Prcsidctit Johnson and Reconstruction [§§ 442-445 

all the other states, which had been reconstructed by 
Lincoln or by Johnson, were to be reconstructed over 
again. The franchise was given to all men, white or 
black, who had lived in any state for one year- — 
excepting criminals and persons who had taken part 
in rebellion. This exception took the franchise away 
from the old rulers of the South. These new voters 
could form a state constitution and elect a legislature 
which should ratify the Fourteenth Amendment. 
When all this had been done, Senators and Repre- 
sentatives from the reconstructed state might be 
admitted to Congress. 

443. Impeachment of Johnson, 1868. — President 
Johnson had vetoed all these bills. He had declared 
that the Congress was a Congress of only a part of the 
states, because Representatives from the states recon- 
structed according to his ideas were not admitted. 
He had used language toward his opponents that was 
fairly described as indecent and unbecoming the chief 
officer of a great nation. Especially he had refused 
to be bound by the Tenure of Office Act. Ever since 
the formation of the government the Presidents had 
removed officers when they saw fit. The Tenure of 
Office Act required the consent of the Senate to 
removals as well as to appointments. Among the 
members of Lincoln's cabinet who were still in office 
was Edwin M. Stanton. Johnson removed him, and 
this brought on the crisis. The House impeached 
the President. The Senate, presided over by Chief 
Justice Chase, heard the impeachment. The Consti- 

Impeachmeftt of JoJinson 365 

.tution requires the votes of two-thirds of the Senators But not 
to convict. Seven Repubhcans voted with the Demo- *^°"^"^ ^ • 
crats against conviction, and the President was ac- 
quitted by one vote. 

444. The French in Mexico. — Napoleon III, Em- Napoleon's 
peror of the French, seized the occasion of the Civil p'^"^" 
War to set the Monroe Doctrine at defiance and to 
refound a French colonial empire in America. At 

one time, indeed, he seemed to be on the point of 
interfering, to compel the Union government to with- 
draw its armies from the Confederate states. Then 
Napoleon had an idea that perhaps Texas might 
secede from the Confederacy and set up for itself 
under French protection. This failing, he began 
the establishment of an empire in Mexico with the 
Austrian prince, Maximihan, as Emperor. The end- 
ing of the Civil War made it possible for the United 
States to interfere. Grant and Sheridan would gladly Action of 
have marched troops into Mexico and turned out the *J^^ Umted 

^ States. 

French, but Seward said that the French would have 

to leave before long anyway. He hastened their 

going by telling the French government that the 

sooner they left the better. They were withdrawn withdrawal 

in 1868. Maximilian insisted on staying. He was ?f'^^^ „,„ 

-' ° French, 1868. 

captured by the Mexicans and shot. The Mexican 
Republic was reestabUshed. 

445. The Purchase of Alaska, 1867. — In 1867 purchase of 
President Johnson sent to the Senate, for ratification, ■^'^^''^' '^^^• 
a treaty with Russia for the purchase of Russia's 
American possessions. These were called Alaska, 

366 President Joh7iso)i and Reeonstruction [§§ 445-449 

and included an immense tract of land in the ex- 1 
treme Northwest. The price to be paid was seven 
million dollars. The history of this purchase is still 
little known. The Senate was completely taken by I 
surprise, but it ratified the treaty. Until recent years 
the only important product of Alaska has been the 
skins of the fur seals. To preserve the seal herds 
from extinction, the United States made rules limit- 
ing the number of seals to be killed in any one year. 
The Canadians were not bound by these rules, and 
the herds have been nearly destroyed. In recent 
years large deposits of gold have been found in 
Alaska and in neighboring portions of Canada. 
But the Canadian deposits are hard to reach without 
first going through Alaska. This fact has made it 
more difficult to agree with Great Britain as to the 
boundary between Alaska and Canada. 

446. Grant elected President, i868 The excite- 
ment over reconstruction and the bitter contest be- 
tween the Republicans in Congress and the President 
had brought about great confusion in politics. The 
Democrats nominated General F. P. Blair, a gallant 
soldier, for Vice-President. For President they nom- 
inated Horatio Seymour of New York. He was a 
Peace Democrat. As governor of New York during 
the war he had refused to support the national govern- 
ment. The Republicans nominated General Grant. 
He received three hundred thousand more votes than 
Seymour. Of the two hundred and ninety-four elec- 
toral votes, Grant received two hundred and fifteen. 

i868] Grant elected President 367 


447. The Fifteenth Amendment. — In February, The 
1869, just before Grant's inauguration, Congress pro- Amen"dnient 
posed still another amendment, providing that neither ^^70. 

the United States nor any state could abridge the 
rights of citizens of the United States on account 
of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 
The state legislatures hastened to accept this amend- 
ment, and it was declared in force in March, 1870. 

448. End of Reconstruction. — Three states only progress of 
were still unreconstructed. These were Virginia, '".^'=o"struc- 
Texas, and Mississippi. In 1869 Congress added 

to the conditions on which they could be readmitted 
to the Union the acceptance of the Fifteenth Amend- 
ment. Early in 1870 they all complied with the 
conditions and were readmitted. The Union was Reunion, 
now again complete. Since i860 four states had ^ ^^' 
been added to the Union. These were Kansas, 
West Virginia, Nevada, and Nebraska. There were 
now thirty-seven states in all. 

449. The Southerners and the Negroes The first The carpet- 
result of the Congressional plan of reconstruction was ji^ff^^js/er 
to give the control of the Southern states to the freed- 439-414- 
men and their white allies. Some of these white 
friends of the freedmen were men of character and 
ability, but most of them were adventurers who 

came from the North to make their fortunes. They 

The Ku- 

The Force 


with Great 


From Grant to Cleveland [§§ 449-452 

were called the " carpet-baggers," because they usu- 
ally carried their luggage in their hands. The few 
Southern whites who befriended the negroes were 
called " scalawags " by their white neighbors. Se 


cret societies sprang into being. The most famous 
was the Ku-Klux-Klan. The object of these societies 
was to terrorize the freedmen and their white friends 
and to prevent their voting. This led to the passage 
of the Force Acts. These laws provided severe 1 
penalties for crimes of intimidation. They also pro- ' 
vided that these cases should be tried in United States 
courts. Federal soldiers, stationed in the South, 
could be used to compel obedience to the law. 

450. The Alabama Claims. — During the Civil , 
War vessels built in British shipyards, or refitted | 
and supplied with coal at British ports, had preyed 
upon American commerce. The most famous of 
these vessels was the Alabama. The claims for 
losses caused by these vessels which the United States 
presented to Great Britain were therefore called the 
" Alabama Claims." There also were disputes with 
Great Britain over the fisheries and over the boundary 
in the far Northwest. In 1871 the United States and 
Great Britain made an arrangement called the Treaty 
of Washington. By this treaty all these points of 
dispute were referred to arbitration. The north- 
western boundary was decided in favor of the United 
States, but the fishery dispute was decided in favor of 
Great Britain. The " Alabama Claims " were settled 
by five arbitrators who sat at Geneva in Switzerland. 

1871] TJie Alabama Clahns 369 

They decided that Great Britain had not used " due The Geneva 
diligence " to prevent the abuse of her ports by the 
Confederates. They condemned her to pay fifteen and 
one-half million dollars damages to the United States. 

451. The Chicago Fire, 1871. — Early one morn- The Chicago 
ing in October, 1871, a Chicago woman went to the 

barn to milk her cow. She carried a lighted kero- 
sene lamp, for it was still dark. The cow kicked 
over the lamp. The barn was soon ablaze. A furi- 
ous gale carried the burning sparks from one house 
to another. And so the fire went on spreading all 
that day and night and the next day. Nearly two 
hundred million dollars' worth of property was de- 
stroyed. The homes of nearly one hundred thousand 
persons were burned down. In a surprisingly short 
time the burnt district was rebuilt, and Chicago grew 
more rapidly than ever before. 

452. Corruption in Politics. — New York City had Rings, 

• \ ^ Soiifcc- 

no two hundred million dollar fire. But a " rmg ' p^o/^^ 252- 
of city officers stole more than one hundred and 3ss- 
fifty million dollars of the city's money. In other 
cities also there was great corruption. Nor were Bribery. 
the state governments free from bribery and thiev- 
ing. Many officers in the national government were 
believed to be mixed up in schemes to defraud 
the people. The truth of the matter was that the 
Civil War had left behind it the habit of spending 
money freely. A desire to grow suddenly rich pos- 
sessed the people. Men did not look closely to see 
where their money came from. 


From Grant to Cleveland [§§ 453-454 

to Grant. 

453. Election of 1872. — In fact, this condition of 
the public service made many persons doubtful of 
the wisdom of reelecting President Grant. There 
was not the slightest doubt as to Grant's personal 
honesty. There were grave doubts as to his judg- 
ment in making appointments. Reconstruction, too, 
did not seem to be restoring peace and prosperity to 
the South. For these reasons many voters left the 

UllICAGU IN 1832. 



Republican party. They called themselves Liberal 
Republicans and nominated Horace Greeley for 
President. He had been one of the most outspoken 
opponents of slavery. The Democrats could find 
no better candidate, so they, too, nominated Greeley. 
But many Democrats could not bring themselves to 
vote for him. They left their party for the moment 
and nominated a third candidate. The result of all 


Grant and Greeley 


this confusion was the reelection of Grant. But the G''^"* re- 
elected, 1872. 
Democrats elected a majority of the House of Rep- 

454. The Cuban Rebellion, 1867-77. — When the 
other Spanish-American colonies won their inde- 
pendence (p. 223), Cuba remained true to Spain. 

VopyriijIUed, ISUS, ijy Puule Bros. 

The Heart of Modern Chicago. 

But by 1867 the Cubans could no longer bear the 
hardships of Spanish rule. They rebelled and for ten 
years fought for freedom. The Spaniards burned Rebellion in 
whole villages because they thought the inhabitants 
favored the rebels. They even threatened to kill all Spanish 
Cuban men found away from their homes. This 
cruelty aroused the sympathy of the Americans. 


3/2 From ( J rant to Cleveland [§§ 454-456 

Expeditions sailed from the United States to help the 
Cubans, although the government did everything it 
could to prevent their departure. One of these ves- 
sels carrying aid to the Cubans was named the \ 7;- 
giniits. The Spaniards captured her, carried her to 
Santiago, and killed forty-six of her crew. There 
came near being a war with Spain over this affair. 
But the Spaniards apologized and saluted the Amer- 
ican flag. In 1877 President Grant made up his 
mind that the war had lasted long enough. He 
adopted a severe tone toward Spain. The Spanish 
government made terms with the rebels, and the 
rebellion came to an end. 

455. Scandals in Political Life. — In 1 872 the House 
of Representatives made a searching inquiry into the 
charges of bribery in connection with the building of 
the Pacific railroads. Oakes Ames of Massachusetts 
was the head of a company called the " Credit Mobil- 
ier." This company had been formed to build the 
Union Pacific Railway. P'earing that Congress would 
pass laws that might hurt the enterprise, Ames gave 
stock in the company to members of Congress. 
But nothing definite could be proved against any 
members, and the matter dropped. Soon after the 
beginning of Grant's second term, many evil things 
came to light. One of these was the Whiskey Ring, 
which defrauded the government of large sums of 
money with the aid of the government officials. 
Grant wished to have a thorough investigation, 
and said, ** Let no guilty man escape." The worst 


Political Scandals 


case of all, perhaps, was that of W. W. Belknap, 
Secretary of War. But he escaped punishment by 

456. Anarchy in the South. — Meantime reconstruc- 
tion was not working well in the South. This was Failure of 
especially true of Louisiana, Arkansas, and South (jq^. 

Carolina. In Louisiana, and in Arkansas also, there * Source- 
Book, 349- 
were two sets of governors and legislatures, and civil 351. 

A Mississippi River Cotion sri:AM 

war on a small scale was going on. In South Caro- 
lina the carpet-baggers and the negroes had gained 
control. They stole right and left. In other South- 
ern states there were continued outrages on the 
negroes. President Grant was greatly troubled. 
" Let us have peace," was his heartfelt wish. But 
he felt it necessary to keep Federal soldiers in the 
South, although he knew that pubhc opinion in the 
North was turning against their employment. It was 


From Grant to Cleveland [§§ 456-459 

under these circumstances that the election of 1876 
was held. 

457. Election of 1876. — The Republican candidate 
was Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio. He was a gallant 
soldier of the Civil War, and was a man of the high- 
est personal character. His Democratic opponent 
was Samuel J. Tilden of New York — a shrewd law- 
yer who had won distinction as gov^ernor of the Em- 
pire State. When the electoral returns were brought 
in, there appeared two sets of returns from each of 
three Southern states, and the vote of Oregon was 
doubtful. The Senate was Republican, and the 
House was Democratic. As the two houses could 
not agree as to how these returns should be counted, 
they referred the whole matter to an electoral com- 
mission. This commission was made up of five 
Senators, five Representatives, and five justices of the 
Supreme Court. Eight of them were Republicans 
and seven were Democrats. They decided by eight 
votes to seven that Hayes was elected, and he was 
inaugurated President on March 4, 1877. 

458. Withdrawal of the Soldiers from the South. — 
The people of the North were weary of the ceaseless 
political agitation in the South. The old Southern 
leaders had regained control of nearly all the South- 
ern states. They could not be turned out except by 
a new civil war, and the Northern people were not 
willing to go to war again. The only other thing 
that could be done was to withdraw the Federal sol- 
diers and let the Southern people work out their own 

1877] President Hayes 375 

salvation as well as they could. President Hayes re- Troops with- 
called the troops, and all the Southern states at once 
passed into the control of the Democrats. 

459. Strikes and Riots, 1877. — The extravagance panic and 
and speculation of the Civil War, and the years fol- ^^'"^ ^''"'''• 

The Ruins after the Pi'itsburg Riots. 

lowing its close, ended in a great panic in 1873. 
After the panic came the "hard times." Production 
fell off. The demand for labor diminished. Wages 
were everywhere reduced. Strikes became frequent, 


From Grant to Cleveland [§§ 459-462 

The Stnhvart 


and riots followed the strikes. At Pittsburg, in west- 
ern Pennsylvania, the rioters seized the railroad. They 
burned hundreds of railroad cars and locomotives. 
They destroyed the railroad buildings. At last the 
riot came to an end, but not until millions of dollars' 
worth of property had been destroyed. 

460. Election of 1880. — At the beginning of his 
administration Hayes had declared that he would not 
be a candidate for reelection. Who should be the 
Republican standard bearer .? Grant's friends pro- 
posed to nominate him for a third term. The politi- 
cians who advocated a third term for Grant were 
opposed to the candidacy of James G. Blaine. They 
were called the Stalwart Republicans. In the con- 
vention they voted steadily and solidly for Grant. 
Finally their opponents, with the cry of " Anything 
to beat Grant," suddenly turned to an entirely new 
man, whose name had not even been mentioned. 
This was James A. Garfield of Ohio. He had won 
distinction in the Civil War and had served with 
credit in Congress. For Vice-President the Repub- 
licans nominated Chester A. Arthur, a New York 
banker. The Democrats, on their part, nominated 
one of the most brilliant and popular soldiers of the 
Army of the Potomac, General Winfield Scott Han- 
cock. The campaign was very hotly contested. In 
the end Garfield won. 

461. Garfield murdered; Civil Service Reform.— 
President Garfield took the oath of office on March 4, 
1 88 1. On July 2 he was shot in the back by a dis- 

i88i] Garfield murdered ■^•j'/ 

appointed office-seeker. Week after week he endured 
terrible agony. At length, on September 19, the 
martyred President died. Now at last the evils of 
the " Spoils System " were brought to the attention 
of the American people. Vice-President Arthur be- president 
came President and entered heartily into projects ■^'^*^'^''- 
of reform. A beginning was soon made. But it 
was found to be a very difficult thing to bring about 
any lasting reform. The Constitution gives the civil service 
President the appointment of officers, subject to the ^jj°™' 
confirmation of the Senate. No act of Congress sook, 363- 
can diminish the constitutional powers of the Presi- 
dent except so far as he consents, and one President 
cannot bind succeeding Presidents. Any scheme of 
reform also costs money, which must be voted annu- 
ally by Congress. It follows, therefore, that the 
consent of every President and of both Houses of 
every Congress is necessary to make the reform of 
the civil service permanent. Nevertheless the re- 
form has made steady progress until now by far the 
greater part of the civil service is organized on the 
merit system. 

462. Election of 1884. — In 1884 the Republicans j.g. Blaine, 
nominated James G. Blaine of Maine for President. 
He was a man of magnetic address and had made 
many friends, but he also had made many enemies. 
Especially many Republican voters distrusted him. 
They felt that he had used his position for private 
gain, although nothing was proved against him. 

The Mug- 

These Republicans were called " Mugwumps. They wumps. 


Frovi Grant to Cleveland [§§ 462-463 

"bolted" the nomination and supported the Demo- : 
cratic candidate, Grover Cleveland. As mayor of 
Buffalo, Cleveland had done very well. He had then 
been elected governor of New York by a very large 
majority. The campaign of 1884 was conducted on 

lines of personal 
abuse that recall 
the campaigns of 
1800 and of 1828. 
Cleveland carried 
four large North- 
ern states and the 
" solid South" and 
was elected. 

463. Cleveland's 

1885-89 The 

great contest of 
Cleveland's first 
term was a fierce 
struggle over the 
tariff. The govern- 
ment's need of 
money during the Civil War had compelled Congress 
to raise large sums by means of internal revenue 
taxes. These taxes in turn had brought about a great 
increase in the tariff rates on goods imported from 
foreign countries. The internal revenue taxes had 
been almost entirely removed, but the war tariff sub- 
stantially remained in force. In 1887 Cleveland laid 


Questions and Topics 379 

the whole question before Congress. For a time it 
seemed probable that something would be done. But 
the opposition in Congress was very active and very- 
strong. It fell out, therefore, that nothing important 
was done. The real significance of Cleveland's first 
administration lay in the fact that the Southerners 
were once again admitted to a share in the govern- 
ment of the nation. It marked, therefore, the reunion 
of the American people. 

Chapter 42 

§§437,438. — a. Explain carefully Lincoln's plan for reconstruc- 
tion. How was it affected by his death? 

/'. What was Johnson's attitude toward reconstruction? Precisely 
what is meant by " reconstruction " ? 

§§ 439-441. — a. What was the force of the Emancipation Proclama- 
tion? How was the institution of slavery abolished? 

/'. Explain the reasons for the establishment of the freedmen's 
bureau. What do you think of the provision relating to the use of the 
army ? 

c. How was Congress able to pass a bill over the President's veto? 

d. Explain carefully the Fourteenth Amendment. What do you 
think of the provision as to debts? 

§§ 442, 443. — a. Why were the elections of 1 866 important? 

b. What was the force of the Tenure of Office Act, and why was it 

c. Describe the actual process of reconstruction. 

d. Why was Johnson impeached? Why did the impeachment fail? 

§§ 444, 445. — a. How did this act of Napoleon's set the Monroe 
Doctrine at defiance? 

380 Rcconstructioji mid Reunion 

b. What action diil the government take? With what result? 

c. What advantage has Alaska been to the United States? 

§ 446. — a. What were the issues in the campaign of 1868? 

b. What had Blair done for the Union? 

c. What did the election of Grant show? 

Chapter 43 

§§ 447-449. — a. What were the provisions of the Fifteenth 

/'. Under what conditions were the remaining seceded states re- 
admitted ? 

c. What was the Force Act? Why was it passed? 

§ 450. — a. How was the injury to our shipping during the Civil 
War connected with Great Britain? 

b. What is meant by " arbitration " ? Is it better to settle disputes 
by arbitration or by war? 

§§ 451, 452. — a. Descril)e the Chicago fire and its results. 

b. Why was there so much iiribery and corruption at this time? 

c. Should city governments be conilucted as business enterprises? 

§ 453. — a. Why was there so much opposition to Grant's reelection ? 
b. Why did the Democrats nominate (jreeley? What was the result 
of the election? 

§ 454. — a. What trouble broke out in Cuba? Why? 
b. Describe the Virginius affair. How did the Cuban rebellion 
come to an end? 

§§ 455, 456. — a. What scandal arose in connection with the Union 
Pacific Railway? 

b. What was the " Whiskey Ring " ? What was Grant's wish ? 

c. What troubles arose in the South? Could they have been 

§§ 457,458. — a. Why was there a dispute about the election of 
1876? How was it settled? 

b. Was it wise to let the Southerners work out their questions for 
themselves or not? Why? 

§§459,460. — a. Compare the panic of 1873 with that of 1837, 
explaining the likenesses and differences. 

Questions and Topics 381 

b. Why was opposition to the nomination of Grant so strong? 

c. Who were nominated? Who was elected? 

§ 461. — a. What was the cause of Garfield's murder? 

b. Why is Civil Service Reform so difficult? 

c. What is meant by the " Merit System " ? Do you consider such 
1 system better or worse than the Spoils System? Why? 

§§ 462, 463. — a. Why was Blaine so strongly opposed? Who were 
the " Mugwumps"? How did their action influence the election? 

b. What is the difference between internal revenue taxes and 
customs duties? 

c. What was the real significance of Cleveland's first election? 

General Questions 

a. Give all the treaties with Great Britain, with dates, reason for 
the treaty, and results. 

b. Why were there no executions for treason at the close of the 
Civil War? 

c. What two methods does the Constitution provide for its amend- 
ment? Which method has always been followed? 

d. What were the chief difficulties in the way of reconstruction? 

e. What are the important duties of citizens? Why do you select 
these ? 

Topics for Special Work 

a. Impeachment of Johnson. 

b. The Chicago fire. 

c. Civil Service Reform. 

d. Industrial activity in the South. 


The importance of the topics treated in Part XIV can hardly be 
overestimated. The opportunities to impress the pupils with their 
public duties are many and important. Reconstruction should be 
broadly treated and not discussed in a partisan spirit. It is better to 
dwell on our duties to the negroes than to seek out Northern blunders 
and Southern mistakes. In connection with the amendments the 
whole question of the suffrage can be discussed in the responsibility 
devolving upon the voter fully set forth. Questions of municipal 
organizations also arise and can be illustrated by local experience. 




Books for Study and Reading 

References. — Scribner's Popular History, \% 579-659; 
McMaster's School History, clis. xxxiv, xxxv. 

Home Readings. — Any short, attractive account of the Spani.sli 



464. Benjamin Harrison elected President, 1888. 
In 1888 the Democrats put forward Cleveland as 
their candidate for President. The Republicans 
nominated Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. Like 
Hayes and Garfield, he had won renown in the Civil 
War and was a man of the highest honor and of 
proved ability. The prominence of the old Southern 
leaders in the Democratic administration, and the 
neglect of the business interests of the North, com- 
pelled many Northern Republicans who had voted 
for Cleveland to return to the Republican party. 
The result was the election of Harrison and of a 
Republican majority in the House of Representatives. 


1890] The McKinley Tariff 383 

465. The McKinley Tariff, 1890. — One of the The 

questions most discussed in the campaign of 1888 t^Hff'iSw) 
was the reform of the tariff. There seem to have 
been two sets of tariff reformers. One set of re- 
formers proposed to reform the tariff by doing away 
with as much of it as possible. The other set of re- 
formers proposed to readjust the tariff duties so as to 
make the protective system more consistent and more 
perfect. Led by WilHam McKinley, the Republicans 
set to work to reform the tariff in this latter sense. 
This they did by generally raising the duties on pro- 
tected goods. The McKinley Tariff Act also offered Reciprocity. 
reciprocity to countries which would favor American 
goods. This offer was in effect to lower certain 
duties on goods imported from Argentina, for in- 
stance, if the Argentine government would admit 
certain American goods to Argentina on better terms 
than similar goods imported from other countries. 

466. The Sherman Silver Law, 1890. — In the coid and 
Civil War gold and silver had disappeared from circu- ^''^^''• 
lation. But after the close of the war a gradual re- 
turn was made to specie payments. In the colonial 

days the demand for silver, as compared with the de- 
mand for gold, outran the supply. The consequence 
was that silver was constantly becoming worth more 
in comparison with gold. In the nineteenth century 
the supply of silver has greatly outstripped the de- 
mand, with the result that silver has constantly de- 
clined in value as compared with gold. In 1871 the 
government decided to use silver for small coins only, 


Confusion in Politics 

[§§ 466-469 

and not to allow silver to be offered in payment of a 
larger sum than five dollars. This was called the " de- 
monetization of silver." In 1878 a small but earnest 
band of advocates of the free coinage of silver se- 
cured the passage of an act of Congress for the 
coinage of two million silver dollars each month. 
These dollars were of such a size that each one was 
worth about sixty cents in gold. In 1890, Senator 

Tiiiii 11(11? 

The Cai'itoi. at WAsiiiNtnoN. 

SilvdV Law. 


John Sherman of Ohio brought in a bill to extend 
the coinage of these silver dollars which, at the time 
of the passage of the Sherman Act, were worth fifty- 
three cents on the dollar. 

467. Election of 1892. — One result of this great 
increase in the silver coinage was to alarm business 
men throughout the country. Business constantly 
declined. Every one who could lessened his ex- 
penses as much as possible. Mill owners and railroad 

1893] Silver and the Tariff 385 

managers discharged their workers or reduced their 
wages. Harrison and Cleveland were again the Re- 
publican and Democratic candidates for the presi- 
dency. As is always the case, the party in power 
was held to be responsible for the hard times. 
Enough voters turned to Cleveland to elect him, and Cleveland 
he was inaugurated President for the second time p^esTcfent 
(March 4, 1893). 1892- 

468. Silver and the Tariff. — In the summer of scarcity of 
1893 there was a great scarcity of money. Thousands "^^'^^y- 
of people withdrew all the money they could from 

the banks and locked it up in places of security. Repeal of the 
But Congress repealed the Sherman Silver Law and ^herman 
put an end to the compulsory purchase of silver and 
the coinage of silver dollars. This tended to restore 
confidence. The Democrats once more overhauled wiison 
the tariff. Under the lead of Representative Wilson *^"^* 
of West Virginia they passed a tariff act, lowering 
some duties and placing many articles on the free list. 

469. The Chicago Exhibition, 1893. — The four Chicago 
hundredth anniversary of the Columbian discovery Exhibition, 
of America occurred in October, 1892. Preparations 

were made for holding a great commemorative exhi- 
bition at Chicago. But it took so long to get every- 
thing ready that the exhibition was not held until the 
summer of 1893. Beautiful buildings were erected 
of a cheap but satisfactory material. They were de- 
signed with the greatest taste, and were filled with 
splendid exhibits that showed the skill and resources 
of Americans, and also with the products of foreign 



Confusion in Politics 


countries. Hundreds of thousands of persons from 
all parts of the country visited the exhibition with 
pleasure and great profit. No more beautiful or 
successful exhibition has ever been held. 

The I-isHERiES Building, World's Fair, Chicago. 

William 470. Election of 1896. — In 1896 the Republicans 

^'^' held their convention at St. Louis and nominated Wil- 
liam McKinlcy of Ohio for President. They declared 
in favor of the gold standard, unless some arrange- 
ment with other nations for a standard of gold and 
silver could be made. They also declared for pro- 
tection to home industries. The Democrats held 
their convention at Chicago. The men who had 
stood by Cleveland found themselves in a helpless 

w. j. Bryan, minority. William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska was 
nominated for President on a platform advocating 
the free coinage of silver and many changes in the 


McKhiley elected President 


laws in the direction of socialism. The Populists and 
the Silver Republicans also adopted Bryan as their 
candidate. Now, at last, the question of the gold 
standard or the 
silver standard 
was fairly before 
the voters. They 
responded by 
electing McKin- 
ley and a Repub- 
lican House of 
471. The Ding- 
ley Tariff, 1897. 
— The Republi- 
cans, once more 
in control of the 
government, set 
to work to re- 
form the tariff in favor of high protection. Repre- 
sentative Dingley of Maine was chairman of the 
committee of the House that drew up the new bill, 
and the act as finally passed goes by his name. 
It raised the duties on some classes of goods and 
taxed many things that hitherto had come in free. 
Especially were duties increased on certain raw ma- 
terials for manufactures, with a view to encourage 
the production of such materials in the United States. 
The reciprocity features of the McKinley tariff 
(P- 383) were also restored. 

Copyright, l)y Rockwood. 

William McKinley. 




The Dingley 
tariff, 1897. 


The SpiDiish War 

[§§ 472-473 



472. The Cuban Rebellion, 1894-98. — The Cubans 
laid down their arms in 1877 (p. 372) because they 
relied on the promises of better government made 
by the Spaniards. But these promises were never 
carried out. Year after year the Cuban people bore 
with their oppression. But at last their patience was 
worn out. In 1894 they again rebelled. The Span- 
iards sent over an army to subdue them. Soon tales 
of cruelty on the part of the Spaniards reached the 
United States. Finally the Spanish governor, General 
Weyler, adopted the cruel measure of driving the old 
men, the women, and the children from the country 
villages and huddling them together in the seaboard 
towns. Without money, without food, with scant 
shelter, these poor people endured every hardship. 
They died by thousands. The American people 
sent relief, but little could be done to help them. 
The Cubans also fitted out expeditions in American 
ports to carry arms and supplies to the rebels. The 
government did everything in its power to stop these 
expeditions, but the coast line of the United States 
is so long that it was impossible to stop them all, 
especially as large numbers of the American people 
heartily sympathized with the Cubans. Constant 
disputes with Spain over the Cuban question natu- 

War declared 


rally came up and gave rise to irritation in the 
United States and in Spain. 

473. The Declaration of War, 1898. — On Janu- Destruction 
ary 5, 1898, the American battleship Maine anchored jg^^^"""^' 
in Havana harbor. On February 1 5 she was destroyed 
by an explosion and sank with two hundred and fifty- 
three of her crew. A most competent Court of In- 
quiry was appointed. It reported that the Maine had 

THK '■ MAiNK." 

been blown up from the outside. The report of the 
Court of Inquiry was communicated to the Spanish 
government in the hope that some kind of apology 
and reparation might be made. But all the Spanish 
government did was to propose that the matter 
should be referred to arbitration. The condition of 
the Cubans was now dreadful. Several Senators 
and Representatives visited Cuba. They reported 
that the condition of the Cubans was shocking. The 
President laid the whole matter before Congress for 

390 The Spanish War L§§ 473-474 

Cuban inde- its determination. On April 19, 1898, Congress rec- 
recognized. ognized the independence of the Cuban people and 
demanded the withdrawal of the Spaniards from the 
island. Congress also authorized the President to 
compel Spain's withdrawal and stated that the 
United States did not intend to annex Cuba, but 
to leave the government of the island to its inhabit- 
ants. Before these terms could be formally laid 
before the Spanish government, it ordered the 
American minister to leave Spain. 
Baltic of 474 The Destruction of the Spanish Pacific Fleet. — 

Manihi Hav, , , . , t^ ,• , a • i 

May 1, 1898. Admiral Dewey, commanding the American squadron 
on the Asiatic station, had concentrated all his ves- 
sels at Hong Kong, in the belief that war was at 
hand. Of course he could not stay at Hong Kong 
after the declaration of war. The only thing that he 
could do was to destroy the Spanish fleet and use 
Spanish ports as a naval base. The Spanish fleet 
was in Manila Bay. Thither sailed Dewey. In the 
darkness of the early morning of May i, Dewey 
passed the Spanish forts at the entrance of the bay. 
The fleet was at anchor near the naval arsenal, a few 
miles from the city of Manila. As soon as it was 
light Dewey opened fire on the Spaniards. Soon 
one Spanish ship caught fire, then another, and 
another. Dewey drew off out of range for a time 
while his men rested and ate their breakfasts. He 
then steamed in again and completed the destruction 
of the enemy's fleet. Not an American ship was 
seriously injured. Not one American sailor was 


Battle of Manila Bay 


killed. This victory gave the Americans the control 
of the Pacific Ocean and the Asiatic waters, as far as 
Spain was concerned. It relieved the Pacific sea- 

The " Olympia." 
From a photograph by Irving Underhil: 

coast of the United States of all fear of attack. It 
made it possible to send soldiers and supplies to 
Manila, without fear of attack while on the way. 
And it was necessary to send soldiers because Dewey, 


The Spanish War 

[§§ 474-478 

while he was supreme on the water and could easily 
compel the surrender of Manila, could not properly 
police the town after its capture. 

475. The Atlantic Seacoast and the Blockade. — No 
sooner did war seem probable than the people on the 
Atlantic seacoast were seized with an unreasoning 
fear of the Spanish fleets. For the Spaniards had a 
few new fast ships. The mouths of the principal 
harbors were blocked with mines and torpedoes. 
The government bought merchant vessels of all 
kinds and established a patrol along the coast. It 
also blockaded the more important Cuban seaports. 
But the Cuban coast was so long that it was impossi- 
ble to blockade it all. As it was, great suffering was 
inflicted on the principal Spanish armies in Cuba. 

476. The Atlantic Fleets. — Before long a Spanish 
fleet of four new, fast armored cruisers and three 
large sea-going torpedo-boat destroyers appeared in 
the West Indies. The Spanish admiral did not seem 
to know exactly where to go. But after sailing around 
the Caribbean Sea for a time, he anchored in Santiago 
harbor — on the southern coast of Cuba. In the 
American navy there were only two fast armored 
cruisers, the Netv York and the Brooklyn. These 
with five battleships — the Oregon, lotva, Indiana, 
Massachusetts, and Texas — and a number of smaller 
vessels were placed under the command of Admiral 
Sampson and sent to Santiago. Another fleet of 
sea-going monitors and unarmored cruisers main- 
tained the Cuban blockade. 

1898] The Atlantic Fleets. 393 

477. The Oregon's Great Voyage. — When the Maine The Oregon's 
was destroyed, the Oregon was at Puget Sound on the ^°'^^^^* 
northwest coast. She was at once ordered to sail to 

the Atlantic coast at her utmost speed. Steadily the 
great battleship sped southward along the Pacific 
coast of North America, Central America, and South 
America. She passed through Magellan Straits and 
made her way up the eastern coast of South America. 
As she approached the West Indies, it was feared 
that she might meet the whole Spanish fleet. But 
she never sighted them. She reached Florida in 
splendid condition and at once joined Sampson's 

478. The Blockade of the Spanish Fleet. — Santiago Santiago, 
harbor seemed to have been designed as a place of 
refuge for a hard-pressed fleet. Its narrow winding 
entrance was guarded by huge mountains strongly 
fortified. The channel between these mountains was 

filled with mines and torpedoes. The American fleet 
could not go in. The Spanish fleet must not be 
allowed to come out unseen. Lieutenant Hobson 
was ordered to take the collier Merrimac into the sinking of 
narrow entrance and sink her across the channel at '^^ ^'^''^*- 
the narrowest part. He made the most careful 
preparations. But the Merrimac was disabled and 
drifted by the narrowest part of the channel before 
she sank. The Spanish admiral was so impressed 
by the heroism of this attempt that he sent a boat off 
to the American squadron to assure them that Hob- 
son and his six brave companions were safe. 


394 ^^^'^ Spanish War [§§ 479-481 

479. Destruction of the Spanish Fleet. — As the 
American vessels could not enter Santiago harbor to 
sink the Spanish ships at their anchors, it became 
necessary to send an army to Santiago. But the 
Spaniards did not wait for the soldiers to capture the 
city. On Sunday morning, July 3, the Spanish fleet 
suddenly appeared steaming out of the harbor. The 
Massachusetts was away at the time, getting a supply 
of coal, and the Nczu York was steaming away to 
take Admiral Sampson to a conference with General 
Shafter. But there were enough vessels left. On 
Destruction came the Spaniards. The American ships rushed 
Spanish fleet, toward them. The Spaniards turned westward and 
tried to escape along the coast. Soon one of them 
was set on fire by the American shells. She was run 
on shore to prevent her sinking. Then another fol- 
lowed her, and then a third. The torpedo-boat de- 
stroyers were sunk off the entrance to the harbor. 
But one ship now remained afloat. Speedily, she, 
too, was overtaken and surrendered. In a few hours 
the whole Spanish fleet was destroyed ; hundreds of 
Spanish seamen were killed, wounded, or drowned, 
and sixteen hundred Spanish sailors captured. The 
American loss was one man killed and two wounded. 
The American ships were practically ready to destroy 
another Spanish fleet had one been within reach. At 
Manila Bay and off Santiago the American fleets 
were superior to the enemy's fleets. But the astound- 
ing results of their actions were due mainly to the 
splendid manner in which the American ships had 

Battle of Santiago 395 

been cared for and, above all, to the magnificent Lessons of 
training and courage of the men behind the guns, ^^^'^"^""y- 
Years of peace had not in any way dimmed the 
splendid qualities of the American sea-fighters. 

480. The American Army. — Meantime the Ameri- Military 
can soldiers on shore at Santiago were doing their P''^P''^''^"°"^- 
work under great discouragement, but with a valor 

and stubbornness that will always compel admira- 
tion. While the navy was silently and eflficiently in- 
creased to be a mighty, well-ordered force, everything 
was in disorder in the army. Soldiers there were 
in plenty. From all parts of the Union, from the The 
South and from the North, from the West and from 
the East, from the cattle ranches of the plains and the 
classrooms of the great universities, patriots offered 
their lives at their country's call. But there was 
great lack of order in the management of the army. 
Sickness broke out among the soldiers. Volunteer 
regiments were supplied with old-fashioned rifles. It 
seemed to be impossible to move one regiment from 
one place to another without dire confusion. When 
the Spanish fleet was shut up in Santiago harbor, a 
force of fifteen thousand soldiers under General Shaf- 
ter was sent to capture Santiago itself and make the 
harbor unsafe for the ships. 

481. The Santiago Expedition. — On June 22 and The landing. 
23 the expedition landed not far to the east of the 
entrance to Santiago harbor. Steep and high moun- 
tains guard this part of the coast. But no attempt 

was made to prevent the landing of the Americans. 


The Spanish War 

[§§ 481-482 

Dismounted cavalrymen of the regular army and 
Roosevelt's Rough Riders, also on foot, at once 
pushed on toward Santiago. At La Guasimas the 
Spaniards tried to stop them. But the regulars and 
the Rough Riders drove them away, and the army 

pushed on. By 
June 28 it had 
reached a point 
within a few miles 
of the city. The 
Spaniards occupied 
two very strong 
positions at San 
Juan (San Huan) 
and Caney. On 
July I they were 
driven from them. 
The regulars and 
the volunteers 
showed the greatest 
courage and hero- 
ism. They crossed 
long open spaces in the face of a terrible lire from 
the Spaniards, who were armed with modern rifles. 
The rains now set in, and the sufferings of the troops 
became terrible. On July 3 the Spanish fleet sailed 
out of the harbor to meet its doom from the guns of 
the American warships. Rcenforcements were sent 
to Shafter, and heavy guns were dragged over the 
mountain roads and placed in positions commanding 

San Juan Blockhouse showing Marks 
UK Shot. 

Capture of Santiago 


the enemy's lines. The Spaniards surrendered, and Fail of 
on July 17 the Americans entered the captured city. ^^""*s°- 
482. The Porto Rico Campaign. — The only other The Porto 
important colony still remaining to Spain in America ^^^° ^^^^ '' 
was Porto Rico. General Nelson A. Miles led a 
strong force to its conquest. Instead of landing on 

Taking Wounded to the Division Hospital after the Fight 
ON San Juan Hill. 

the northern coast near San Juan, the only strongly 
fortified position on the seacoast. General Miles 
landed his men on the southern coast near Ponce 
(Pon-tha). The inhabitants received the Americans 
with the heartiest welcome. This was on August i. 
The American army then set out to cross the island. 
But before they had gone very far news came of the 
ending of the hostilities. • 


The Spixnisli War 

[§§ 483-485 

Fall of 

483. Fall of Manila. — When the news of Dewey's 
victory (p. 390) reached the United States, soldiers 
were sent to his aid. But this took time, for it was a 
very long way from San Francisco to the Philippines 
and vessels suitable for transports were not easily 
procured on the Pacific coast. General Wesley 
Merritt was given command of the land forces. 
Meantime, for months Dewey with his fleet blockaded 
Manila from the water side, while Philippine insur- 

». p. 1 M KOA 

Treaty of 
Peace, i8q 

gents blockaded it from the land side. Foreign 
vessels, especially the German vessels, jealously 
watched the operations of the American fleet and 
severely taxed Dewey's patience. On August 17 
Merritt felt strong enough to attack the city. It 
was at once surrendered to him. 

484. End of the War. — The destruction of the 
Spanish Atlantic fleet and the fall of Santiago con- 
vinced the Spaniards that further resistance was 
useless. So it was agreed that the fighting should 
be stopped. This was in July, 1898. But the actual 


1898] End of the War 399 

treaty of peace was not made until the following 
December. The conditions were that Spain should 
abandon Cuba, should cede to the United States 
Porto Rico, the Philippines, and some smaller islands, 
and should receive from the United States twenty 
million dollars. For many years American mission- Hawaii, 
aries, merchants, and planters had been interested 
in the Hawaiian Islands. The war showed the 
importance of these islands to the United States as 
a military and naval station, and they were annexed. 
485. Prosperity. — The years 1 898-1 900 have been 
a period of unbounded prosperity for the American 
people. Foreign trade has increased enormously, 
and the mianufactures of the United States are find- 
ing a ready market in other countries. A rebellion 
has been going on in the Philippines, but it seems 
to be slowly dying out (February, 1900). 


Chapter 44 

§§ 464, 465. — a. Why was Harrison chosen President? 
h. What is "tariff reform"? What is "reciprocity"? Do you 
consider such a method wise or not? Why? 

§§466,467. — a. Why was silver demonetized in 1871? What is 
meant by the word " demonetization "? 

/'. What was the Sherman Silver Law? What effect did it have 
upon business? 

c. Was there any reason for the fear on the part of business men? 

(/. Why was Harrison defeated in 1892? 

400 National Development 

§§ 468, 469. — a. Why di<I money become scarce in the summer of 

/'. How tlid the repeal of the Sherman Law affect confidence in the 
future of business? 

c. Describe the Chicago Exhibition. What is the advantage of 
such an exhibition? 

§§ 47O1 47'- — (t' Who were the leading candidates for the presi- 
dency in 1896? What principles did they stand for? 

b. Explain the provisions of the Dingley Tariff. 

c. Ask some business man what he thinks of the wisdom of chang- 
ing the tariff very often. 

Chaiter 45 

§§472,473. — a. What promises had the Spaniards made to the 
Cubans and how had they kept them? 

b. What do you think of Weyler's policy? 

c. Could the Spanish war have been avoided? 

§ 474. — a. Why could not Admiral Dewey remain at Hong Kong? 
/'. Describe the battle of Manila Bay. What were the results of 
this action? 

§§475-477. — a. Why were the American people on the Atlantic 
seacoast alarmed? Were the harbors well defended? 

b. Compare the American and the Spanish Atlantic fleets. Why 
was the voyage of the Oregon important? 

§§ 478, 479. — a. Describe the harbor of Santiago. What advan- 
tages did it possess for the Spaniards? 

b. How did Hobson try to prevent the escape of the Spanish fleet? 

c. Describe the encounter between the two fleets. 

d. To what was this great success due? 

§§ 480-482. — a. From what parts of the country did the volunteers 

b. Why was there so much confusion in the army? 

c. Describe the Santiago campaign and the suffering of the soldiers. 

d. Describe the Porto Rico expedition. Why did General Miles 
land on the southern coast? 

Questions and Topics 401 

§§483-485. — a. Why were the soldiers needed after Dewey's 

b. Give the conditions of peace. Exactly what was the condition 
as to Cuba? 

c. Why are the Hawaiian Islands important to the United States? 

General Questions 

a. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a tariff? 

b. What important matters have been definitely settled during the 
past one hundred years? 

c. What are some of the problems now before the American people? 

d. Should the United States be a "world power "? 

Topics for Special Work 

a. Present condition of any part of the United States or dependent 

b. Any campaign or battle of the Spanish War. 

c. Present political parties and their principles. 

Suggestions to the Teacher 

Interesting constitutional questions will inevitably arise in teaching 
this section, but the events are too recent to admit of dogmatizing on 
lines of policy. The Spanish War and the Philippine trouble are too 
near to be properly judged, and the facts only should be taught. The 
duties and responsibilities resting upon the United States through its 
closer connection with all parts of the world can, however, be empha- 
sized without the display of partisan spirit. Furthermore, the causes 
of present prosperity and the industrial advantages of the United 
States may well demand attention. Throughout every part of this 
section, also, the importance of good citizenship, in the broadest sense 
of the word, should receive special emphasis. 




We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, estab- 
lish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote 
the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Pos- 
terity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 


Section, i. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of 
the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. 

Section. 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members 
chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in 
each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous 
Branch of the State Legislature. 

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of 
twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who 
shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen. 

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States 
which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, 
which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including 
those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three 
fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years 
after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subse- 
quent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The number 
of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State 
shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall he made, 
the Slate of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three, Massachusetts eight, 
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six. New 
Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North 
Carolina five. South Carolina five, and Georgia three. 

* Reprinted from the text issued by the State Department. 


Constitution of the Unitid States 


When vacancies happen in the Kepresentation from any State, the Executive 
Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Flection to fill such Vacancies. 

The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and other Officers; and 
shall have the sole Power of Impeachment. 

Section. 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators 
from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator 
shall have one Vote. 

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, 
thev shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Sena- 
tors of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the 
second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expi- 
ration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if 
Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature 
of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next 
Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies. 

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty 
Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when 
elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen. 

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but 
shall have no Vote, unless they be eciually divided. 

The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in 
the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of President 
of the United States. 

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for 
that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the 
United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside : And no Person shall be con- 
victed without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present. 

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from 
Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit 
under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and 
subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law. 

Skciion. 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators 
and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but 
the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to 
the Places of chusing Senators. 

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be 
on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day. 

Skction. 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the P'lections, Returns and 
Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum 
to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be 
authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under 
such Penalties as each House may provide. 

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for 
disorderly Behaviour, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member. 

Constitution of the United States M 

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish 
the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the 
Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire 
of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the Journal. 

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the 
other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which 
the two Houses shall be sitting. 

Section. 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for 
their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United 
States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, P^elony and Breach of the Peace, be 
privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective 
Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate 
in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place. 

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, 
be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall 
have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased during 
such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a 
Member of either House during his Continuance in Office. 

Section. 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Repre- 
sentatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills. 

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, 
shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; 
If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections, to that 
House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on 
their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds 
of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objec- 
tions, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved 
by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes 
of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons 
voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respec- 
tively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays 
excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a Law, in like 
Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its 
Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law. 

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and 
House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) 
shall be presented to the President of the United .States; and before the Same shall 
take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed 
by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules 
and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill. 

Section. 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, 
Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common Defence and 
general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be 
uniform throughout the United States; 

iv Constitutio)i of the United States 


To borrow Money on the credit of the United States; 

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and 
with the Indian Tribes; 

To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject 
of Hankruptcies throughout the United States; 

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Stand- 
ard of Weights and Measures; 

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current Coin 
of the United States; 

To establish Post Offices and post Roads; 

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times 
to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Dis- 

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court; 

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and 
Offences against the Law of Nations; 

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concern- 
ing Captures on Land and Water; 

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be 
for a longer Term than two Years; 

To provide and maintain a Navy; 

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces; 

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, sup- 
press Insurrections and repel Invasions; 

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing 
such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving 
to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of 
training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress; 

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not 
exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Accept- 
ance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to 
exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature 
of the State in which the same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arse- 
nals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings; — And 

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execu- 
tion the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the 
Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof. 

Skction. 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States 
now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress 
prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be 
imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person. 

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when 
in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may reciuire it. 

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed. 

Constitution of the United States V 

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census 
or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken. 

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State. 

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the 
Ports of one State over those of another : nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one 
State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another. 

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropria- 
tions made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and 
Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time. 

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States : And no Person hold- 
ing any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Con- 
gress, accept of any present. Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from 
any King, Prince, or foreign State. 

Section, io. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; 
grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any 
Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of 
Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant 
any Title of Nobility. 

No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any Imposts or Duties 
on Imports or Exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its in- 
spection Laws : and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on 
Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the United States; and 
all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress. 

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep 
Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact 
with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually 
invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay. 


Section, i. The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United 
States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, 
together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows 

Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a 
Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to 
which the State may be entitled in the Congress : but no Senator or Representative, 
or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be 
appointed an Elector. 

The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Per- 
sons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with them- 
selves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number 
of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the 
Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. 
The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Rep- 

v'i Constitutio)i of the Unihd States 

resentatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The 
Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number 
be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more 
tiian one who have such Majority, and have an etjual Number of Votes, then the 
House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for Presi- 
dent; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the 
said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the 
Votes shall ])e taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; 
A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of 
the States, and a Majority of all the States shall l)e necessary to a Choice. In every 
Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of 
Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two 
or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice 

The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on 
which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the 
United States. 

No Person e.xcept a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the 
time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; 
neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the 
Age of thirty five '^'ears, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United 

In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of his Death, Resignation, 
or Inaliilily to discharge the Powers and Duties of the said Oft'ice, the Same shall 
devolve on the Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of 
Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President and Vice President, 
declaring what Officer shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act accord- 
ingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President shall be elected. 

The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his .Services, a Compensation, 
which shall neither be encreased nor diminished during the Period for which he 
shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other 
Emolument from the United Stales, or any of them. 

Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall take the following Oath or 
Affirmation : — 

" 1 do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of 
President of the United .States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect 
and defend the Constitution of the United States." 

SiccTlON. 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy 
of the United States, and of the Militia of the several .States, when called into the 
actual Service of the United States; he may require the 0])inion, in writing, of 
the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating 
to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall have Power to grant Reprieves 
and Pardons for Oftences against the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment. 

He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, to make 

Constitution of the United States vii 

Treaties, provided two thirds of the Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, 
and by and with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors, 
other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court, and all other 
Officers of the United States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided 
for, and which shall be established by Law : but the Congress may by Law vest the 
Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in 
the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of Departments. 

The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that may happen during 
the Recess of the Senate, by granting Commissions which shall expire at the End of 
their next Session. 

Section. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress Information of the 
State of the Union, and recommend to their Consideration such Measures as he shall 
iudge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both 
Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between them, with Respect 
to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall think 
proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care 
that the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the 
United States. 

Section. 4. The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United 
States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, 
Bribery, or other high Crimes and Misdemeanors. 


Section, i. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one 
supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time 
ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall 
hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their 
Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in 

Section. 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in Law and Equity, 
arising under this Constitution, the Laws of the United States, and Treaties made, or 
which shall be made, under their Authority; — to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, 
other public Ministers and Consuls; — to all Cases of admiralty and maritime Juris- 
diction; — to Controversies to which the United States shall be a Party; — to Contro- 
versies between two or more States; — between a State and Citizens of another 
State; — between Citizens of different States, — between Citizens of the same State 
claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and between a State, or the Citizens 
thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or Subjects. 

In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, and those 
in which a State shall be Party, the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. 
In all the other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have appellate 
Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such Exceptions, and under such regu- 
lations as the Congress shall make. 

viii Constitution of the United States 

The Trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment, shall be by Jury; and 
such Trial shall t)e held in the State where the said Crimes shall have been com- 
mitted; but when not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such Place or 
Places as the Congress may by Law have directed. 

SkcI'Ion. 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying War 
against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No 
Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to 
the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court. 

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no 
Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the 
Life of the Person attainted. 


Section, i. Full P'aith and Credit shall be given in each State to the public 
Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings of every other State. And the Congress may 
by general Laws prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, Records and Proceedings 
shall be proved, and the Effect thereof. 

Skction. 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to all Privileges and 
Immunities of Citizens in the several States. 

A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other Crime, who shall 
flee from Justice, and be found in another State, shall on Demand of the executive 
Authority of the State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the 
.State having Jurisdiction of the Crime. 

No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the Laws thereof, escap- 
ing into another, shall, in Consequence of any Law or Regulation therein, be dis- 
charged from such .Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party 
to whom such Service or Labour may be due. 

Skction. 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into this Union; but 
no new State shall be formed or erected within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor 
any State be formed by the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without 
the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well as of the Congress. 

The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all needful Rules and 
Regulations respecting the Territory or other Property belonging to the United 
States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any 
Claims of the United States, or of any particular State. 

Skction. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a 
Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; 
and on Application of the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature 
cannot be convened) against domestic Violence. 


The Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall 
propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on the Application of the Legislatures 

Constitiitioji of the United States 


of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amend- 
ments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents and Purposes, as Part of 
this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three fourths of the several 
States, or by Conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other Mode of 
Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; Provided that no Amendment which 
may be made prior to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any 
Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first Article ; 
and that no State, without its Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Sufirage in the 


All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before the Adoption of this 
Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as 
under the Confederation. 

This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in 
Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the 
Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the 
Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws 
of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. 

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the 
several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United 
States and of the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to support 
this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to 
any Office or public Trust under the United States. 


The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States, shall be sufficient for the 
Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the Same. 


Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting 
the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the 
right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a 
redress of grievances. 


A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right 
of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. 

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent 
of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. 

Constitution of tJic United States 

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, 
against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants 
shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particu- 
larly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, 
unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the 
land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public 
danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeop- 
ardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any Criminal Case to be witness against 
himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. 

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and 
public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall 
have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, 
and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with 
the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining Witnesses in his 
favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defence. 


In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dol- 
lars, the right of trial l)y jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury shall be 
otherwise re-examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules 
of the common law. 


Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and 
unusual punishments inflicted. 


The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to 
deny or disparage others retained by the people. 

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohib- 
ited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. 

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to 
any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United 
States l)y Citizens of another State, or by Citiz!ens or Subjects of any Foreign State. 

Constitution of the United States • xi 

The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for President 
and Vice President, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same 
state with themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as Presi- 
dent, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President, and they shall 
make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as 
Vice-President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and 
certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, 
directed to the President of the Senate; — The President of the Senate shall, in the 
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and 
the votes shall then be counted; —The person having the greatest number of votes 
for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole num- 
ber of Electors appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons 
having the highest numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as 
President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the 
President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the 
representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall 
consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all 
the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall 
not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before 
the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-President shall act as Presi- 
dent, as in the case of the death or other Constitutional disability of the President. 
The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President, shall be the 
Vice-President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors 
appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers 
on the list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose 
shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the 
whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligi- 
ble to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United 


Section i. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment 
for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the 
United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. 

Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 


Section i. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to 
the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein 
they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privi- 
leges or immunities of citizens of the United States : nor shall any State deprive any 
person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law ; nor deny to any 
person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 

xii Constitution of the Lnitid States 

Section 2. Representatives shall he apportioned among the several States ac- 
cording to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each 
State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for 
the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Repre- 
sentatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members 
of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, 
being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way 
abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of represen- 
tation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male 
citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in 
such State. 

Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or 
elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under 
the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a 
member of Congress, or as an officer of the United Slates, or as a member of any 
State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the 
Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion 
against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may 
by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability. 

Secfion 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by 
law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in 
suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the 
United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in 
aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or 
emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held 
illegal and void. 

Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, 
the provisions of this article. 

Section i. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied 
or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previ- 
ous condition of servitude. 

Seciion 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 


Abolitionists, 266. 

Acadia, 19, 63, 64. 

Adams, John, 89; Vice-President, 152; 
President, 171; his administration, 171- 

Adams, John Quincy, portrait, 230; and 
the Monroe Doctrine, 225; President, 
227, 229; his administration, 230-233; 
and the right of petition, 267. 

Adams, Samuel, 86, 87, 89, 146. 

Alabama claims, 368. 

Alaska, purchase of, 365 ; map of, 399. 

Albany Congress, 40. 

Algerine War, 195. 

Alien and Sedition Acts, 174. 

Allen, Ethan, 102. 

America, discovery of, 1-7; naming of, 5. 

American Association, 90. 

Americus Vespucius, see Vespucius. 

Andre, Major, xi8. 

Andros, Sir Edmund, 57, 58. 

Antietam, battle of, 321. 

Antislavery agitation, 265. 

Appomattox, surrender at, 350. 

Arnold, Benedict, at Quebec, 104; in 
Burgoyne's campaign, 115; treason of, 

Arthur, C. A., Vice-President, 376; Presi- 
dent, 377. 

Articles of Confederation, 130, 131. 

Atlanta Campaign, 339-341. 

Bacon's Rebellion, 52. 

Balboa discovers Pacific Ocean, 6. 

Baltimore, Lord, 27. 

Bank of the United States, the First, 162; 
the Second, 249. 

Bennington, battle of, 114. 

Blaine, J. G., candidate for the Presi- 
dency, 377. 

Blair, F. P., 315, 366. 

Blockade of Confederate seaports, 326, 
327. 344- 

" Border States " in Civil War, 3r4, 315. 

Boston, founded, 33; massacre at, 85, 86; 
destruction of tea at, 87; closing of the 
port of, 88; siege of, 93,98-103; map 
of siege, 99. 

Braddock, British general, 67. 

Bragg, Confederate general, 326, 332, 337- 


Brandywine, battle of, in. 

Breckinridge, John C, Vice-President, 
287; defeated for Presidency, 303, 

Brown, General Jacob, invades Canada, 

Brown, John, in Kansas, 289; at Har- 
per's Ferry, 290 ; executed, 290. 

Buchanan, James, President, 287-309; 
comes out for the Union, 314. 

Buell, General, 325, 326. 

Bull Run, battles of, 317, 321. 

Bunker Hill, battle of, 100. 

Burgoyne's campaign, 112-1x5. 

Burnside, General A. E., 322. 

Cabot, John, discovers North America, 5. 

Calhoun, John C, portrait, 228; in Con- 
gress, 203; Vice-President, 228; his 
Exposition, 246. 

California, Drake on the coast of, 14; 
seized by Americans, 273, 274; dis- 
covery of gold in, 278; seeks admission 
to the Union, 279. 

Camden, battle of, 119. 

Canada, conquest of, 68; invasion of 1775, 
103; in War of 1812, 207-209, 213. 

Carolina, settlement of, 51; rebellion in 
(i7i9),6o; separated into two provinces, 
61. . 

Cartier (kar'tta'), 11. 

Cass, Lewis, defeated for the Presidency, 

Cathay, 3. 

Champiain, Samuel de, 20, 21. 



Chaniplain, Lake, 20. 

Chaiicellorsvillc, battle of, 335. 

Charles II, his colonial policy, 48. 

Charleston, S.C., attacked, 104; captured, 
118; in Civil War, 303, 313, 348, 350. 

Chattanooga, battle of, 338. 

" Chesapeake," outrage on the, 148. 

Chicago, growth of, 297 : great fire at, 369; 
Columbian Exhibition, 385. 

Chickamauga, battle of, 337. 

Cipango, 3. 

Civil Service under Washington and 
Adams, 187; under Jefferson, 188; 
"Spoils System" in the, 245; reform 
of the, 377. 

Clark, General G. R. , conquers the North- 
west, 116. 

Clay, Henry, portrait, 202; in Congress, 
202; and the Missouri Compromise, 
223; defeated for the Presidency, 228, 
229, 270; and the Compromise of 1850, 
280, 281. 

Cleveland, Grover, portrait, 378; Presi- 
dent, 378 ; reelected President, 384. 

Clinton, British general, 105, 115, 124. 

Columbus discovers America, 3, 4. 

Committees of Correspondence, 86. 

Compromises of the Constitution, 142, 
143; of 1820, 221; of 1850, 280-282. 

Concord, battle of, 92. 

Confederate States, 307, 308. 

Confederation of New England, 37. 

Confederation of the United States, Arti- 
cles of, 130, 131. 

Connecticut, settlement of, 34, 35; char- 
ter of, 48. 

Constitution, formation of the, 139-147; 
facsimile of first lines, 146, 147 ; first 
ten amendments, 146: text of.Appendix. 

"Constitution," the frigate, chased by a 
British fleet, 209; and the " Guerri^re," 

Constitutional Union Party, 303. 

Continental Congress, first, 89; second, 


Coronado, in the Southwest, 8-10. 

Cotton gin, 184-186. 

Cowpens, battle of, 120. 

Crawford, William H., defeated for the 

Presidency, 227, 228. 
Creek War, 214. 
Critical Period, 130-133. 
Crittenden Compromise, 306, 307. 
Cromwell, Oliver, and the colonies, 47. 
Cuba, rebellions in (1867-77), 371; (1894- 

98), 388. 

Dale, Sir Thomas, 24. 
Davis, Jefferson, 308. 
Decatur, Stephen, portrait, 195; in Al- 

gerinc War, 195. 
Decl.iration of Independence, log-m. 
Declaratory Act, 82. 
Democratic Party, 255. 
Detroit, surrender of, 208. 
Dewey, Admiral, 390. 
Dickinson, John, 89. 
Douglas, Stephen A., Kansas-Nebraska 

Act, 283-285: debate with Lincoln, 288; 

defeated for Presidency, 303, 305; 

comes out for the Union, 314. 
Draft Riots, 332. 
Drake, Sir Francis, his great voyage, 

Dred Scott Decision, 288. 
Duquesne, Fort, 66. 
Dutch Colonies, 38-43. 

Elections, presidential, of 1800, 176; of 
1824, 226-230; of 1840, 255; of 1844, 
270; of 1848, 277; of 1852, 283; of 1856, 
287; of i860, 302-304; of 1868, 366; of 
1872,371; of 1876, 374; of 1880, 376; of 
1884, 377; of 1888, 382; of 1892, 384; 
of 1896, 386. 

Electoral Commission, 374. 

Embargo, Jefferson's, 197. 

Era of Good Feeling, 219. 

Ericson, Leif (Life er'lk-son), i. 

Ericsson, John, 320. 

Erie Canal, 239. 

Farragut, Admiral D. G., portrait, 349; 
at New Orleans, 323-325. 

Federal Ratio, 142. 

Federalist Party, 163. 

Fifteenth Amendment, 367. 

Fillmore, Millard, portrait, 281; chosen 
Vice-President, 278; becomes Pre.sident, 

Florida, discovered, 8; settled, 13; pur- 
chased, 222. 

Fourteenth Amendment, 362. 

France, explorers and colonists of, 7, 11, 
19, 21; colonists conquered by British, 
62-69; recognizes independence of the 
United States, 115; influence of rev- 
olution in, on America, 165; contro- 
versy with, 171-173. 

Franklin, Benjamin, portrait, 141; early 
life of, 80; examined by House of Com- 
mons, 81; Minister to France, 115; in 
Federal Convention, 139, T44. 



Fredericksburg, battle of, 322. 

Free Soil Party, 277. 

Freeman's Farm, battles of, 114, 115. 

Fremont, John C, portrait, 273; in Cali- 
fornia, 273 ; defeated for the Presidency, 

Fugitive Slave Act, 281. 

Fulton, Robert, 183. 

Gadsden Purchase, 274. 

Gag Resolutions, 268. 

Gage, British general, 91. 

Gama, da (da ga ma), 3. 

Garfield, J. A., elected President, 376; 
murdered, 376. 

Garrison, W. L., 266. 

Gates, General, in Burgoyne's campaign, 
114, 115; defeated at Camden, 119. 

Genet, French Minister, i65. 

Georgia, settlement of, 5i, 62. 

Gettysburg, battle of, 334-337. 

Ghent, Treaty of, 216. 

Grant, General U. S., portrait, 344; seizes 
Cairo, 322, 323; captures Fort Donel- 
son, 323; at Shiloh, 325; captures 
Vicksburg, 333; at Chattanooga, 338; 
Lieutenant-General, 339; his Virginia 
Campaign, 342-346, 351; elected Pres- 
ident, 366; reelected President, 371. 

Great Britain, Treaty of 1783, 126; Jay's 
Treaty, 168; Treaty of Ghent, 216; 
Treaty of 1842, 257; Oregon Treaty, 
275; Alabama claims, 368. 

Greeley, Horace, 300; portrait, 300; on 
secession, 309 ; defeated for Presidency, 


Greene, General, his Southern Cam- 
paigns, 120-123. 

Grenville, George, 76. 

Guilford, battle of, 122. 

Hamilton, Alexander, Secretary of the 
Treasury, 153; his financial policy, 158; 
his constitutional ideas, 162, 163; in- 
trigues against Adams, 171. 

Harrison, Benjamin, elected President, 

Harrison, General W. H., 257; at Tippe- 
canoe, 201 ; elected President, 255; his 
death, 256. 

Hartford Convention, 217. 

Harvester, the, 260. 

Hawaii annexed, 400. 

Hawkins, Sir John, 13. 

Hayes, R. B., elected President, 374. 

Henry, Patrick, portrait, 79; Parson's 
2 E 

Cause, 75; his Stamp Act Resolutions, 
76, 77; in Continental Congress, 89; 
opposes Constitution, 145. 

Hood, Confederate general, 340-342. 

Hooker, General Joseph, 322. 

Hudson, Henry, 39. 

Impressment, 197. 
Iroquois, 20-22, 39, 63. 

Jackson, General Andrew, portrait, 251; 
a Creek War, 214; defends New Or- 
leans, 215, 216; candidate for Presi- 
dency, 229; elected President, 232; his 
administration, 245-253. 

Jamestown, founded, 23. 

Jay, John, 89, 126, 168. 

Jay's Treaty, 168, 169. 

Jefferson, Thomas, portrait, 189: writes 
Declaration of Independence, no; Sec- 
retary of State, 153; his constitutional 
ideas, 163; Vice-President, 171; writes 
Kentucky Resolutions, 175; elected 
President, 176; his administrations, 187- 

Johnson, Andrew, portrait, 363; Presi- 
dent, 352 ; his reconstruction policy, 
360; impeached, 364. 

Johnston, Confederate general, 317, 319, 
320, 339, 350. 

Judiciary Act of 1801, 188. 

Kansas, struggle for, 283-285, 286, 289. 

Kansas-Nebraska Act, 2S3-285. 

Kentucky Resolutions, 175. 

Kieft, Dutch governor, 41. 

King Philip's War, 54. 

King's Mountain, battle of, 120. 

Lake Erie, battle of, 208. 

La Salle, his explorations, 65. 

Lee, R. E., Confederate general, 315, 319, 
320-322, 334-337, 343-347. 351. 

Lee, R. H., 89, 145. 

Leon, Ponce de, 7. 

Lewis and Clark, 193. 

Lexington, battle of, 92. 

" Liberty," the, seized, 83. 

Lincoln, Abraham, portrait, frontispiece; 
early life, 2S5; debate with Douglas, 
288; elected President. 303, 304: first 
inaugural, 312; Emancipation Procla- 
mation, 328-331; murdered, 351. 352; 
reconstruction policy, 359. 

Livingston, R. R., portrait, 192; negoti- 
ates Louisiana Purchase, 192. 



Locomotive invented, 241. 

I>ouisiana, 64, 68. 

Louisiana, settlement of, 65 ; ceded to 

Spain, 69; returned to France, 190; 

purchased by United States, 191-193. 
Loyalists, 98. 
Lundy's Lane, battle of, 3i3. 

Madison, James, portrait, 138; in Federal 
convention, 137; writes Virginia Reso- 
lutions, 175; President, 198-219; his 
war message, 203. 

Magellan, his great voyage, 7. 

" Maine," destruction of the, 389. 

Manhattan Island, 40. 

Manila Bay, battle of, 390. 

Manila, captured, 398. 

Maryland Toleration Act, 28. 

Mason and Dixon's Line, 56. 

Massachusetts Circular Letter, 83. 

Mayflower compact, 31. 

McClellan, General G. B., portrait, 318; 
Peninsular Campaign, 318-320; at An- 
tietam, 321. 

McCormick, C. H., invents horse reaper, 

McKinley, William, portrait, 387; Presi- 
dent, 386. 

Meade, General G. G., 333. 

Menendez (mit-nen'deth), 13. 

Mexico, War with, 271-274; the French 
in, 365. 

Missouri Compromise, 221-223. 

" Monitor " and " Merrimac," 319. 

Monmouth, battle of, 115. 

Monroe Doctrine, 223 226. 

Monroe, James, portrait, 219; negotiates 
Louisiana Purchase, 192; President, 

Morgan, General D., 114, 115, 120. 

Morse, S. F. B., 259. 

Moultrie, General, 105. 

Murfreesboro', battle of, 326. 

Nashville, battle of, 341, 342. 

National debt, origin of, 158; Jefferson 

and the, 190. 
Neutral commerce, 196. 
Neutrality Proclamation, 166. 
New Amsterdam, 40 

New England colonies, settlement of,29-38. 
New England Confederation, 37. 
New Jersey, 50, 51. 
New Netherland, 38-43, 49. 
New Orleans defended by Jackson, 215; 

captured by Farragut, 323-325. 

New .Sweden, 42. 

New York City in 1800, 182; in 1830, 238; 

in i860, 296. 
Non-Conformists, 29. 
Non-Importation agreements, 84. 
Non-Intercourse .Act, 199. 
North Carolina, 51, 60, 61. 
Nullification, 248. 

Oglethorpe, General, 61, 62. 
Ordinance of 1787, 135, 136. 
Oregon, claims to, 274; divided, 275. 
Oriskany, battle of, 114. 
Otis, James, 74. 

Pacific Ocean, discovered, 7. 

Panic of 1837, 253; of 1873, 375- 

Paris, Peace of (1763), 69; (1783), 126. 

Parson's cause, 74. 

Parties, political, formation of, 163, 164. 

Peninsular Campaign, 319-321. 

Penn, William, 55. 

Pennsylvania, settlement of, 54-57. 

Pequod War, 35. 

Perry, Commodore, 208. 

Petersburg, blockade of. 345, 346. 

Petition, right of, 267. 

Philadelphia, in, 182. 

Pierce, Franklin, portrait, 284; President, 

283; comes out for the Union, 314. 
Pilgrims, 29, 30-32. 
Pitt, William, 68, 74, 82. 
Plattsburg, battle of, 213. 
Plymouth, settlement of, 31. 
Polk, James K., portrait, 270; President, 

Polo, Marco, 3. 
Pope, General John, 321. 
Porto Rico, occupied, 397. 
President, how chosen, 151, 193. 
Princeton, battle of, io8. 
Proclamation of 1763, 75. 
Providence, founded, 33. 
Puritans, the, 29. 

Quakers, 48, 56, 
Quebec Act, 89. 
Quebec, founded, 20; captured, 68. 

Railroads, growth of, 340, 299. 

Ralegh, Sir Walter, 14. 

Reaper, the horse, 260. 

Reconstruction Acts, 363. 

Religion, 27, 28. 

Republican Party, of Jefferson, 164; of 

Lincoln, 287. 
Revolutionary War, campaigns of, 97-126. 



Rhode Island, settlement of, 33, 34, 48. 
Ribault (re'bo'), French explorer, 11, 

Rockingham Ministry, 81. 
Rosecrans, General, 320, 337. 

St. Augustine, founded, 13. 

Sampson, Admiral, 394. 

Sandys, Sir Edwin, 26, 30. 

Santiago, 394, 395. 

Saratoga, Burgoyne's surrender at, 115. 

Schuyler, General, 113. 

Scott, General Winfield, his Mexican cam- 
paign, 272 ; defeated for Presidency, 
283", views on secession, 309. 

Secession, 306, 307, 314. 

Separatists, 29. 

Seward, W. H., portrait, 302; on Kansas, 

Shays's Rebellion, 133, 134. 

Sheridan, General Philip, portrait, 347; 
at Chickamauga, 338; in Virginia, 339; 
his Valley Campaigns, 346-348. 

Sherman, General W. T., portrait, 340; 
at Chattanooga, 338; captures Atlanta, 
339-341; the march through Georgia, 
342; the march through the Carolinas, 

Shiloh, battle of, 325. 

Slavery, in Virginia, 25 ; compromises, 
142; Missouri Compromise, 221; peti- 
tions in Congress, 267; Compromise of 
1850, 280; abolished, 328, 361. 

Soto, de (da so'to) in the Southeast, 10. 

South Carolina, settlement of, 52, 60, 
61; nullification in, 248; secession of, 

Spain, pioneers of, 7 ; Treaty with (1795), 
169; War with, 389-398. 

Spotsylvania, battle of, 345. 

" Squatter Sovereignty," 277. 

Stamp Act, 76-81. 

Stamp Act Congress, 78-80. 

Stark, General, loi, 107, 114. 

Steamboat, the, 183. 

Stephen, A. H., 306, 308. 

Steuben, Baron, 112. 

Stowe, Mrs. H. B., 282. 

Stuart Tyranny in the colonies, 57-58. 

Stuyvesant, Dutch governor, 42. 

Sumter, fall of Fort, 313. 

Tariffs, 1789, 155; of 1816, 1824, 1828, 231, 
232; the Compromise, 248; McKinley, 
383; Dingley, 387. 

Taylor, General Zachary, portrait, 277; 

his Mexican Campaign, 271-274; Presi- 
dent, 278-280; death, 281. 

Tea Tax, 87. 

Tecumseh or Tecumthe, 201. 

Telegraph, the, 258. 

Tenure of Office Acts, Crawford's, 228; 
of 1867, 363. 

Texas, Republic of, 268; admitted to the 
Union, 269, 271. 

Thirteenth Amendment, 361. 

Thomas, General George H., portrait, 
338; his services, 315, 338, 341, 342. 

Ticonderoga, 102. 

Tippecanoe, battle of, 201. 

Townshend Acts, the, 82, 83. 

Treaties, 1778 (with France), 115; 1783 
(with Great Britain), 125; Jay's Treaty, 
168; 1795 (with Spain), i6g; 1800 (with 
France), 173; Louisiana Purchase, 193; 
of Ghent, 216; Florida Purchase, 222; 
1842 (with Great Britain), 257; Oregon 
Treaty, 275; 1848 (with Mexico). 274; 
Gadsden Purchase, 274; 1898 (with 
Spain), 399. 

Trent Affair, 328. 

Trenton, battle of, 107. 

Twelfth Amendment, 193. 

Tyler, John, portrait, 258; Vice-Presi- 
dent, 255; President, 256-258. 

United States, area and population of, in 
1800, 181; in 1830, 238; in i860, 295. 

Van Buren, Martin, President, 253, 254; 
defeated for Presidency, 278. 

Verrazano (ver-ra-tsa'no), 11. 

Vespucius, Americus, portrait, 6 ; his voy- 
ages, 6. 

Vicksburg, Campaign of, 333. 334. 

Vinland, 2. 

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions, 175, 

Virginia Resolves of 1769, 84. 

Virginia, settlement of, 15, 23, 26, 52, 53. 

War of 1812, 203, 208-219. 

Washington, George, portrait, 175: his 
early life, 66; first campaign, 67; on 
the Boston Post Act, 88; in Conti- 
nental Congress, 89; in Revolutionary 
War, 101-126; in Federal Convention, 
138; President, 152-170; his neutrality 
proclamation, 166; farewell address, 
170; death, 176. 

Washington City, 182, 213. 

Webster, Daniel, portrait, 247; his reply 
to Hayne, 247. 



Webster, Noah, portrait, 243; his Dic- 
tionary, 243. 
Whig Party, the, 255. 
Whiskey Insurrection, 167. 
Whitney, Eli, 185. 
Wilderness, battle of the, 343. 
Williams, Rojjer, 28, 33. 

Wilmot Proviso, 276. 
Wolfe, General, 68. 
Writs of Assistance, 74. 

X. V. Z. Affair, 17;;. 

Yorktown, capture of, 124, 125. 


Sd-28 2 




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Weliesley College 

8vo. Half Leather. Maps. Illustrations, xxviii + 507 pp. Price $1.25, nef 

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

" It is in my judgment by far the best history of England that has yet been 
published. The other books in the field are either too meagre or too 
advanced. This book is just what has long been needed and ought to be 
largely introduced." — Professor Richard Hudson. 





Principal of tlu- High School, Kocluster, iV. V. 

i2tao. Cloth. Price 40 cents net 

Seneca Falls, N. Y. 

" I have taken pleasure in examining 'Topical Studies in American 
History,' and consider it the liest book of its kind I have ever seen. I am 
especially pleased with the marginal notes to reference reading." 

C. WiM.ARn Rice, 

Superintendent of Schools, 




i2mo. Cloth. Price 75 cents 

Lancaster, Pa. 

" It is an admirable supplement to the ordinary United States History used 
in the upper grammar gratles, and by teachers of the subject, Jo enable them 
to add interest to the study and to the recitation." 

Dr. R. K. BiEHRLE. 




Professor of History in Hnr^mrd UniTersity 

8vo. Cloth. Price 60 cents nei 

The Source Book is designed for the reading of intelligent Americans, 
and for use in the upper grades of the grammar schools, in high schools 
and in normal schools, the purpose being to supplement text-books and 
narratives by vivid pictures drawn by those who helped to make the history 
that they describe. 








"ESngituiit Wat fr 





MOTE. — The total distance from San Franciflco 
to Manlh, ria Hawaii and Guam, js 8100 
Statute Miles. ^ 

From Puerto RIoo to thn Philippines, la 180^ 

or half around the Globe. 
The total distance from San Juan, Puerto Rico 
to Manila, Tla New York tt San Francisco U 
t3,000 miles. 


3000 1000 2000 3000 


M.'N.Ca., BtJFPALO. N.y. 


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